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CORNWALL (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːlˌ -wəl/ , locally /ˈkɔːnwɔːl, -wəl/ ; Cornish : _Kernow_ ) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England
England
within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
, to the south by the English Channel , and to the east by the county of Devon
Devon
, over the River Tamar . Cornwall
Cornwall
has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi). The administrative centre , and only city in Cornwall, is Truro
Truro
, although the town of Falmouth has the largest population.

Cornwall
Cornwall
forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age
Bronze Age
peoples, and later (in the Iron Age
Iron Age
) by Brythons
Brythons
with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales
Wales
and Brittany
Brittany
. There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter
Exeter
and few Roman remains have been found. Cornwall
Cornwall
was the home of a division of the Dumnonii
Dumnonii
tribe – whose tribal centre was in the modern county of Devon
Devon
– known as the Cornovii , separated from the Brythons
Brythons
of Wales
Wales
after the Battle of Deorham , often coming into conflict with the expanding kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
before King Athelstan
Athelstan
in AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages, British language and culture was apparently shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, evidenced by the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille
Cornouaille
and the Celtic Christianity
Celtic Christianity
common to both territories.

Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy, becoming increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages and expanding greatly during the 19th century when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, fishing (particularly of pilchards ) and agriculture (notably dairy products and vegetables) were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century; however, Cornwall\'s economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language , and its very mild climate . Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, and Bodmin Moor
Bodmin Moor
, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty .

Cornwall
Cornwall
is the homeland of the Cornish people
Cornish people
and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history . Some people question the present constitutional status of Cornwall
Cornwall
, and a nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly . On 24 April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people
Cornish people
will be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Toponymy

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory, Roman and post-Roman periods * 2.2 Conflict with Wessex
Wessex
* 2.3 Breton–Norman period * 2.4 Later medieval administration and society

* 3 Christianity in Cornwall

* 3.1 Celtic and Anglo-Saxon times * 3.2 Middle Ages * 3.3 From the Reformation to the Victorian period

* 4 Physical geography

* 4.1 Coastal areas * 4.2 Inland areas * 4.3 The Lizard Peninsula * 4.4 Hills and high points * 4.5 Ecology * 4.6 Climate

* 5 Politics and administration

* 5.1 Local politics * 5.2 Parliament and national politics * 5.3 Self-rule movement

* 6 Cornish national identity * 7 Settlements and communication * 8 Flag * 9 Heraldry
Heraldry

* 10 Economy

* 10.1 Tourism * 10.2 Internet * 10.3 Other industries

* 11 Demographics * 12 Education system

* 13 Languages and dialects

* 13.1 Cornish language
Cornish language
* 13.2 English dialect

* 14 Culture

* 14.1 Visual arts * 14.2 Music and festivals

* 14.3 Literature

* 14.3.1 Fiction * 14.3.2 Poetry * 14.3.3 Other literary works

* 14.4 Sports and games

* 14.4.1 Surfing
Surfing
and other water sports

* 14.5 Cuisine

* 15 See also * 16 Notes

* 17 References

* 17.1 Citations * 17.2 Sources

* 18 Further reading * 19 External links

TOPONYMY

_ "Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
_. Cliffs at Land's End

The modern English name _Cornwall_ derives from the concatenation of two ancient demonyms from different linguistic traditions:

CORN- records the native Brythonic tribe, the _Cornovii _ ("peninsula people"). The Celtic word "_kernou_" ("horn" or "headland") is cognate with the English word "horn" (both deriving from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
*ker-).

-WALL derives from the Old English
Old English
exonym _w(e)alh _, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman" (i.e. a Welshman ).

The Ravenna Cosmography
Ravenna Cosmography
(c. 700 AD) mentions a civitas named _Purocoronavis_ in the locality. This is most likely a corruption of _Duro-CORNOV-ium_, meaning 'fort of the Cornovii people'. The exact location of Durocornovium is disputed, with Tintagel
Tintagel
and Carn Brea suggested as possible sites.

In later times, Cornwall
Cornwall
was known to the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
as "West Wales" to distinguish it from "North Wales" (the modern nation of Wales
Wales
). The name appears in the _ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
_ in 891 as _On Corn walum_. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
it was referred to as _Cornualia_ and in c. 1198 as _Cornwal_. Other names for the county include a latinisation of the name as _Cornubia_ (first appears in a mid-9th-century deed purporting to be a copy of one dating from c. 705), and as _Cornugallia_ in 1086.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Cornwall
History of Cornwall
and Timeline of Cornish history Mên-an-Tol .

PREHISTORY, ROMAN AND POST-ROMAN PERIODS

See also: Dumnonia
Dumnonia

The present human history of Cornwall
Cornwall
begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall
Cornwall
was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age
Bronze Age
people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall
Cornwall
in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, in modern-day Ireland, England, France, Spain and Portugal. During the British Iron Age
Iron Age
, Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales
Wales
and Brittany
Brittany
. The Common Brittonic spoken at the time eventually developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish .

The first account of Cornwall
Cornwall
comes from the 1st century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus , supposedly quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer Pytheas
Pytheas
, who had sailed to Britain:

The inhabitants of that part of Britain called _Belerion_ (or Land's End) from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the earth in which it is produced ... Here then the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul
Gaul
, and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhône. Celtic tribes of Southern Britain.

The identity of these merchants is unknown. It has been theorised that they were Phoenicians , but there is no evidence for this. Professor Timothy Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on the tin trade, states that "Diodorus never actually says that the Phoenicians sailed to Cornwall. In fact, he says quite the opposite: the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of Cornwall, and its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by local merchants, by sea and then over land through France, well outside Phoenician control." (For further discussion of tin mining see the section on the economy below.)

There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter in Devon
Devon
and few Roman remains have been found. However, after 410, Cornwall
Cornwall
appears to have reverted to rule by Romano-Celtic chieftains of the Cornovii tribe as part of Dumnonia
Dumnonia
including one Marcus Cunomorus with at least one significant power base at Tintagel
Tintagel
. "King" Mark of Cornwall is a semi-historical figure known from Welsh literature, the Matter of Britain
Matter of Britain
, and in particular, the later Norman-Breton medieval romance of Tristan and Yseult where he is regarded as a close kinsman of King Arthur
King Arthur
; himself usually considered to be born of the Cornish people
Cornish people
in folklore traditions derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey of Monmouth
's _ Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
_. Archaeology supports ecclesiastical, literary and legendary evidence for some relative economic stability and close cultural ties between the sub-Roman Westcountry , South Wales, Brittany
Brittany
and Ireland
Ireland
through the fifth and sixth centuries.

CONFLICT WITH WESSEX

The Battle of Deorham in 577 saw the separation of Dumnonia
Dumnonia
(and therefore Cornwall) from Wales, following which the Dumnonii
Dumnonii
often came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
. The _ Annales Cambriae _ report that in 722 AD the Britons of Cornwall
Cornwall
won a battle at "Hehil" . It seems likely that the enemy the Cornish fought was a West Saxon force, as evidenced by the naming of King Ine of Wessex
Wessex
and his kinsman Nonna in reference to an earlier Battle of Lining in 710.

