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Corps
Corps
(/kɔːr/; plural corps /kɔːrz/; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. Within military terminology a corps may be:

an operational formation, sometimes known as a field corps, which consists of two or more divisions, such as the Corps
Corps
d'armée, later known as I Corps
Corps
("First Corps") of Napoleon's Grande Armée); an administrative corps (or mustering) – that is a specialized branch of a military service (such as an artillery corps, a medical corps, or a force of military police) or; in some cases, a distinct service within a national military (such as the United States Marine Corps).

These usages often overlap. For example, during the Korean War, the United States' X Corps
Corps
– a field corps – included infantry units from the US Marine Corps
Corps
and smaller units from many different administrative corps of the US Army. Corps
Corps
may also be a generic term for a non-military organization, such as the U.S. Peace Corps.

Contents

1 Military usage

1.1 Operational formation

1.1.1 Australia 1.1.2 Canada 1.1.3 China 1.1.4 France 1.1.5 Germany 1.1.6 Pakistan 1.1.7 Poland (1938–39) 1.1.8 United Kingdom 1.1.9 United States

1.1.9.1 Civil War 1.1.9.2 Spanish–American War 1.1.9.3 World Wars I & II 1.1.9.4 Cold War and 21st Century

1.1.10 Soviet Union

1.2 Administrative corps

1.2.1 Britain 1.2.2 Australia 1.2.3 Canada 1.2.4 United States

2 Non-military use 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading

Military usage[edit] Operational formation[edit] In many armies, a corps is a battlefield formation composed of two or more divisions, and typically commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I
World War I
and World War II, due to the large scale of combat, multiple corps were combined into armies which then formed into army groups. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is often indicated in Roman numerals
Roman numerals
(e.g., VII Corps). Australia[edit] In the later stages of World War I, the five infantry divisions of the First Australian Imperial Force
First Australian Imperial Force
(AIF)—consisting entirely of personnel who had volunteered for service overseas—were united as the Australian Corps, on the Western Front, under Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Sir John Monash. During World War II, the Australian I Corps was formed to co-ordinate three Second Australian Imperial Force
Second Australian Imperial Force
(2nd AIF) units: the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions, as well as other Allied units on some occasions, in the North African campaign
North African campaign
and Greek campaign. Following the commencement of the Pacific War, there was a phased withdrawal of I Corps
Corps
to Australia, and the transfer of its headquarters to the Brisbane
Brisbane
area, to control Allied army units in Queensland
Queensland
and northern New South Wales
New South Wales
(NSW). II Corps
Corps
was also formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, and III Corps
Corps
controlled land forces in Western Australia. Sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps
Corps
headquarters was later assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps
Corps
was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, II Corps
Corps
took over in New Guinea. Canada[edit] Canada
Canada
first fielded a corps-sized formation in the First World War; the Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
was unique in that its composition did not change from inception to the war's end, in contrast to British corps in France and Flanders. The Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were ever trained or exercised. Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters. This corps was renamed I Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps eventually fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
in NW Europe, and the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada
Canada
has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters. China[edit] The National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
(NRA) Corps
Corps
(軍團) was a type of military organization used by the Chinese Republic, and usually exercised command over two to three NRA Divisions and often a number of Independent Brigades or Regiments and supporting units. The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps
Corps
during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After losses in the early part of the war, under the 1938 reforms, the remaining scarce artillery and the other support formations were withdrawn from the Division and was held at Corps, or Army level or higher. The Corps
Corps
became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division. France[edit] The French Army
French Army
under Napoleon
Napoleon
used corps-sized formations (French: Corps
Corps
d'Armée) as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning and equipment establishments. Napoleon
Napoleon
first used the Corps
Corps
d'armée in 1805 . The use of the Corps d'armée was a military innovation that provided Napoleon
Napoleon
with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars. The Corps
Corps
was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry, artillery and infantry, and capable of defending against a numerically superior foe. This allowed Napoleon
Napoleon
to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank. This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures. The Corps
Corps
has remained an echelon of French Army
French Army
organization to the modern day. Germany[edit]

Command flag of a commanding general (German: Kommandierender General) of an Army corps (1933-1945).

