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CORPS (/ˈkɔər/ ; plural _corps_ /ˈkɔərz/ ; via French , from the Latin _corpus_ "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization.

Within in military terminology a corps may be:

* an operational formation , sometimes known as a FIELD CORPS, which consists of two or more divisions , such as the _ Corps d\'armée_ , later known as _I Corps_ ("First Corps") of Napoleon's _Grande Armée_); * an ADMINISTRATIVE CORPS (or mustering ) – that is a specialized branch of a military service (such as an artillery corps , a medical corps , or a force of military police ) or; * in some cases, a distinct service within a national military (such as the United States Marine Corps ).

These usages often overlap. For example, during the Korean War, the United States' X Corps – a field corps – included infantry units from the US Marine Corps and smaller units from many different administrative corps of the US Army.

Corps may also be a generic term for a non-military organizations also use the name Peace Corps .

CONTENTS

* 1 Military usage

* 1.1 Operational formation

* 1.1.1 Australia * 1.1.2 Canada

* 1.1.3 China

* 1.1.3.1 Republic of China (1911–1947) & Taiwan * 1.1.3.2 Peoples Republic of China (1947– )

* 1.1.4 France * 1.1.5 Germany * 1.1.6 Pakistan * 1.1.7 Poland (1938–39) * 1.1.8 United Kingdom

* 1.1.9 United States

* 1.1.9.1 Civil War * 1.1.9.2 Spanish–American War * 1.1.9.3 World Wars I the Canadian Corps was unique in that its composition did not change from inception to the war's end, in contrast to British corps in France and Flanders. The Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were ever trained or exercised. Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters. This corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps eventually fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, and the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters.

China

Republic Of China (1911–1947) ">_ Command flag of a commanding general (de: Kommandierender General) of an Army corps_ (1933-1945).

As fixed military formation already in peace-time it was used almost in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by _Order of His Majesty_ (de: Allerhöchste Kabinetts-Order) from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war.

Pakistan

The paramilitary forces of Pakistan 's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps (FC) founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's western borders as well as providing internal security including guarding important sites and participating in law enforcement activities. They are divided into two sub-organizations: FC Pakhtunkhwa and FC Balochistan.

Poland (1938–39)

The Polish Armed Forces used Independent Operational Group 's in the place of the Corps before and during World War Two . An example would be Independent Operational Group Polesie . The groups, as the name indicates, were more flexible and showed greater capacity to absorb and integrate elements of broken units over a period of just a couple days and keep cohesion during the September Campaign than more traditional army units such as divisions, regiments, or even brigades.

United Kingdom

Wellington formed a "corps d'armee" in 1815 for commanding his mixed allied force of four divisions against Napoleon.

When the British Army was expanded from an expeditionary force in the First World War, corps were created to manage the large numbers of divisions. The British corps in World War I included 23 infantry corps and a few mounted corps. The word was adopted for other special formations such as the Officers Training Corps . Military training of teenage boys is undertaken at secondary schools through the Combined Cadet Force , in which participation was compulsory at some schools in the 1950s. Schoolboy jargon called the CCF simply "Corps."

The British Army still has a corps headquarters for operational control of forces. I Corps of the British Army of the Rhine was redesignated the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps in 1994. It is no longer a purely British formation, although the UK is the 'framework nation' and provides most of the staff for the headquarters. A purely national Corps headquarters could be quickly reconstituted if necessary.

It took command of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan on 4 May 2006. Previously, it was deployed as the headquarters commanding land forces during the Kosovo War in 1999 and also saw service in Bosnia and Herzegovina , commanding the initial stages of the IFOR deployment prior to that in 1996. Otherwise, the only time a British corps headquarters has been operationally deployed since 1945 was II Corps during the Suez Crisis .

United States

The XVIII Airborne Corps command group returns home from Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009

The structure of a field corps in the United States Army is not permanent; many of the units that it commands are allocated to it as needed on an _ad hoc_ basis. On the battlefield, the corps is the highest level of the forces that is concerned with actual combat and operational deployment. Higher levels of command are concerned with administration rather than operations, at least under current doctrine. The corps provides operational direction for the forces under its command.

As of 2014, the active field corps in the U.S. Army are I Corps ("eye core"), III Corps and XVIII Airborne Corps ; their lineages derive from three of the corps formed during World War I (I and III Corps) and World War II (XVIII Airborne Corps).