The _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ stated in 815 (adjusted date) "and in this year king Ecgbryht raided in Cornwall
Cornwall
from east to west." and thenceforth apparently held it as a ducatus or dukedom annexed to his regnum or kingdom of Wessex, but not wholly incorporated with it. The _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ states that in 825 (adjusted date) a battle took place between the Wealas (Cornish) and the Defnas (men of Devon) at Gafulforda . In the same year Ecgbert, as a later document expresses it, "disposed of their territory as it seemed fit to him, giving a tenth part of it to God." In other words, he incorporated Cornwall
Cornwall
ecclesiastically with the West Saxon diocese of Sherborne , and endowed Eahlstan , his fighting bishop, who took part in the campaign, with an extensive Cornish estate consisting of Callington and Lawhitton
Lawhitton
, both in the Tamar valley, and Pawton near Padstow
Padstow
.

In 838, the Cornish and their Danish allies were defeated by Egbert in the Battle of Hingston Down at Hengestesdune (probably Hingston Down in Cornwall). In 875, the last recorded king of Cornwall, Dumgarth , is said to have drowned. Around the 880s, Anglo-Saxons from Wessex
Wessex
had established modest land holdings in the eastern part of Cornwall; notably Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
who had acquired a few estates. William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury
, writing around 1120, says that King Athelstan of England
England
(924–939) fixed the boundary between English and Cornish people at the east bank of the River Tamar.

BRETON–NORMAN PERIOD

The ancient Hundreds of Cornwall
Hundreds of Cornwall

One interpretation of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
is that by this time the native Cornish landowning class had been almost completely dispossessed and replaced by English landowners, particularly Harold Godwinson himself. However, the Bodmin manumissions show that two leading Cornish figures nominally had Saxon names, but these were both glossed with native Cornish names. Naming evidence cited by medievalist Edith Ditmas suggests that many post-Conquest landowners in Cornwall
Cornwall
were Breton allies of the Normans and further proposed this period for the early composition of the Tristan and Iseult
Tristan and Iseult
cycle by poets such as Beroul from a pre-existing shared Brittonic oral tradition.

Soon after the Norman conquest most of the land was transferred to the new Breton–Norman aristocracy, with the lion's share going to Robert, Count of Mortain , half-brother of King William and the largest landholder in England
England
after the king with his stronghold at Trematon Castle near the mouth of the Tamar. Cornwall
Cornwall
and Devon
Devon
west of Dartmoor
Dartmoor
showed a very different type of settlement pattern from that of Saxon Wessex
Wessex
and places continued, even after 1066, to be named in the Celtic Cornish tradition with Saxon architecture being uncommon.

LATER MEDIEVAL ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIETY

Subsequently, however, Norman absentee landlords became replaced by a new Cornu-Norman elite including scholars such as Richard Rufus of Cornwall
Cornwall
. These families eventually became the new ruling class of Cornwall
Cornwall
(typically speaking Norman French, Breton-Cornish, Latin and eventually English), many becoming involved in the operation of the Stannary Parliament system, Earldom and eventually the Duchy. The Cornish language
Cornish language
continued to be spoken and it acquired a number of characteristics establishing its identity as a separate language from Breton .

Cornish piracy was active during the Elizabethan era on the west coast of Britain.

CHRISTIANITY IN CORNWALL

Main article: Christianity in Cornwall See also: List of Cornish saints

Many place names in Cornwall
Cornwall
are associated with Christian missionaries described as coming from Ireland
Ireland
and Wales
Wales
in the 5th century AD and usually called saints (_See_ List of Cornish saints ). The historicity of some of these missionaries is problematic. The patron saint of Wendron Parish Church, "Saint Wendrona" is another example. and it has been pointed out by Canon Doble that it was customary in the Middle Ages to ascribe such geographical origins to saints. Some of these saints are not included in the early lists of saints.

Saint Piran
Saint Piran
, after whom Perranporth is named, is generally regarded as the patron saint of Cornwall. However, in early Norman times it is likely that Saint Michael
Saint Michael
the Archangel was recognised as the patron saint and is still recognised by the Anglican Church as the _Protector of Cornwall_. The title has also been claimed for Saint Petroc who was patron of the Cornish diocese prior to the Normans.

CELTIC AND ANGLO-SAXON TIMES

St German's Priory Church (Norman) Dupath Well, one of Cornwall's many holy wells dating from c.1510 The Church of St Petroc at Bodmin
Bodmin
(late 15th century)

The church in Cornwall
Cornwall
until the time of Athelstan
Athelstan
of Wessex
Wessex
observed more or less orthodox practices, being completely separate from the Anglo-Saxon church until then (and perhaps later). The See of Cornwall continued until much later: Bishop Conan apparently in place previously, but (re-?) consecrated in 931 AD by Athelstan
Athelstan
. However, it is unclear whether he was the sole Bishop for Cornwall
Cornwall
or the leading Bishop in the area. The situation in Cornwall
Cornwall
may have been somewhat similar to Wales
Wales
where each major religious house corresponded to a cantref (this has the same meaning as Cornish keverang ) both being under the supervision of a Bishop. However, if this was so the status of keverangow before the time of King Athelstan is not recorded. However, it can be inferred from the districts included at this period that the minimum number would be three: Triggshire; Wivelshire; and the remaining area. Penwith, Kerrier, Pydar and Powder meet at a central point ( Scorrier ) which some have believed indicates a fourfold division imposed by Athelstan
Athelstan
on a sub-kingdom.

MIDDLE AGES

The whole of Cornwall
Cornwall
was in this period in the Archdeaconry of Cornwall
Cornwall
within the Diocese of Exeter. From 1267 the archdeacons had a house at Glasney near Penryn. Their duties were to visit and inspect each parish annually and to execute the bishop's orders. Archdeacon Roland is recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 as having land holdings in Cornwall
Cornwall
but he was not Archdeacon of Cornwall, just an archdeacon in the Diocese of Exeter. In the episcopate of William Warelwast (1107–37) the first Archdeacon of Cornwall
Cornwall
was appointed (possibly Hugo de Auco). Most of the parish churches in Cornwall
Cornwall
in Norman times were not in the larger settlements, and the medieval towns which developed thereafter usually had only a chapel of ease with the right of burial remaining at the ancient parish church. Over a hundred holy wells exist in Cornwall, each associated with a particular saint, though not always the same one as the dedication of the church.

Various kinds of religious houses existed in mediaeval Cornwall though none of them were nunneries; the benefices of the parishes were in many cases appropriated to religious houses within Cornwall
Cornwall
or elsewhere in England
England
or France.

FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE VICTORIAN PERIOD

In the 16th century there was some violent resistance to the replacement of Catholicism with Protestantism in the Prayer Book Rebellion . In 1548 the college at Glasney , a centre of learning and study established by the Bishop of Exeter, had been closed and looted (many manuscripts and documents were destroyed) which aroused resentment among the Cornish. They, among other things, objected to the English language Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
, protesting that the English language was still unknown to many at the time. The Prayer Book Rebellion was a cultural and social disaster for Cornwall; the reprisals taken by the forces of the Crown have been estimated to account for 10–11% of the civilian population of Cornwall. Culturally speaking, it saw the beginning of the slow decline of the Cornish language
Cornish language
.

From that time Christianity in Cornwall was in the main within the Church of England
England
and subject to the national events which affected it in the next century and a half. Roman Catholicism never became extinct, though openly practised by very few; there were some converts to Puritanism, Anabaptism and Quakerism in certain areas though they suffered intermittent persecution which more or less came to an end in the reign of William and Mary. During the 18th century Cornish Anglicanism was very much in the same state as Anglicanism in most of England. Wesleyan Methodist missions began during John Wesley
John Wesley
's lifetime and had great success over a long period during which Methodism
Methodism
itself divided into a number of sects and established a definite separation from the Church of England. Poughill Methodist Church

From the early 19th to the mid-20th century Methodism
Methodism
was the leading form of Christianity in Cornwall but it is now in decline. The Church of England
England
was in the majority from the reign of Queen Elizabeth until the Methodist revival of the 19th century: before the Wesleyan missions dissenters were very few in Cornwall. The county remained within the Diocese of Exeter
Exeter
until 1876 when the Anglican Diocese of Truro
Truro
was created (the first Bishop was appointed in 1877). Roman Catholicism was virtually extinct in Cornwall
Cornwall
after the 17th century except for a few families such as the Arundells of Lanherne . From the mid-19th century the church reestablished episcopal sees in England, one of these being at Plymouth
Plymouth
. Since then immigration to Cornwall
Cornwall
has brought more Roman Catholics into the population.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Main articles: Geography of Cornwall and Geology of Cornwall
Geology of Cornwall
Satellite image of Cornwall
Cornwall

Cornwall
Cornwall
forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to impressive cliffs. Cornwall
Cornwall
has a border with only one other county, Devon
Devon
, which is formed almost entirely by the River Tamar
River Tamar
and (to the north) by the Marsland Valley .

COASTAL AREAS

The north and south coasts have different characteristics. The north coast on the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
, part of the Atlantic Ocean, is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature. The prosaically named _High Cliff_, between Boscastle
Boscastle
and St Gennys , is the highest sheer-drop cliff in Cornwall
Cornwall
at 223 metres (732 ft). However, there are also many extensive stretches of fine golden sand which form the beaches that are so important to the tourist industry, such as those at Bude
Bude
, Polzeath , Watergate Bay , Perranporth , Porthtowan
Porthtowan
, Fistral Beach
Fistral Beach
, Newquay
Newquay
, St Agnes , St Ives , and on the south coast Gyllyngvase beach in Falmouth and the large beach at Praa Sands further to the south west. There are two river estuaries on the north coast: Hayle Estuary and the estuary of the River Camel , which provides Padstow and Rock with a safe harbour. The seaside town of Newlyn is a popular holiday destination, as it is one of the last remaining traditional Cornish fishing ports, with views reaching over Mount's Bay. St Michael\'s Mount in Marazion

The south coast, dubbed the "Cornish Riviera", is more sheltered and there are several broad estuaries offering safe anchorages, such as at Falmouth and Fowey
Fowey
. Beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform . Also on the south coast, the picturesque fishing village of Polperro
Polperro
, at the mouth of the Pol River, and the fishing port of Looe on the River Looe
Looe
are both popular with tourists.

INLAND AREAS

The interior of the county consists of a roughly east–west spine of infertile and exposed upland, with a series of granite intrusions, such as Bodmin Moor
Bodmin Moor
, which contains the highest land within Cornwall. From east to west, and with approximately descending altitude, these are Bodmin
Bodmin
Moor, Hensbarrow north of St Austell , Carnmenellis
Carnmenellis
to the south of Camborne
Camborne
, and the Penwith
Penwith
or Land\'s End peninsula. These intrusions are the central part of the granite outcrops that form the exposed parts of the Cornubian batholith
Cornubian batholith
of south-west Britain, which also includes Dartmoor
Dartmoor
to the east in Devon
Devon
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
to the west, the latter now being partially submerged. Cornwall
Cornwall
is known for its beaches (Porthcurno beach illustrated) and rugged coastline

The intrusion of the granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation, and this led to Cornwall
Cornwall
being one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century. It is thought tin was mined here as early as the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, and copper, lead, zinc and silver have all been mined in Cornwall
Cornwall
. Alteration of the granite also gave rise to extensive deposits of China Clay , especially in the area to the north of St Austell, and the extraction of this remains an important industry.

The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for flora that like shade and a moist, mild climate. These areas lie mainly on Devonian
Devonian
sandstone and slate . The north east of Cornwall lies on Carboniferous
Carboniferous
rocks known as the Culm Measures . In places these have been subjected to severe folding, as can be seen on the north coast near Crackington Haven and in several other locations.

THE LIZARD PENINSULA

Main article: Lizard complex

The geology of the Lizard peninsula is unusual, in that it is mainland Britain's only example of an ophiolite , a section of oceanic crust now found on land. Much of the peninsula consists of the dark green and red Precambrian
Precambrian
serpentinite , which forms spectacular cliffs, notably at Kynance Cove , and carved and polished serpentine ornaments are sold in local gift shops. This ultramafic rock also forms a very infertile soil which covers the flat and marshy heaths of the interior of the peninsula. This is home to rare plants, such as the Cornish Heath , which has been adopted as the county flower .

HILLS AND HIGH POINTS

Main article: List of hills of Cornwall

ECOLOGY

See also: Flora and fauna of Cornwall
Flora and fauna of Cornwall

Cornwall
Cornwall
has varied habitats including terrestrial and marine ecosystems. One noted species in decline locally is the Reindeer lichen , which species has been made a priority for protection under the national UK Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan
. _ The red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax_), once commonly seen throughout Cornwall, experienced a severe decline in its population in the 20th century.

Botanists divide Cornwall
Cornwall
and Scilly into two vice-counties: West (1) and East (2). The standard flora is by F. H. Davey _Flora of Cornwall_ (1909). Davey was assisted by A. O. Hume and he thanks Hume, his companion on excursions in Cornwall
Cornwall
and Devon, and for help in the compilation of that Flora, publication of which was financed by him.

CLIMATE

Main article: Geography of Cornwall § Climate

Cornwall
Cornwall
has a temperate Oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
(Köppen climate classification : Cfb) and has the mildest and sunniest climate in the United Kingdom, as a result of its southerly latitude and the influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
. The average annual temperature in Cornwall
Cornwall
ranges from 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) on the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
to 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) in the central uplands. Winters are amongst the warmest in the country due to the southerly latitude and moderating effects of the warm ocean currents, and frost and snow are very rare at the coast and are also rare in the central upland areas. Summers are however not as warm as in other parts of southern England. The surrounding sea and its southwesterly position mean that Cornwall's weather can be relatively changeable.

