HOME
The Info List - Cordillera Administrative Region


--- Advertisement ---



Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(Ilokano: Rehion/Deppaar Administratibo ti Kordiliera; Filipino: Rehiyong Pampangasiwaan ng Cordillera), designated as CAR, is an administrative region in the Philippines
Philippines
situated within the island of Luzon. The only landlocked region in the country, it is bordered by the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
in the west and southwest, and by the Cagayan Valley
Cagayan Valley
on the north, east, and southeast. Prior to the 2015 census, it is the least populated and least densely-populated Region in the country. The region comprises six provinces: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province. The regional center is the highly urbanized city of Baguio. The region, officially created on July 15, 1987,[2] covers most of the Cordillera Central mountains of Luzon, and is home to numerous ethnic people collectively. Nueva Viscaya
Nueva Viscaya
province has a majority-Igorot population as well, however, was put by the American colonial government in the early 20th century in Cagayan Valley
Cagayan Valley
region instead.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Creation of the region 1.2 Modern history

1.2.1 Recent events

2 Geography

2.1 Administrative divisions

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic groups

3.1.1 Ethnic people of Abra 3.1.2 Ethnic people of Apayao 3.1.3 Ethnic people of Benguet 3.1.4 Ethnic People of Ifugao 3.1.5 Ethnic people of Kalinga 3.1.6 Ethnic people of Mountain Province

3.2 Languages 3.3 Religion

4 Regional economy 5 Culture 6 Tourism 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

An old U.S. Army map showing Mountain province covering the present areas of Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Apayao

During the Spanish occupation of the Philippines, Christianization
Christianization
and eventual subjugation of the mountain region proved difficult for the Spanish colonial government.[3] Several comandancias were established by the Spanish colonial government in strategic areas of the mountain region. Among them were Amburayan, Cabugaoan, Kayapa, Quiangan, Itaves, Apayaos, Lepanto, Benguet, Bontoc, Banaue, and Tiagan.[4][5][6] On August 18, 1908 during the American regime, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
was established by the Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
with the enactment of Act No. 1876. Ifugao, which was part of Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
province,[7] and the former Spanish comandancias of Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Kalinga and Lepanto, were annexed to the newly created province as sub-provinces.[8][9] Amburayan was later abolished in 1920 and its corresponding territories were transferred to the provinces of Ilocos Sur and La Union. Lepanto was also reduced in size and its towns were integrated into the sub-provinces of Bontoc and Benguet, and to the province of Ilocos Sur.[3][10][11] On June 18, 1966, Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 4695 was enacted to split Mountain Province and create four separate and independent provinces namely Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao, and Mountain Province.[12][13] Ifugao and Kalinga- Apayao
Apayao
were placed under the jurisdiction of the Cagayan Valley region,[14] with Benguet
Benguet
and Mountain Province
Mountain Province
placed under the Ilocos Region. Creation of the region[edit] On July 15, 1987, President Corazon C. Aquino
Corazon C. Aquino
issued Executive Order 220 which created the Cordillera Administrative Region. The provinces of Abra, Benguet
Benguet
and Mountain Province
Mountain Province
(of the Ilocos Region), and Ifugao
Ifugao
and Kalinga- Apayao
Apayao
(of the Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley) were annexed as part of the newly created region. Nueva Viscaya
Nueva Viscaya
was not included in the region despite having an Igorot
Igorot
majority at the time.[2][15] Modern history[edit] On February 14, 1995, Kalinga-Apayao, one of the five provinces of the region was split into two separate and independent provinces of Apayao and Kalinga with the enactment of Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 7878.[16][17] Several attempts at legalizing autonomy in the Cordillera region have failed in two separate plebiscites.[18][19] An affirmative vote for the law on regional autonomy is a precondition by the 1987 Philippine Constitution to give the region autonomy in self-governance much like the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
in southern Philippines. The first law Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 6766, took effect on October 23, 1989[20] but failed to muster a majority vote in the plebiscite on January 30, 1990.[18][19] The second law, Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 8438 passed by Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
on December 22, 1997,[21] also failed to pass the approval of the Cordillera peoples in a region-wide referendum on March 7, 1998.[18][19] At present, a third organic act of the Cordillera is in the offing supported by the Cordillera Regional Development Council. Recent events[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In September 2000, the municipal council of Itogon, Benguet, withdrew support for the San Roque Dam project. The project had met a lot of resistance, because of the reported failure of its proponents to update its Environmental Certificate of Compliance (ECC) and to submit a watershed management plan required for a project of that magnitude. The San Roque Dam was to become one of the biggest dams in the world and would threaten the living environment of the Igorot. The Cordillera Peoples Alliance (CPA), an indigenous rights organization in the region, in co-operation with other organizations, had highly resisted this project and thus booked a little victory. However, in May 2001, president Arroyo declared that the San Roque Dam project would continue anyway because it had already started and therefore was difficult to stop. At the same time she promised to not sacrifice the environment, to resettle the people who will lose their houses, to compensate other people, and to initiate no other large-scale irrigation projects in the future. In December 2000, the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
dismissed a petition that questioned the constitutional legality of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA), and act which came into existence in 1997 giving the peoples of the Cordillera decisive influence over the establishment of foreign mining companies. In this act, ownership over the lands was regarded as communal, rather than individual and thus coincided more with the view on ownership of the Igorot. The IPRA was totally different in tone than the 1995 Mining
Mining
Code. Without consultation from the people of the Cordilleras, the Mining Code gave companies the freedom to devastate tribal lands, allowed 100% foreign ownership, and gave companies the right to displace and resettle people within their concessionary areas. Some influential people filed a lawsuit with the Supreme Court against the IPRA, because it contradicted with the Mining
Mining
Code and would therefore be unlawful. The petition was dismissed in a 7-7 vote by the Supreme Court. A bill creating an autonomous Cordillera was filed in Congress in 2014, but it was not backed by strategic politicians in the region due to lack of support from the national government. However, in 2017, all provincial congressmen within the CAR jointly filed a new Bill creating an autonomous Cordillera, the first time in three decades where all provincial district representatives called in unison for autonomy. The move was made due to the election win of President Duterte, who publicly supported the creation of an autonomous Cordillera. However, questions lingered on the issue of Nueva Viscaya's exclusion from the proposed region, despite being culturally and geographically part of the Cordilleras, leaving Nueva Viscaya Igorots left out from the proposal.[22][23] Geography[edit]