As fixed military formation already in peace-time it was used almost in all European armies after Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm
in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty (de: Allerhöchste Kabinetts-Order) from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war. Pakistan[edit] The paramilitary forces of Pakistan's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps
Frontier Corps
(FC) founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's western borders as well as providing internal security including guarding important sites and participating in law enforcement activities. They are divided into two sub-organizations: FC Pakhtunkhwa and FC Balochistan. Poland (1938–39)[edit] The Polish Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
used Independent Operational Group's in the place of the Corps
Corps
before and during World War Two. An example would be Independent Operational Group Polesie. The groups, as the name indicates, were more flexible and showed greater capacity to absorb and integrate elements of broken units over a period of just a couple days and keep cohesion during the September Campaign
September Campaign
than more traditional army units such as divisions, regiments, or even brigades. United Kingdom[edit] Wellington formed a "corps d'armee" in 1815 for commanding his mixed allied force of four divisions against Napoleon. When the British Army
British Army
was expanded from an expeditionary force in the First World War, corps were created to manage the large numbers of divisions. The British corps in World War I
World War I
included 23 infantry corps and a few mounted corps. The word was adopted for other special formations such as the Officers Training Corps. Military training of teenage boys is undertaken at secondary schools through the Combined Cadet Force, in which participation was compulsory at some schools in the 1950s. Schoolboy jargon called the CCF simply "Corps." The British Army
British Army
still has a corps headquarters for operational control of forces. I Corps
Corps
of the British Army
British Army
of the Rhine was redesignated the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
in 1994. It is no longer a purely British formation, although the UK is the 'framework nation' and provides most of the staff for the headquarters. A purely national Corps
Corps
headquarters could be quickly reconstituted if necessary. It took command of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan on 4 May 2006. Previously, it was deployed as the headquarters commanding land forces during the Kosovo War
Kosovo War
in 1999 and also saw service in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commanding the initial stages of the IFOR
IFOR
deployment prior to that in 1996. Otherwise, the only time a British corps headquarters has been operationally deployed since 1945 was II Corps
Corps
during the Suez Crisis. United States[edit]

The XVIII Airborne Corps
XVIII Airborne Corps
command group returns home from Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009

The structure of a field corps in the United States Army
United States Army
is not permanent; many of the units that it commands are allocated to it as needed on an ad hoc basis. On the battlefield, the corps is the highest level of the forces that is concerned with actual combat and operational deployment. Higher levels of command are concerned with administration rather than operations, at least under current doctrine. The corps provides operational direction for the forces under its command. As of 2014, the active field corps in the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
are I Corps
Corps
("eye core"), III Corps
Corps
and XVIII Airborne Corps; their lineages derive from three of the corps formed during World War I
World War I
(I and III Corps) and World War II
World War II
(XVIII Airborne Corps). Civil War[edit] The first field corps in the United States Army
United States Army
were legalized during the American Civil War
American Civil War
by an Act of Congress on July 17, 1862, but Major
Major
General
General
George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
had designated six corps organizations within his Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
that spring. Previously, groupings of divisions were known by other names, such as "wings" and "grand divisions". The term "army corps" was often used at this time. These organizations were much smaller than their modern counterparts: they were usually commanded by a major general, were composed of two to six divisions (although predominantly three) and typically included from 10,000 to 15,000 men. Although designated with numbers that are sometimes the same as those found in the modern U.S. Army, there is no direct lineage between the 43 Union field corps of the Civil War and those with similar names in the modern era, due to Congressional legislation caused by the outcry from Grand Army of the Republic veterans during the Spanish–American War.[citation needed] In the Confederate States Army, field corps were authorized in November 1862. They were commanded by lieutenant generals and were usually larger than their Union Army
Union Army
counterparts because their divisions contained more brigades, each of which could contain more regiments. All of the Confederate corps at the Battle of Gettysburg, for instance, exceeded 20,000 men. However, for both armies, unit sizes varied dramatically with attrition throughout the war. In Civil War usages, by both sides, it was common to write out the number, thus "Twenty-first Army Corps", a practice that is usually ignored in modern histories of the war. Spanish–American War[edit] Although the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
in the years following the Civil War lacked standing organization at the corps and division levels, it moved swiftly to adopt these during the mobilization for the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in the spring of 1898. On May 7, General
General
Order 36 called for the establishment of seven "army corps" (repeating the nomenclature of the Civil War); an eighth was authorized later that month.[1] Two of these saw action as a unit: the Fifth in Cuba and the Eighth in the Philippines; elements of the First, Fourth and Seventh made up the invasion force for Puerto Rico (the Second, Third and Seventh provided replacements and occupation troops in Cuba, while the Sixth was never organized). The corps headquarters were disbanded during the months following the signing of the peace treaty (with the exception of the Eighth Army Corps, which remained active until 1900 due to the eruption of the Philippine–American War), and like the corps of the Civil War, their lineage ends at that point. World Wars I & II[edit] During World War I
World War I
the American Expeditionary Forces
American Expeditionary Forces
(AEF) adopted the common European usage of designating field corps by Roman numerals. Several "corps areas" were designated under the authority of the National Defense Act of 1920, but played little role until the Army's buildup for World War II. While some of the lower numbered Corps
Corps
were used for various exercises the inter-war years corps serve mostly as a pool of units.[2] During that war, the Marine Corps
Corps
organized corps headquarters for the first time, the I Marine (later III Amphibious Corps) and V Amphibious Corps. The Army would ultimately designate 25 field corps (I–XVI, XVIII–XXIV, XXXVI and I Armored Corps) during World War II. Cold War and 21st Century[edit] After the Korean War, the Army and Marines would diverge in their approach to the concept of the field corps. The Army, continued to group its divisions into traditional corps organizations in the Continental United States (CONUS), West Germany (V Corps
Corps
& VII Corps), and South Korea (I Corps). However, during the Vietnam War, the Army designated its corps-level headquarters in South Vietnam as I Field Force and I I Field Force
I Field Force
to avoid confusion with the ARVN corps areas.[3] As of July 2016, the Army has deactivated all corps headquarters save three CONUS based corps (I Corps
Corps
- Washington, III Corps
Corps
- Texas, and XVIII Airborne Corps
XVIII Airborne Corps
- North Carolina). In the 1960s, the Marine Corps
Corps
activated the I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) on Okinawa (based in California since 1971) and II Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Expeditionary Force
(II MEF) in North Carolina, and re-activated the III Amphibious Corps
Corps
(which had been deactivated in 1946) as III Marine Expeditionary Force
III Marine Expeditionary Force
(III MEF) in South Vietnam (re-deployed to Okinawa in 1971). In 1965 all three MEFs were subsequently re-designated as Marine Amphibious Forces or MAFs and in 1988 all three Marine Corps
Corps
corps-level commands were again re-designated as Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEF). The MEF had evolved into a self-contained, corps-level, Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) consisting of a MEF Headquarters Group, a Marine Division, a Marine Aircraft Wing, and a Force Service Support Group (re-designated as Marine Logistics Group in 2005). Soviet Union[edit]