Cornwall
Cornwall
is one of the sunniest areas in the UK, with over 1541 hours of sunshine per year, with the highest average of 7.6 hours of sunshine per day in July. The moist, mild air coming from the south west brings higher amounts of rainfall than in eastern Great Britain, at 1,051 to 1,290 mm (41.4 to 50.8 in) per year, however not as much as in more northern areas of the west coast. The Isles of Scilly, for example, where there are on average less than two days of air frost per year, is the only area in the UK to be in the USDA
USDA
Hardiness zone 10. In Scilly there is on average less than one day of air temperature exceeding 30 °C per year and it is in the AHS Heat Zone 1. Extreme temperatures in Cornwall
Cornwall
are particularly rare; however, extreme weather in the form of storms and floods is common.

POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION

Main article: Politics of Cornwall

LOCAL POLITICS

Cornwall Council
Cornwall Council
's headquarters in Truro
Truro
From the 2010 general election, Cornwall
Cornwall
has had six parliamentary constituencies

With the exception of the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
, Cornwall
Cornwall
is governed by a unitary authority , Cornwall Council
Cornwall Council
, based in Truro
Truro
. The Crown Court is based at the Courts of Justice in Truro. Magistrates' Courts are found in Truro
Truro
(but at a different location to the Crown Court), Bodmin, Penzance
Penzance
and Liskeard.

The Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
form part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall and have, at times, been served by the same county administration. Since 1890 they have been administered by their own unitary authority , the Council of the Isles of Scilly. They are grouped with Cornwall for other administrative purposes, such as the National Health Service and Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police
.

Before reorganisation on 1 April 2009, council functions throughout the rest of Cornwall
Cornwall
were organised on a two-tier basis, with a county council and district councils for its six districts, Caradon
Caradon
, Carrick , Kerrier
Kerrier
, North Cornwall , Penwith
Penwith
, and Restormel . While projected to streamline services, cut red tape and save around £17 million a year, the reorganisation was met with wide opposition, with a poll in 2008 giving a result of 89% disapproval from Cornish residents.

The first elections for the unitary authority were held on 4 June 2009. The council has 123 seats; the largest party (in 2017) is the Tory Party, with 46 seats. The Liberal Democrats are the second largest party, with 37 seats, with the Independents in third place with 30.

Before the creation of the unitary council, the former county council had 82 seats, the majority of which were held by the Liberal Democrats, elected at the 2005 county council elections . The six former districts had a total of 249 council seats, and the groups with greatest numbers of councillors were Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, and Independents.

PARLIAMENT AND NATIONAL POLITICS

Following a review by the Boundary Commission for England
England
taking effect at the 2010 general election , Cornwall
Cornwall
is divided into six county constituencies to elect MPs to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
.

Before the 2010 boundary changes Cornwall
Cornwall
had five constituencies all of which were won by Liberal Democrats in the 2005 general election . At the 2010 general election Liberal Democrat candidates won three constituencies and Conservative candidates won three constituencies (_see also 2010 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general election result in Cornwall
Cornwall
_). At the 2015 general election all six Cornish seats were won by Conservative candidates. All these conservative MPs retained their seats in the 2017 general election

Until 1832, Cornwall
Cornwall
had 44 MPs – more than any other county – reflecting the importance of tin to the Crown. Most of the increase in numbers of MPs came between 1529 and 1584 after which there was no change until 1832.

SELF-RULE MOVEMENT

Cornish nationalists have organised into two political parties: Mebyon Kernow, formed in 1951, and the Cornish Nationalist Party . In addition to the political parties, there are various interest groups such as the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament and the Celtic League . The Cornish Constitutional Convention was formed in 2000 as a cross-party organisation including representatives from the private, public and voluntary sectors to campaign for the creation of a Cornish Assembly , along the lines of the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
, Northern Ireland Assembly
Northern Ireland Assembly
and the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
. Between 5 March 2000 and December 2001, the campaign collected the signatures of 41,650 Cornish residents endorsing the call for a devolved assembly, along with 8,896 signatories from outside Cornwall. The resulting petition was presented to the Prime Minister, Tony Blair
Tony Blair
. The Liberal Democrats recognise Cornwall's claims for greater autonomy, as do the Liberal Party . "The new single council is also the opportunity to gain more control over local issues from regional and national Government bureaucrats – the first step on our way to a Cornish Assembly." – The Liberal Democrat Manifesto for 2009

An additional political issue is the recognition of the Cornish people as a minority.

CORNISH NATIONAL IDENTITY

Further information: Cornish nationalism The percentage of respondents who gave "Cornish" as an answer to the National Identity question in the 2011 census.

Cornwall
Cornwall
is recognised by several organisations, including the Cornish nationalist party Mebyon Kernow
Mebyon Kernow
, the Celtic League and the International Celtic Congress , as one of the six Celtic nations, alongside Brittany
Brittany
, Ireland, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales. Alongside Asturias
Asturias
and Galicia , Cornwall
Cornwall
is also recognised as one of the eight Celtic nations
Celtic nations
by the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government and the Welsh Government
Welsh Government
. Cornwall
Cornwall
is represented, as one of the Celtic nations, at the _ Festival Interceltique de Lorient _, an annual celebration of Celtic culture held in Brittany.

Cornwall Council
Cornwall Council
consider Cornwall's unique cultural heritage and distinctiveness to be one of the area's major assets. They see Cornwall's language, landscape, Celtic identity, political history, patterns of settlement, maritime tradition, industrial heritage, and non-conformist tradition, to be among the features making up its "distinctive" culture. However, it is uncertain how many of the people living in Cornwall
Cornwall
consider themselves to be Cornish; results from different surveys (including the national census) have varied. In the 2001 census, 7 percent of people in Cornwall
Cornwall
identified themselves as Cornish, rather than British or English. However, activists have argued that this underestimated the true number as there was no explicit "Cornish" option included in the official census form. Subsequent surveys have suggested that as many as 44 percent identify as Cornish. Many people in Cornwall
Cornwall
say that this issue would be resolved if a Cornish option became available on the census. The question and content recommendations for the 2011 Census provided an explanation of the process of selecting an ethnic identity which is relevant to the understanding of the often quoted figure of 37,000 who claim Cornish identity.

On 24 April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people
Cornish people
would be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities .

SETTLEMENTS AND COMMUNICATION

See also: List of settlements in Cornwall by population , Transport in Cornwall
Cornwall
, and Media in Cornwall Truro
Truro
, Cornwall's administrative centre and only city.

Cornwall's only city, and the home of the council headquarters , is Truro
Truro
. Nearby Falmouth is notable as a port. St Just in Penwith
Penwith
is the westernmost town in England, though the same claim has been made for Penzance
Penzance
, which is larger. St Ives and Padstow
Padstow
are today small vessel ports with a major tourism and leisure sector in their economies. Newquay
Newquay
on the north coast is famous for its beaches and is a popular surfing destination, as is Bude
Bude
further north. St Austell is the county's largest town and more populous than the capital Truro; it was the centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall. Redruth
Redruth
and Camborne
Camborne
form the largest urban area in Cornwall, and both towns were significant as centres of the global tin mining industry in the 19th century (nearby copper mines were also very productive during that period).