Civil War

The first field corps in the United States Army were legalized during the American Civil War by an Act of Congress on July 17, 1862, but Major General George B. McClellan had designated six corps organizations within his Army of the Potomac that spring. Previously, groupings of divisions were known by other names, such as "wings" and "grand divisions". The term "army corps" was often used at this time. These organizations were much smaller than their modern counterparts: they were usually commanded by a major general, were composed of two to six divisions (although predominantly three) and typically included from 10,000 to 15,000 men. Although designated with numbers that are sometimes the same as those found in the modern U.S. Army, there is no direct lineage between the 43 Union field corps of the Civil War and those with similar names in the modern era, due to Congressional legislation caused by the outcry from Grand Army of the Republic veterans during the Spanish–American War .

In the Confederate States Army , field corps were authorized in November 1862. They were commanded by lieutenant generals and were usually larger than their Union Army counterparts because their divisions contained more brigades, each of which could contain more regiments. All of the Confederate corps at the Battle of Gettysburg , for instance, exceeded 20,000 men. However, for both armies, unit sizes varied dramatically with attrition throughout the war. In Civil War usages, by both sides, it was common to write out the number, thus "Twenty-first Army Corps", a practice that is usually ignored in modern histories of the war.

Spanish–American War

Although the U.S. Army in the years following the Civil War lacked standing organization at the corps and division levels, it moved swiftly to adopt these during the mobilization for the Spanish–American War in the spring of 1898. On May 7, General Order 36 called for the establishment of seven "army corps" (repeating the nomenclature of the Civil War); an eighth was authorized later that month. Two of these saw action as a unit: the Fifth in Cuba and the Eighth in the Philippines; elements of the First , Fourth and Seventh made up the invasion force for Puerto Rico (the Second, Third and Seventh provided replacements and occupation troops in Cuba, while the Sixth was never organized). The corps headquarters were disbanded during the months following the signing of the peace treaty (with the exception of the Eighth Army Corps, which remained active until 1900 due to the eruption of the Philippine–American War ), and like the corps of the Civil War, their lineage ends at that point.

World Wars I & II

During World War I the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) adopted the common European usage of designating field corps by Roman numerals . Several "corps areas " were designated under the authority of the National Defense Act of 1920 , but played little role until the Army's buildup for World War II . While some of the lower numbered Corps were used for various exercises the inter-war years corps serve mostly as a pool of units. During that war, the Marine Corps organized corps headquarters for the first time, the I Marine (later III Amphibious Corps ) and V Amphibious Corps . The Army would ultimately designate 25 field corps (I–XVI, XVIII–XXIV, XXXVI and I Armored Corps ) during World War II.

Cold War And 21st Century

After the Korean War , the Army and Marines would diverge in their approach to the concept of the field corps. The Army, continued to group its divisions into traditional corps organizations in the Continental United States (CONUS), West Germany (V Corps Regular Army , Army Reserve , and Army National Guard ) uses administrative _corps_, also known as _Army Branches_ , to group personnel with a common function. These include the Acquisition Corps , Adjutant General\'s Corps , Chaplain Corps , Chemical Corps , Civil Affairs Corps , Cyber Corps , Dental Corps *, Corps of Engineers , Finance Corps , Judge Advocate General\'s Corps , Logistics Corps , Medical Corps *, Medical Service Corps *, Medical Specialist Corps *, Military Intelligence Corps , Military Police Corps , Nurse Corps *, Ordnance Corps , Psychological Operations Corps , Quartermaster Corps , Signal Corps , Transportation Corps , and Veterinary Corps .* Each of these corps is also considered a _regiment_ for purposes of: "... affiliation, ... loyalty and commitment, ... sense of belonging, ... unit esprit, and ... war fighting ethos." However, these regiments have no tactical function. The six corps (annotated by an asterisk above after each applicable corps' name) of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) are included in the AMEDD Regiment .

3) U.S. Navy officers who are not _Line officers _ (i.e., those who exercise general command authority and are eligible for operational command positions, as opposed to officers who normally exercise authority only within their own specialty ) are commissioned into various _Staff Corps_ . These officers are specialists in career fields that are professions unto themselves, such as ministers, civil engineers, architects, dentists, lawyers, physicians, healthcare administrators, healthcare scientists, clinical care providers, nurses, financial managers, and logistics and supply specialists. These _corps'_ include the Chaplain Corps , Civil Engineer Corps , Dental Corps *, Judge Advocate General\'s Corps , Medical Corps *, Medical Service Corps *, Nurse Corps *, and the Supply Corps . The Navy also has a Hospital Corps consisting of enlisted medical technicians. The Hospital Corps, along with the four Navy health services corps' listed above (indicated by asterisk), is one of the five corps' of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery .

4) The U.S. Air Force uses the title _corps_ to designate several non-tactical organizations. These corps' include five distinct health services corps of the United States Air Force Medical Service (AFMS). The AFMS corps' are the Biomedical Sciences Corps , Dental Corps , Medical Corps , Medical Service Corps , and Nurse Corps . The Air Force also has its own Chaplain Corps and Judge Advocate General\'s Corps .

5) In the U.S. Armed Forces, the term _corps_ is also used in a general sense to mean the collective membership of a specified military body. Those uses include: the _Officer Corps_ and _Noncommissioned Officer Corps_ (NCO Corps) of the armed forces, either collectively or individually by branch of service; the _United States Corps of Cadets_ at the United States Military Academy and the _United States Coast Guard Corps of Cadets_ of the United States Coast Guard Academy ; the overall program title and aggregate collection of cadets and midshipmen enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps ’ (ROTC) of the several services (i.e., Army ROTC , Navy ROTC , and Air Force ROTC ), as well as the cadet organizations of the six federally recognized United States Senior Military Colleges (The Citadel , Norwich University , Texas A and the members of the Naval Sea Cadet Corps .

NON-MILITARY USE

The Salvation Army calls its local units/church "corps" (e.g. The Rockford Temple Corps, The St. Petersburg Citadel Corps), echoing the pseudomilitary name and structure of the organization.

In the United Kingdom, the Royal Observer Corps was a civil defence unit from 1925 until disbanded in 1995.

In the US, there are non-military, administrative, training and certification Corps for commissioned officers of the government's uniformed services , such as the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps .

Many volunteer municipal or university ambulance, rescue, and first aid squads are known as VACs (volunteer ambulance corps ). Prominent examples are the Order of Malta (the largest in Ireland), Hatzolah (largest VAC network worldwide), Hackensack VAC. The usage of the term Ambulance Corps dates to Civil War Major General George B. McClellan 's General Order No 147 to create an "ambulance corps" within the Union Army . GO 147 used "Corps" in one of its standard military senses. However, subsequent formations of non-military ambulance squads continued to use the term, even where they adhere less to paramilitary organizational structure.

The Peace Corps was organized by the United States as an "army" of volunteers.

Some Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are known as corps. Examples include Global Health Corps and Mercy Corps .

A Patent Examiner in the US is a member of the Examiner Corps.

SEE ALSO

* The Salvation Army * Military unit * Corps area * United States Marine Corps * Eurocorps * List of military corps * List of corps of the United States * Drum and bugle corps (modern) * Drum and bugle corps (classic) * Peace Corps * AmeriCorps * Signal Corps (other) * United States Army Corps of Engineers * Ambulance corps * Green Lantern Corps

REFERENCES

* ^ Kreidberg, Marvin; Henry, Morton (November 1955). _History of Military Mobilization_ (PDF). Washington, DC: Department of the Army. pp. 144–145. Retrieved 30 July 2014. * ^ Clay, Steven. _US Army Order of Battle 1919–1941: Volume 1 The Arms: Major Commands and Infantry Organizations, 1919–1941_ (PDF). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. p. 170. * ^ Eckhardt, George S. (1991). _Vietnam Studies: Command and Control, 1950-1969_. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 30 July 2014. * ^ Eve of war Soviet structure * ^ http://www.admfincs.forces.gc.ca/admfincs/subjects/cfao/002-10_e.asp * ^ Sutton, Brigadier John, ed.," Wait For The Waggon". Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Leo Cooper, 1998. * ^ Love, David, _A Call To Arms_. * ^ Army Regulation 600-82: _The U.S. Army Regimental System_ Chapter 2: Management of the U.S. Army Regimental System, 2–2. USARS purpose, p. 2. http://www.17thinfantry.org/documents/dmor/AR%20600-82%20US%20ARMY%20Regimental%20System.pdf. retrieved 14 December 2016. * ^ "URL Unrestricted Line Officer". NavyReserve.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13. * ^ "Mission of Public Health Service at USPHS Commissioned Corps". Usphs.gov. 2011-11-14. Retrieved 4 July 2012. * ^ "NOAA Corps". Noaacorps.noaa.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2012. * ^ "The Union Army Ambulance Corps".

FURTHER READING

* Phisterer, Frederick, _Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States_, Castle Books, 1883, ISBN 0-7858-1585-6 . * Tsouras, P.G. _Changing Orders: The evolution of the World's Armies, 1945 to the Present_ Facts On File, Inc, 1994. ISBN 0-8160-3122-3 * Warsaw Pact June 1989 OOB

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4165336-1

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