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Main article: Formations of the Soviet Army The pre- World War II
World War II
Red Army
Red Army
of the former USSR had rifle corps much like in the Western sense with approximately three divisions to a corps.[4] However, after the war started, the recently purged Soviet senior command (Stavka) structure was apparently unable to handle the formations, and the armies and corps were integrated. Rifle Corps
Corps
were re-established during the war after Red Army
Red Army
commanders had gained experience handling larger formations. Before and during World War II, however, Soviet armored units were organized into corps. The pre-war Mechanized Corps
Corps
were made up of divisions. In the reorganizations, these "Corps" were reorganized into tank brigades and support units, with no division structure. Due to this, they are sometimes, informally, referred to as " Brigade
Brigade
Buckets". After the war, the Tank and Mechanized Corps
Corps
were re-rated as divisions. During the reforms of 1956–58, most of the corps were again disbanded to create the new Combined Arms and Tank Armies. A few corps were nevertheless retained, of both patterns. The Vyborg and Archangel Corps
Corps
of the Leningrad Military District
Leningrad Military District
were smaller armies with three low-readiness motorized rifle divisions each. The Category A Unified Corps
Corps
of the Belarussian Military District (Western TVD/Strategic Direction) and Carpathian Military District (also Western TVD) were of the brigade pattern. The Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces
used ground terminology for its formations down to squadron level. As intermediates between the Aviation Division and the Air Army were Corps—these also had three Air Divisions each. Administrative corps[edit] In many English-speaking countries and other countries influenced by British military traditions, a corps is also a grouping of personnel by common function, also known as an arm, service, mustering or branch. Britain[edit] In the British Army, an administrative corps performs much the same role – for personnel that otherwise lack them – as a ceremonial regiment. An administrative corps therefore has its own cap badge, stable belt, and other insignia and traditions.

