MESANGIOSPERMAE (core angiosperms) is a group of flowering plants (angiosperms), informally called "mesangiosperms". They are one of two main clades of angiosperms. It is a name created under the rules of the PhyloCode system of phylogenetic nomenclature . There are about 350,000 species of mesangiosperms. The mesangiosperms contain about 99.95% of the flowering plants, assuming that there are about 175 species not in this group and about 350,000 that are. While such a clade with a similar circumscription exists in the APG III system , it was not given a name.
* 1 Phylogeny * 2 Name * 3 Description * 4 History * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links
Besides the mesangiosperms, the other groups of flowering plants are
Mesangiospermae includes the following clades:
CLADOGRAM: THE PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF THE MONOCOTS WITHIN THE ANGIOSPERMS, AS OF APG IV (2016)
basal angiosperms core angiosperms
The mesangiosperms are usually recognized in classification systems
that do not assign groups to taxonomic rank . The name Mesangiospermae
is a branch-modified node-based name in phylogenetic nomenclature . It
is defined as the most inclusive crown clade containing Platanus
occidentalis , but not
In molecular phylogenetic studies , the mesangiosperms are always strongly supported as a monophyletic group. There is no distinguishing characteristic which is found in all mature mesangiosperms but which is not found in any of the basal angiosperms. Nevertheless, the mesangiosperms are recognizable in the earliest stage of embryonic development. The ovule contains a megagametophyte , also known as an embryo sac , that is bipolar in structure and contains 8 cell nuclei . The antipodal cells are persistent , and the endosperm is triploid .
Molecular clock comparisons of DNA sequences indicate that the
mesangiosperms originated between 140 and 150 Mya (million years ago)
near the beginning of the
By 135Mya, the mesangioisperms had radiated into 5 groups:
Because the interval of this radiation (about 4 million years) is short in proportion to its age (about 145 million years), it had long appeared that the 5 groups of mesangiosperms had arisen simultaneously. The mesangiosperms were shown as an unresolved pentatomy in phylogenetic trees . In 2007, two studies attempted to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among these 5 groups by comparing large portions of their chloroplast genomes . These studies agreed on the most likely phylogeny for the mesangiosperms. In this phylogeny, the monocots are sister to the clade . However, this result is not strongly supported. The approximately unbiased topology test showed that some of the other possible positions of the monocots had more than 5% probability of being correct. The major weakness of these 2 studies was the small number of species whose DNA was being used in the phylogenetic analysis, 45 in one study and 64 in the other. This was unavoidable, because complete chloroplast genome sequences are known for only a few plants.
* ^ A B Philip D. Cantino, James A. Doyle, Sean W. Graham, Walter
S. Judd , Richard G. Olmstead,
Douglas E. Soltis ,
Pamela S. Soltis ,
and Michael J. Donoghue (2007). "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature
of Tracheophyta". Taxon. 56 (3): 822–846. doi :10.2307/25065865 .
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ A B Alan J. Paton, Neil Brummitt,
Rafaël Govaerts , Kehan
Harman, Sally Hinchcliffe, Bob Allkin, & Eimear Nic Lughadha (2008).
"Towards Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: a
working list of all known plant species - progress and prospects".
* ^ A B
Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny
Website In: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,
161 (2): 105–121, doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x , retrieved
* ^ APG IV 2016 .
* ^ Philip D. Cantino, James A. Doyle, Sean W. Graham, Walter S.
Judd , Richard G. Olmstead,
Douglas E. Soltis ,
Pamela S. Soltis , and
Michael J. Donoghue. 2007. Electronic Supplement: pages E1-E44. To:
Cantino et alii. 2007. "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of
Tracheophyta". Taxon 56(3):822-846. (see External links below).
Douglas E. Soltis ,
Pamela S. Soltis , Peter K. Endress, and
Mark W. Chase (2005). Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms.
Sinauer: Sunderland, MA
* ^ William E. Friedman and Kirsten C. Ryerson (2009).
"Reconstructing the ancestral female gametophyte of angiosperms:
Insights from Amborella and other ancient lineages of flowering
plants". American Journal of Botany 96(1):129-143. doi
* ^ Else Marie Friis, K. Raunsgaard Pedersen, and Peter R. Crane
* APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . 181 (1): 1–20. doi :10.1111/boj.12385 . Retrieved 13 June 2016. * Soltis, Pamela S ; Soltis, Douglas E (April 2016). "Ancient WGD events as drivers of key innovations in angiosperms". Current Opinion in Plant Biology . 30: 159–165. doi :10.1016/j.pbi.2016.03.015 . * Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong (24 September 2014). "Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times". Nature Communications . 5 (4956). doi :10.1038/ncomms5956 .