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Corethrella Freeman, 1962[1] Lutzomiops

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Corethrellidae

The Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
are a family of parasitic midges, small flying insects belonging to the order Diptera, that are commonly known to parasitize frogs. The members of the family are sometimes known as "frog-biting midges". The family currently consists of just two genera, totalling around 97 species worldwide. Several fossil species are known. Most extant species are found in the lower latitudes, usually associated around the tropics.[1] They are tiny flies with a wing length of 0.6-2.5 mm. The wing venation is similar to Culicidae
Culicidae
(R 4 branched, M 2 branched,Cu 2 branched) with branches of Rs and M nearly parallel. R1 is, however, closer to Sc or almost midway between Sc and R2.They were until 1986 placed as a subfamily of Culicidae. Adult female Corethrella are attracted to the mating calls of male frogs, their chosen host taxa. As obligate external parasites, the midges feed almost exclusively on the blood of these frogs. Because of this, Corethrella follow typical distribution patterns of external parasites and are restricted to only areas with abundant populations of their host frogs. Female midges most likely detect their hosts using a specialized organ called a Johnston's organ, a collection of sensory cells found on the second antenna segment. There is evidence of host specificity and selection of particular biting sites for some species.[1] Corethrella species have been observed sucking blood from individuals of the tree frog genus Hyla. Specifically, the North American tree frog species Hyla
Hyla
avivoca, Hyla
Hyla
cinerea and Hyla gratiosa were recorded as confirmed corethrellid hosts in a 1977 study.[2] A few, select species are known vectors of frog-specific species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma. Corethrellid parasitism is thus a recorded cause of trypanosomiasis among host frog populations.[1][3] The family contains members that date to the lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period some 110 million years ago. At least one species, Corethrella andersoni, has been found in Burmese amber deposits dating from this time.[4] References[edit]

^ a b c d Art Borkent (2008). "The Frog-Biting Midges
Midges
of the World (Corethrellidae: Diptera)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1804: 456 pp. ISBN 978-1-86977-212-3. Retrieved January 19, 2009.  ^ S. McKeever (1977). "Observations of Corethrella feeding on tree frogs (Hyla)". Mosquito
Mosquito
News. 37: 522–523.  ^ Sturgis McKeever & Frank E. French (2000). "Corethrellidae (Diptera), Vectors of Present and Perhaps Some of the Earliest Anuran Trypanosomes". Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University. Retrieved January 20, 2009.  ^ George O. Poinar & Ryszard Szadziewski (2007). "Corethrella andersoni (Diptera: Corethrellidae), A new species from Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Burmese amber". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 109 (1): 155–159. 

Bibliography[edit]

"Corethrellidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 January 2009.  "Corethrella". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 January 2009.  "Lutzomiops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 January 2009. 

External links[edit]

Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
in Italian

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Extant Diptera
Diptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae
Culicidae
(mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1627654 ADW: Corethrellidae BugGuide: 473219 EoL: 476 Fossilworks: 219333 GBIF: 3345 iNaturalist: 2

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