Intelligence Corps RAF Regiment Royal Logistic Corps Corps
Corps
of Royal Marines Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals

In some cases, the term corps is also used informally, for looser groupings of independent regiments and other units – and without many or any unifying regalia, military traditions or other accoutrements – such as the Royal Armoured Corps
Royal Armoured Corps
or the " Corps
Corps
of Infantry". Australia[edit] Main article: List of Australian Army
Australian Army
Corps In Australia, soldiers belong foremost to a Corps
Corps
which defines a common function or employment across the army. The Australian Army
Australian Army
has a system of coloured lanyards, which each identify a soldier as part of a specific Corps
Corps
(or sometimes individual battalion). This lanyard is a woven piece of cord which is worn on ceremonial uniforms and dates back to the issue of clasp knives in the early 20th century which were secured to the uniform by a length of cord. If a soldier is posted to a unit outside of their parent corps, except in some circumstances the soldier continues to wear the hat badge and lanyard of their Corps
Corps
(e.g. a Clerk posted to an infantry battalion would wear the hat badge of the Royal Australian Ordnance Corps
Corps
but would wear the lanyard of the battalion they are posted to.) Canada[edit] In Canada, with the integration of the Canadian army into the Canadian Forces, the British Corps
Corps
model was replaced with personnel branches, defined in Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Administrative Orders (CFAOs) as "...cohesive professional groups...based on similarity of military roles, customs and traditions." CFAO 2-10)[5] However, the Armour Branch has continued to use the title Royal Canadian Armoured Corps, the Infantry
Infantry
Branch continued to use the Royal Canadian Infantry
Infantry
Corps designation, and the Artillery Branch uses the term Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Canadian Artillery. When the Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
were merged in 1968 to form the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Dental Corps
Corps
and Royal Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Medical Corps were deactivated and merged with their Naval and Air Force counterparts to form the Dental Branch (Canadian Forces) and the Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Medical Service of the Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Health Services Group (CF H Svcs Gp). The Royal Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Service Corps
Corps
transport and supply elements were combined with the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps
to form the Logistics Branch The Royal Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Service Corps
Corps
clerical trades were merged with the Royal Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Pay Corps
Corps
and the Royal Canadian Postal Corps
Corps
to form the Administration Branch (later merged with the Logistics Branch) [6] Other "corps", included: Canadian Engineer Corps, Signalling Corps, Corps
Corps
of Guides, Canadian Women's Army Corps, Royal Canadian Army Veterinary Corps, Canadian Forestry Corps, Canadian Provost Corps and Canadian Intelligence Corps.[7] United States[edit] The U.S. Armed Forces
U.S. Armed Forces
use corps administratively in several ways. 1) In the title of the United States Marine Corps, Corps
Corps
is used as a service-branch designator, in much the same way as Force and Guard are used for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Coast Guard, Army National Guard, and Air National Guard. 2) The U.S. Army
U.S. Army
(all components; Regular Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard) uses administrative corps, also known as Army Branches, to group personnel with a common function. These include the Acquisition Corps, Adjutant General's Corps, Chaplain Corps, Chemical Corps, Civil Affairs Corps, Cyber Corps, Dental Corps*, Corps
Corps
of Engineers, Finance Corps, Judge Advocate General's Corps, Logistics Corps, Medical Corps*, Medical Service Corps*, Medical Specialist Corps*, Military Intelligence Corps, Military Police Corps, Nurse Corps*, Ordnance Corps, Psychological Operations Corps, Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, Transportation Corps, and Veterinary Corps.* Each of these corps is also considered a regiment for purposes of: "... affiliation, ... loyalty and commitment, ... sense of belonging, ... unit esprit, and ... war fighting ethos." However, these regiments have no tactical function. The six corps (annotated by an asterisk above after each applicable corps' name) of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) are included in the AMEDD Regiment
Regiment
.[8] 3) U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
officers who are not Line officers (i.e., those who exercise general command authority and are eligible for operational command positions, as opposed to officers who normally exercise authority only within their own specialty[9]) are commissioned into various Staff Corps. These officers are specialists in career fields that are professions unto themselves, such as ministers, civil engineers, architects, dentists, lawyers, physicians, healthcare administrators, healthcare scientists, clinical care providers, nurses, financial managers, and logistics and supply specialists. These corps' include the Chaplain Corps, Civil Engineer Corps, Dental Corps*, Judge Advocate General's Corps, Medical Corps*, Medical Service Corps*, Nurse Corps*, and the Supply Corps. The Navy also has a Hospital Corps
Corps
consisting of enlisted medical technicians. The Hospital Corps, along with the four Navy health services corps' listed above (indicated by asterisk), is one of the five corps' of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. 4) The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
uses the title corps to designate several non-tactical organizations. These corps' include five distinct health services corps of the United States Air Force Medical Service
United States Air Force Medical Service
(AFMS). The AFMS corps' are the Biomedical Sciences Corps, Dental Corps, Medical Corps, Medical Service Corps, and Nurse Corps. The Air Force also has its own Chaplain Corps
Corps
and Judge Advocate General's Corps. 5) In the U.S. Armed Forces, the term corps is also used in a general sense to mean the collective membership of a specified military body. Those uses include: the Officer Corps
Corps
and Noncommissioned Officer Corps
Corps
(NCO Corps) of the armed forces, either collectively or individually by branch of service; the United States Corps
Corps
of Cadets at the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
and the United States Coast Guard Corps
Corps
of Cadets of the United States Coast Guard Academy; the overall program title and aggregate collection of cadets and midshipmen enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps’ (ROTC) of the several services (i.e., Army ROTC, Navy ROTC, and Air Force ROTC), as well as the cadet organizations of the six federally recognized United States Senior Military Colleges (The Citadel, Norwich University, Texas A&M University, the University of North Georgia, the Virginia Military Institute, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University); and the members of the Naval Sea Cadet Corps. Non-military use[edit] The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
calls its local units/church "corps" (e.g. The Rockford Temple Corps, The St. Petersburg Citadel Corps), echoing the pseudomilitary name and structure of the organization. In the United Kingdom, the Royal Observer Corps
Royal Observer Corps
was a civil defence unit from 1925 until disbanded in 1995. In the US, there are non-military, administrative, training and certification Corps
Corps
for commissioned officers of the government's uniformed services, such as the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
Corps
and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps.[10][11] Many volunteer municipal or university ambulance, rescue, and first aid squads are known as VACs (volunteer ambulance corps). Prominent examples are the Order of Malta (the largest in Ireland), Hatzolah (largest VAC network worldwide), Hackensack VAC. The usage of the term Ambulance Corps
Corps
dates to Civil War Major
Major
General
General
George B. McClellan's General
General
Order No 147 to create an "ambulance corps" within the Union Army.[12] GO 147 used "Corps" in one of its standard military senses. However, subsequent formations of non-military ambulance squads continued to use the term, even where they adhere less to paramilitary organizational structure. The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
was organized by the United States as an "army" of volunteers. Some Non-governmental organizations
Non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) are known as corps. Examples include Global Health Corps
Global Health Corps
and Mercy Corps. A Patent Examiner
Patent Examiner
in the US is a member of the Examiner Corps. See also[edit]