Cornwall
Cornwall
borders the county of Devon
Devon
at the River Tamar. Major road links between Cornwall
Cornwall
and the rest of Great Britain are the A38 which crosses the Tamar at Plymouth
Plymouth
via the Tamar Bridge
Tamar Bridge
and the town of Saltash
Saltash
, the A39 road (Atlantic Highway) from Barnstaple
Barnstaple
, passing through North Cornwall to end in Falmouth, and the A30 which crosses the border south of Launceston crosses Bodmin Moor
Bodmin Moor
and connects Bodmin and Truro. Torpoint Ferry links Plymouth
Plymouth
with Torpoint
Torpoint
on the opposite side of the Hamoaze . A rail bridge, the Royal Albert Bridge
Royal Albert Bridge
, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
(1859) provides the only other major transport link. The major city of Plymouth, a large urban centre closest to east Cornwall
Cornwall
is an important location for services such as hospitals, department stores, road and rail transport, and cultural venues.

Newquay
Newquay
Cornwall
Cornwall
International Airport provides an airlink to the rest of the UK, Ireland
Ireland
and Europe.

Cardiff
Cardiff
and Swansea
Swansea
, across the Bristol
Bristol
Channel, have at some times in the past been connected to Cornwall
Cornwall
by ferry, but these do not operate currently.

The Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
are served by ferry (from Penzance) and by aeroplane, having its own airport — St Mary\'s Airport . There are regular flights between St Mary's and Land\'s End Airport , near St Just, and Newquay
Newquay
Airport; during the summer season, a service also exist between St Mary's and Exeter
Exeter
International Airport , in Devon.

FLAG

Main article: Saint Piran\'s Flag Souvenir flags outside a Cornish café

Saint Piran's Flag
Saint Piran's Flag
is regarded by many as the national flag of Cornwall, and an emblem of the Cornish people; and by others as the county flag. The banner of Saint Piran
Saint Piran
is a white cross on a black background (in terms of heraldry 'sable, a cross argent'). Saint Piran is supposed to have adopted these two colours from seeing the white tin in the black coals and ashes during his supposed discovery of tin. Davies Gilbert
Davies Gilbert
in 1826 described it as anciently the flag of St Piran and the banner of Cornwall, and another history of 1880 said that: "The white cross of St. Piran was the ancient banner of the Cornish people." The Cornish flag is an exact reverse of the former Breton national flag (black cross) and is known by the same name "Kroaz Du".

There are also claims that the patron saint of Cornwall
Cornwall
is Saint Michael or Saint Petroc
Saint Petroc
, but Saint Piran
Saint Piran
is by far the most popular of the three and his emblem is internationally recognised as the flag of Cornwall. St Piran\'s Day (5 March) is celebrated by the Cornish diaspora around the world.

HERALDRY

For the heraldry of Cornwall
Cornwall
see:

* Cornish heraldry * Cornish corporate heraldry

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Cornwall
Economy of Cornwall
Falmouth Docks is the major port of Cornwall, and one of the largest natural harbours in the world The Eden Project
Eden Project
near St Austell, Cornwall's largest tourist attraction in terms of visitor numbers

Cornwall
Cornwall
is one of the poorest parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in terms of per capita GDP and average household incomes. At the same time, parts of the county, especially on the coast, have high house prices, driven up by demand from relatively wealthy retired people and second-home owners. The GVA per head was 65% of the UK average for 2004. The GDP per head for Cornwall
Cornwall
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
was 79.2% of the EU-27 average for 2004, the UK per head average was 123.0%. In 2011, the latest available figures, Cornwall's (including the Isles of Scilly) measure of wealth was 64% of the European average per capita.

Historically mining of tin (and later also of copper) was important in the Cornish economy. The first reference to this appears to be by Pytheas: _see above_. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was the last classical writer to mention the tin trade, which appears to have declined during the Roman occupation. The tin trade revived in the Middle Ages and its importance to the Kings of England
England
resulted in certain privileges being granted to the tinners; the Cornish Rebellion of 1497
Cornish Rebellion of 1497
is attributed to grievances of the tin miners. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin trade again fell into decline. Other primary industries that have declined since the 1960s include china clay production, fishing and farming.

Today, the Cornish economy depends heavily on its tourist industry, which makes up around a quarter of the economy. The official measures of deprivation and poverty at district and 'sub-ward' level show that there is great variation in poverty and prosperity in Cornwall
Cornwall
with some areas among the poorest in England
England
and others among the top half in prosperity. For example, the ranking of 32,482 sub-wards in England in the index of multiple deprivation (2006) ranged from 819th (part of Penzance
Penzance
East) to 30,899th (part of Saltash
Saltash
Burraton in Caradon), where the lower number represents the greater deprivation.

Cornwall
Cornwall
is one of two UK areas designated as 'less developed regions' which qualify for Cohesion Policy grants from the European Union . It was granted Objective 1 status by the European Commission for 2000 to 2006, followed by further rounds of funding known as 'Convergence Funding' from 2007 to 2013 and 'Growth Programme' for 2014 to 2020.

TOURISM

Par railway station with a British Rail
British Rail
Class 43 (HST) introduced by British Rail
British Rail
to the Cornish Main Line
Cornish Main Line
by the InterCity sector.

Tourism is estimated to contribute up to 24% of Cornwall's gross domestic product. In 2011 Tourism brought £1.85 billion into the Cornish economy. Cornwall's unique culture, spectacular landscape and mild climate make it a popular tourist destination, despite being somewhat distant from the United Kingdom's main centres of population. Surrounded on three sides by the English Channel
English Channel
and Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
, Cornwall
Cornwall
has many miles of beaches and cliffs; the South West Coast Path follows a complete circuit of both coasts. Other tourist attractions include moorland, country gardens, museums, historic and prehistoric sites, and wooded valleys. Five million tourists visit Cornwall
Cornwall
each year, mostly drawn from within the UK. Visitors to Cornwall
Cornwall
are served by the airport at Newquay
Newquay
, whilst private jets, charters and helicopters are also served by Perranporth airfield; nightsleeper and daily rail services run between Cornwall, London and other regions of the UK. Cornwall
Cornwall
has a tourism-based seasonal economy .

Newquay
Newquay
and Porthtowan
Porthtowan
are popular destinations for surfers. In recent years, the Eden Project
Eden Project
near St Austell has been a major financial success, drawing one in eight of Cornwall's visitors in 2004.

INTERNET

Cornwall
Cornwall
is the landing point for one of the world's fastest high-speed transatlantic fibre optic cables, making Cornwall
Cornwall
an important hub within Europe's Internet infrastructure. The Superfast Cornwall
Cornwall
project completed in 2015, and saw 95% of Cornish houses and businesses connected to a fibre-based broadband network, with over 90% of properties able to connect with speeds above 24Mbit/s.