The Salvation Army Military unit Corps
Corps
area United States Marine Corps Eurocorps List of military corps List of corps of the United States Drum and bugle corps (modern) Drum and bugle corps (classic) Peace Corps AmeriCorps Signal Corps (other) United States Army
United States Army
Corps
Corps
of Engineers Ambulance corps Green Lantern Corps

References[edit]

^ Kreidberg, Marvin; Henry, Morton (November 1955). History of Military Mobilization (PDF). Washington, DC: Department of the Army. pp. 144–145. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ Clay, Steven. US Army Order of Battle 1919–1941: Volume 1 The Arms: Major
Major
Commands and Infantry
Infantry
Organizations, 1919–1941 (PDF). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. p. 170.  ^ Eckhardt, George S. (1991). Vietnam Studies: Command and Control, 1950-1969. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ Eve of war Soviet structure ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-06. Retrieved 2006-03-03.  ^ Sutton, Brigadier
Brigadier
John, ed.," Wait For The Waggon". Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Leo Cooper, 1998. ^ Love, David, A Call To Arms. ^ Army Regulation 600-82: The U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Regimental System Chapter 2: Management of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Regimental System, 2–2. USARS purpose, p. 2. http://www.17thinfantry.org/documents/dmor/AR%20600-82%20US%20ARMY%20Regimental%20System.pdf. retrieved 14 December 2016. ^ "URL Unrestricted Line Officer". NavyReserve.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.  ^ "Mission of Public Health Service at USPHS Commissioned Corps". Usphs.gov. 2011-11-14. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "NOAA Corps". Noaacorps.noaa.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "The Union Army
Union Army
Ambulance Corps". 

Further reading[edit]

Phisterer, Frederick, Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States, Castle Books, 1883, ISBN 0-7858-1585-6. Tsouras, P.G. Changing Orders: The evolution of the World's Armies, 1945 to the Present Facts On File, Inc, 1994. ISBN 0-8160-3122-3 Warsaw Pact June 1989 OOB

Authority control

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