OTHER INDUSTRIES

Redruth
Redruth
Mine in 1890

Other industries are fishing , although this has been significantly re-structured by EU fishing policies (the Southwest Handline Fishermen's Association has started to revive the fishing industry), and agriculture, which has also declined significantly. Mining of tin and copper was also an industry, but today the derelict mine workings survive only as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. However, the Camborne
Camborne
School of Mines , which was relocated to Penryn in 2004, is still a world centre of excellence in the field of mining and applied geology and the grant of World Heritage status has attracted funding for conservation and heritage tourism. China clay
China clay
extraction has also been an important industry in the St Austell area, but this sector has been in decline, and this, coupled with increased mechanisation, has led to a decrease in employment in this sector, although the industry still employs around 2,133 people in Cornwall, and generates over £80 Million to the local economy

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demography of Cornwall and List of settlements in Cornwall
Cornwall
by population Graph showing Cornwall's population from 1800 to 2000

Cornwall's population was 537,400 at the last census, with a population density of 144 people per square kilometre, ranking it 40th and 41st respectively among the 47 counties of England. Cornwall's population was 95.7% White British and has a relatively high level of population growth. At 11.2% in the 1980s and 5.3% in the 1990s, it had the fifth-highest population growth rate of the counties of England. The natural change has been a small population decline, and the population increase is due to inward migration into Cornwall. According to the 1991 census, the population was 469,800.

Cornwall
Cornwall
has a relatively high retired population, with 22.9% of pensionable age, compared with 20.3% for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a whole. This may be due to a combination of Cornwall's rural and coastal geography increasing its popularity as a retirement location, and outward migration of younger residents to more economically diverse areas.

EDUCATION SYSTEM

See also: List of schools in Cornwall

Cornwall
Cornwall
has a comprehensive education system, with 31 state and eight independent secondary schools. There are three further education colleges: Truro
Truro
and Penwith
Penwith
College , Cornwall College and Callywith College which is due to open in September 2017. The Isles of Scilly only has one school while the former Restormel district has the highest school population, and school year sizes are around 200, with none above 270.

Higher education is provided by Falmouth University , the University of Exeter
Exeter
(including Camborne
Camborne
School of Mines ), the Combined Universities in Cornwall
Cornwall
, and by Truro
Truro
College, Penwith
Penwith
College (which combined in 2008 to make Truro
Truro
and Penwith
Penwith
College ) and Cornwall
Cornwall
College.

LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS

Main article: Languages of Cornwall

English is the main language used in Cornwall, although the revived Cornish language
Cornish language
may be seen on road signs and is spoken fluently by a small minority of people.

CORNISH LANGUAGE

A welcome sign to Penzance
Penzance
, in the English and Cornish languages Main article: Cornish language
Cornish language

The Cornish language
Cornish language
is a language from the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language family, closely related to the other Brythonic languages of Welsh and Breton , and less so to the Goidelic languages of Irish , Scots Gaelic and Manx . The language continued to function visibly as a community language in parts of Cornwall
Cornwall
until the late 18th century, and it was claimed in 2011 that the last native speaker did not die until 1914.

There has been a revival of the language since Henry Jenner
Henry Jenner
's _Handbook of the Cornish Language_ was published in 1904. A study in 2000 suggested that there were around 300 people who spoke Cornish fluently. Cornish, however, had no legal status in the UK until 2002. Nevertheless, the language is taught in about twelve primary schools, and occasionally used in religious and civic ceremonies. In 2002 Cornish was officially recognised as a UK minority language and in 2005 it received limited Government funding. A Standard Written Form was agreed in 2008.

Several Cornish mining words are used in English language mining terminology, such as costean , gossan , gunnies , kibbal, kieve and vug .

In the 2010–15 Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, four Cornish MPs, Andrew George , MP for St Ives , Dan Rogerson , MP for North Cornwall , Steve Gilbert , MP for St Austell and Newquay
Newquay
, and Sarah Newton , MP for Truro
Truro
and Falmouth repeated their Parliamentary oaths in Cornish.

ENGLISH DIALECT

Main articles: Anglo-Cornish and West Country Dialects
West Country Dialects

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Cornwall
Culture of Cornwall

VISUAL ARTS

The Tate Gallery at St Ives Artwork in the Barbara Hepworth Museum in St Ives

Since the 19th century, Cornwall, with its unspoilt maritime scenery and strong light, has sustained a vibrant visual art scene of international renown. Artistic activity within Cornwall
Cornwall
was initially centred on the art-colony of Newlyn , most active at the turn of the 20th century. This Newlyn School is associated with the names of Stanhope Forbes , Elizabeth Forbes , Norman Garstin and Lamorna Birch . Modernist writers such as D. H. Lawrence
D. H. Lawrence
and Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
lived in Cornwall
Cornwall
between the wars, and Ben Nicholson
Ben Nicholson
, the painter, having visited in the 1920s came to live in St Ives with his then wife, the sculptor Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
, at the outbreak of the second world war. They were later joined by the Russian emigrant Naum Gabo , and other artists. These included Peter Lanyon , Terry Frost , Patrick Heron , Bryan Wynter and Roger Hilton . St Ives also houses the Leach Pottery, where Bernard Leach
Bernard Leach
, and his followers championed Japanese inspired studio pottery. Much of this modernist work can be seen in Tate St Ives . The Newlyn Society and Penwith
Penwith
Society of Arts continue to be active, and contemporary visual art is documented in a dedicated online journal.

MUSIC AND FESTIVALS

Main article: Music of Cornwall

Cornwall
Cornwall
has a full and vibrant folk music tradition which has survived into the present and is well known for its unusual folk survivals such as Mummers Plays , the Furry Dance
Furry Dance
in Helston
Helston
played by the famous Helston
Helston
Town Band , and Obby Oss
Obby Oss
in Padstow
Padstow
.

Newlyn is home to a food and music festival which hosts live music, cooking demonstrations, and displays of locally caught fish.

As in other former mining districts of Britain, male voice choirs and Brass Bands , e.g. _Brass on the Grass_ concerts during the summer at Constantine , are still very popular in Cornwall: Cornwall
Cornwall
also has around 40 brass bands, including the six-times National Champions of Great Britain, Camborne
Camborne
Youth Band, and the bands of Lanner and St Dennis.

Cornish players are regular participants in inter-Celtic festivals, and Cornwall
Cornwall
itself has several lively inter-Celtic festivals such as Perranporth 's Lowender Peran folk festival.

On a more modern note, contemporary musician Richard D. James (also known as Aphex Twin) grew up in Cornwall, as did Luke Vibert
Luke Vibert
and Alex Parks , winner of Fame Academy 2003. Roger Taylor , the drummer from the band Queen was also raised in the county, and currently lives not far from Falmouth . The American singer-songwriter Tori Amos
Tori Amos
now resides predominantly in North Cornwall not far from Bude
Bude
with her family. The lutenist , lutarist, composer and festival director Ben Salfield lives in Truro
Truro
.

LITERATURE

Cornwall's rich heritage and dramatic landscape have inspired writers since at least the 19th century.

Fiction

Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
Arthur Quiller-Couch
, author of many novels and works of literary criticism, lived in Fowey: his novels are mainly set in Cornwall. Daphne du Maurier
Daphne du Maurier
lived at Menabilly near Fowey
Fowey
and many of her novels had Cornish settings, including _Rebecca _, _Jamaica Inn _, _Frenchman\'s Creek _, _ My Cousin Rachel _, and _The House on the Strand _. She is also noted for writing _Vanishing Cornwall_. Cornwall
Cornwall
provided the inspiration for _The Birds _, one of her terrifying series of short stories, made famous as a film by Alfred Hitchcock . Remains of Tintagel
Tintagel
Castle , reputedly King Arthur 's birthplace

Medieval Cornwall
Cornwall
is the setting of the trilogy by Monica Furlong , _Wise Child_, _Juniper_, and _Colman_, as well as part of Charles Kingsley's _Hereward the Wake _.

Conan Doyle
Conan Doyle
's _The Adventure of the Devil\'s Foot _ featuring Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
is set in Cornwall. Winston Graham
Winston Graham
's series _Poldark _, Kate Tremayne 's Adam Loveday series, Susan Cooper
Susan Cooper
's novels _Over Sea, Under Stone _ and _Greenwitch_, and Mary Wesley 's _The Camomile Lawn _ are all set in Cornwall. Writing under the pseudonym of Alexander Kent, Douglas Reeman sets parts of his Richard Bolitho and Adam Bolitho series in the Cornwall
Cornwall
of the late 18th and the early 19th centuries, particularly in Falmouth.

Hammond Innes 's novel, _The Killer Mine_; Charles de Lint 's novel _The Little Country_; and Chapters 24 and 25 of J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
's _ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
_ take place in Cornwall
Cornwall
(the Harry Potter story at Shell Cottage, which is on the beach outside the fictional village of Tinworth in Cornwall).

David Cornwell, who writes espionage novels under the name John le Carré , lives and writes in Cornwall. Nobel Prize-winning novelist William Golding was born in St Columb Minor in 1911, and returned to live near Truro
Truro
from 1985 until his death in 1993. D. H. Lawrence spent a short time living in Cornwall. Rosamunde Pilcher grew up in Cornwall, and several of her books take place there.

Poetry

'For The Fallen' plaque with The Rumps
The Rumps
promontory beyond

The late Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
Sir John Betjeman
John Betjeman
was famously fond of Cornwall
Cornwall
and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at St Enodoc\'s Church, Trebetherick . Charles Causley , the poet, was born in Launceston and is perhaps the best known of Cornish poets. Jack Clemo and the scholar A. L. Rowse were also notable Cornishmen known for their poetry; The Rev. R. S. Hawker of Morwenstow wrote some poetry which was very popular in the Victorian period. The Scottish poet W. S. Graham lived in West Cornwall
Cornwall
from 1944 until his death in 1986.

The poet Laurence Binyon
Laurence Binyon
wrote "For the Fallen" (first published in 1914) while sitting on the cliffs between Pentire Point
Pentire Point
and The Rumps and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. The plaque bears the inscription "FOR THE FALLEN / Composed on these cliffs, 1914". The plaque also bears below this the fourth stanza (sometimes referred to as "The Ode" ) of the poem: _They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old_ _Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn_ _At the going down of the sun and in the morning_ _We will remember them_

Other Literary Works

Cornwall
Cornwall
produced a substantial number of passion plays such as the Ordinalia
Ordinalia
during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide valuable information about the Cornish language. See also Cornish literature

Prolific writer Colin Wilson
Colin Wilson
, best known for his debut work _The Outsider _ (1956) and for _ The Mind Parasites _ (1967), lived in Gorran Haven , a small village on the southern Cornish coast. The writer D. M. Thomas was born in Redruth
Redruth
but lived and worked in Australia and the United States before returning to his native Cornwall. He has written novels, poetry, and other works, including translations from Russian.

Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy
's drama _The Queen of Cornwall_ (1923) is a version of the Tristan story; the second act of Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
's opera _Tristan und Isolde _ takes place in Cornwall, as do Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan
's operettas _The Pirates of Penzance
Penzance
_ and _ Ruddigore _. A level of _Tomb Raider: Legend _, a game dealing with Arthurian Legend, takes place in Cornwall
Cornwall
at a museum above King Arthur's tomb.

The fairy tale Jack the Giant Killer
Jack the Giant Killer
takes place in Cornwall.

SPORTS AND GAMES

Main article: Sport in Cornwall Cornish wrestling The logo of the Penryn based English Shinty Association

As its population is comparatively small, and largely rural, Cornwall's contribution to British national sport in the United Kingdom has been limited; the county's greatest successes have come in fencing. In 2014, half of the men's GB team fenced for Truro Fencing Club, and 3 Truro
Truro
fencers appeared at the 2012 Olympics. Truro, all of the towns and some villages have football clubs belonging to the Cornwall County Football Association , and the Cornwall County Cricket Club plays as one of the minor counties of English cricket . Viewed as an "important identifier of ethnic affiliation", rugby union has become a sport strongly tied to notions of Cornishness. and since the 20th century, rugby union in Cornwall has emerged as one of the most popular spectator and team sports in Cornwall
Cornwall
(perhaps the most popular), with professional Cornish rugby footballers being described as a "formidable force", "naturally independent, both in thought and deed, yet paradoxically staunch English patriots whose top players have represented England
England
with pride and passion". In 1985, sports journalist Alan Gibson made a direct connection between love of rugby in Cornwall
Cornwall
and the ancient parish games of hurling and wrestling that existed for centuries before rugby officially began. Among Cornwall's native sports are a distinctive form of Celtic wrestling related to Breton wrestling, and Cornish hurling , a kind of mediaeval football played with a silver ball (distinct from Irish Hurling
Hurling
). Cornish Wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria, Australia
Victoria, Australia
and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes . Cornish hurling
Cornish hurling
now takes place at St. Columb Major , St Ives , and less frequently at Bodmin
Bodmin
. Cornwall
Cornwall
is also one of the few places in England
England
where shinty is played; Cornwall Shinty
Shinty
Club was set up in 2012 after the sport was extinct for centuries in the county. English Shinty Association is based in Penryn .

Surfing
Surfing
And Other Water Sports

The world pilot gig rowing championships take place annually in the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. Cornwall's north coast is known as a centre for surfing

Due to its long coastline, various maritime sports are popular in Cornwall, notably sailing and surfing . International events in both are held in Cornwall. Cornwall
Cornwall
hosted the Inter-Celtic Watersports Festival in 2006. Surfing
Surfing
in particular is very popular, as locations such as Bude
Bude
and Newquay
Newquay
offer some of the best surf in the UK. Pilot gig rowing has been popular for many years and the World championships takes place annually on the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. On 2 September 2007, 300 surfers at Polzeath beach set a new world record for the highest number of surfers riding the same wave as part of the Global Surf Challenge and part of a project called Earthwave to raise awareness about global warming .

CUISINE

Main article: Cornish cuisine
Cornish cuisine

Cornwall
Cornwall
has a strong culinary heritage. Surrounded on three sides by the sea amid fertile fishing grounds, Cornwall
Cornwall
naturally has fresh seafood readily available; Newlyn is the largest fishing port in the UK by value of fish landed, and is known for its wide range of restaurants. Television chef Rick Stein has long operated a fish restaurant in Padstow
Padstow
for this reason, and Jamie Oliver
Jamie Oliver
chose to open his second restaurant, Fifteen , in Watergate Bay near Newquay
Newquay
. MasterChef host and founder of Smiths of Smithfield, John Torode
John Torode
, in 2007 purchased Seiners in Perranporth . One famous local fish dish is Stargazy pie
Stargazy pie
, a fish-based pie in which the heads of the fish stick through the piecrust, as though "star-gazing". The pie is cooked as part of traditional celebrations for Tom Bawcock\'s Eve , but is not generally eaten at any other time. A Cornish pasty

Cornwall
Cornwall
is perhaps best known though for its pasties , a savoury dish made with pastry. Today's pasties usually contain a filling of beef steak, onion, potato and swede with salt and white pepper, but historically pasties had a variety of different fillings. "Turmut, 'tates and mate" (i.e. "Turnip, potatoes and meat", turnip being the Cornish and Scottish term for swede, itself an abbreviation of 'Swedish Turnip', the British term for rutabaga ) describes a filling once very common. For instance, the licky pasty contained mostly leeks, and the herb pasty contained watercress, parsley, and shallots. Pasties are often locally referred to as _oggies_. Historically, pasties were also often made with sweet fillings such as jam, apple and blackberry, plums or cherries. The wet climate and relatively poor soil of Cornwall
Cornwall
make it unsuitable for growing many arable crops. However, it is ideal for growing the rich grass required for dairying, leading to the production of Cornwall's other famous export, clotted cream . This forms the basis for many local specialities including Cornish fudge and Cornish ice cream . Cornish clotted cream has Protected Geographical Status
Protected Geographical Status
under EU law, and cannot be made anywhere else. Its principal manufacturer is A. E. Rodda border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Geography portal * Europe portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal * England
England
portal * Cornwall
Cornwall
portal * Celts
Celts
portal

* Outline of Cornwall – overview of the wide range of topics covered by this subject

NOTES

* ^ Eilert Ekwall who studied the place-names of England
England
in the 1930s and 40s gives the following forms: Cornubia in Vita Melori Middle Welsh Cerniu; Welsh Cernyw; Cornish: Kernow; (on) Cornwalum ASC 891; Cornwealum ASC(E) 997; "The Brit name goes back to *Cornavia probably derived from the tribal name Cornovii. OE Cornwealas means 'the Welsh in Cornwall' this folk-name later became the name of the district". * ^ " Wales
Wales
" is derived from the Proto-Germanic word _ Walhaz _, meaning "Romanised foreigner"; through Old English
Old English
_welisċ_, _wælisċ_, _wilisċ_, meaning "Romano-British "; to Modern English _Welsh_. The same etymology applies to Cornwall
Cornwall
and to Wallonia
Wallonia
in Belgium. * ^ The cult of St Petroc was the most important in the Diocese of Cornwall
Cornwall
since he was the founder of the monastery of Bodmin
Bodmin
the most important in the diocese and, with St Germans, the seat of the bishops. He was the patron of the diocese and of Bodmin. * ^ Britain's only other example of an ophiolite, the Shetland ophiolite, is older, and linked to the Grampian Orogeny
Orogeny
. * ^ The Bodmin
Bodmin
hurl is held whenever the ceremony of beating the bounds takes place: each occasion must be five years or more after the last one.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

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and the Valleys). * ^ "Impact Analysis: ESF Objective 1 Programme Cornwall
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(IoS) received Objective One status in 1999, primarily as a consequence of their low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per head (70.3% of the EU average). This resulted from a myriad of underlying socio-economic problems including the large number of people with relatively low levels of qualifications; with lack of basic skills beyond Level two being a particular problem. * ^ "Convergence Programme for Cornwall
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* ^ "The Killer Mine". BoekBesprekingen.nl. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. * ^ "The Little Country". Amazon.com. Retrieved 11 May 2007. * ^ "Shell Cottage". hp-lexicon.org. Retrieved 11 January 2008. * ^ "Le Carré betrayed by \'bad lot\' spy Kim Philby". _Channel 4 News_. London: Channel 4. 12 September 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2011. * ^ "Biography of William Golding". William-Golding.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. * ^ "St Enodoc Church". RockInfo.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. * ^ "William Sydney Graham". CPRW.com. Retrieved 11 May 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Clegg 2005 , p. 10. * ^ Pilnick, Brent (1 June 2012). "London 2012: Truro
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SOURCES

* Clegg, David (2005). _ Cornwall
Cornwall
& the Isles of Scilly: the complete guide_ (2nd ed.). Leicester: Matador. ISBN 1-904744-99-0 . * Halliday, Frank Ernest (1959). _A History of Cornwall_. London: Gerald Duckworth. ISBN 0-7551-0817-5 . A second edition was published in 2001 by the House of Stratus, Thirsk: the original text new illustrations and an afterword by Halliday's son * Payton, Philip (2004). _Cornwall: A History_ (2nd ed.). Fowey: Cornwall
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Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-904880-00-2 .

FURTHER READING

* Balchin, W. G. V. (1954) _Cornwall: an illustrated essay on the history of the landscape_. (The Making of the English Landscape). London: Hodder and Stoughton * Boase, George Clement ; Courtney, W. P. (1874–1882) _Bibliotheca Cornubiensis: a catalogue of the writings, both manuscript and printed, of Cornishmen, and of works relating to the county of Cornwall, with biographical memoranda and copious literary references_. 3 vols. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer * du Maurier, Daphne (1967). _Vanishing Cornwall_. London: Doubleday. (illustrated edition Published by Victor Gollancz, London, 1981, ISBN 0-575-02844-0 , photographs by Christian Browning) * Ellis, Peter Berresford (1974). _The Cornish Language and its Literature_. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Books. ISBN 0-7100-7928-1 . (Available online on Google Books). * Graves, Alfred Perceval (1928). _The Celtic Song Book: Being Representative Folk Songs of the Six Celtic Nations_. London: Ernest Benn. (Available online on Digital Book Index) * Koch, John T. (2006). _Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia_. London: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-440-7 . (Available online on Google Books). * Payton, Philip (1996). _Cornwall_. Fowey: Alexander Associates. ISBN 1-899526-60-9 . * Stoyle, Mark (2001). "BBC – History – The Cornish: A Neglected Nation?". _BBC History website_. BBC. Retrieved 25 May 2009. * Stoyle, Mark (2002). _West Britons: Cornish Identities and the Early Modern British State_. Exeter: University of Exeter
Exeter
Press. ISBN 0-85989-688-9 . * Williams, Michael (ed.) (1973) _My Cornwall_. St Teath: Bossiney Books (eleven chapters by various hands, including three previously published essays)

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