Relief map

Political map

Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
is the only landlocked region in the Philippines, bounded on the northeast and east by the Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley, and on the southwest and west by the Ilocos Region. The region is primarily mountainous, situated within the Cordillera Central mountain range. Mount Pulag, the highest mountain in Luzon, is located at the tri-point of Benguet, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya provinces. Further information: Cordillera Central, Luzon Within the region are several streams and rivers. The most extensive is the Chico River, a major tributary of the Cagayan
Cagayan
River, traversing the provinces of Mountain Province
Mountain Province
and Kalinga. Other major rivers include Agno, Amburayan, Bued in Benguet, Abulog in Kalinga, Abra River in Abra, Ahin River in Ifugao, Apayao
Apayao
River in Apayao, and Siffu River in both Ifugao
Ifugao
and Mountain Province.[24][25] Administrative divisions[edit] Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
is politically subdivided into 6 provinces. It has 2 cities; the highly urbanized city of Baguio, and the component city of Tabuk. There are 1,176 barangays in the region. Geographically, the western half of Nueva Viscaya
Nueva Viscaya
is part of the main Cordilleras, while its eastern half is part of the Caraballos, the meeting point of the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre. There have been moves to reunify Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
with the Cordilleras, however, no such legislation has yet been introduced in Congress.

Province or HUC Capital Population (2015)[1] Area[26] Density Cities Muni. Bgy.

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Abra Bangued 7001140000000000000♠14.0% 241,160 4,165.25 1,608.21 58 150 0 27 303

Apayao Kabugao 7000690000000000000♠6.9% 119,184 4,413.35 1,704.00 27 70 0 7 133

Benguet La Trinidad 7001259000000000000♠25.9% 446,224 2,769.08 1,069.15 160 410 1 13 140

Ifugao Lagawe 7001118000000000000♠11.8% 202,802 2,628.21 1,014.76 77 200 0 11 175

Kalinga Tabuk 7001124000000000000♠12.4% 212,680 3,231.25 1,247.59 66 170 1 7 152

Mountain Province Bontoc 7000900000000000000♠9.0% 154,590 2,157.38 832.97 72 190 0 10 144

Baguio † — 7001201000000000000♠20.1% 345,366 57.51 22.20 6,000 16,000 — — 129

Total 1,722,006 19,422.03 7,498.89 89 230 2 75 1,176

 †  Baguio
Baguio
is a highly-urbanized city; figures are excluded from Benguet.

City/Municipality Population (2015)[1] Area[27] Density Class Income class Province

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Aguinaldo 19,408 538.05 207.74 36 93 Municipality 2nd Ifugao

Alfonso Lista 32,119 347.46 134.16 92 240 Municipality 3rd Ifugao

Asipulo 15,261 182.87 70.61 83 210 Municipality 5th Ifugao

Atok 19,668 214.99 83.01 91 240 Municipality 4th Benguet

Baguio
Baguio
City 345,366 57.51 22.20 6,000 16,000 Highly Urbanized City 1st Benguet

Bakun 15,357 286.91 110.78 54 140 Municipality 3rd Benguet

Balbalan 12,195 542.69 209.53 22 57 Municipality 3rd Kalinga

Banaue 21,837 191.20 73.82 110 280 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Bangued 48,163 105.70 40.81 460 1,200 Municipality 1st Abra

Barlig 4,819 228.64 88.28 21 54 Municipality 5th Mountain Province

Bauko 31,065 153.00 59.07 200 520 Municipality 4th Mountain Province

Besao 7,040 173.62 67.04 41 110 Municipality 5th Mountain Province

Bokod 13,756 274.96 106.16 50 130 Municipality 4th Benguet

Boliney 3,573 216.92 83.75 16 41 Municipality 5th Abra

Bontoc 24,643 396.10 152.94 62 160 Municipality 2nd Mountain Province

Bucay 17,115 102.16 39.44 170 440 Municipality 5th Abra

Bucloc 2,501 63.77 24.62 39 100 Municipality 6th Abra

Buguias 43,627 175.88 67.91 250 650 Municipality 3rd Benguet

Calanasan 12,604 1,256.15 485.00 10 26 Municipality 1st Apayao

Conner 26,051 694.30 268.07 38 98 Municipality 2nd Apayao

Daguioman 2,088 114.37 44.16 18 47 Municipality 5th Abra

Danglas 4,192 156.02 60.24 27 70 Municipality 5th Abra

Dolores 11,315 47.45 18.32 240 620 Municipality 5th Abra

Flora 17,391 324.40 125.25 54 140 Municipality 3rd Apayao

Hingyon 9,227 62.02 23.95 150 390 Municipality 5th Ifugao

Hungduan 9,400 260.30 100.50 36 93 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Itogon 59,820 449.73 173.64 130 340 Municipality 1st Benguet

Kabayan 15,260 242.69 93.70 63 160 Municipality 4th Benguet

Kabugao 15,537 935.12 361.05 17 44 Municipality 1st Apayao

Kapangan 19,361 164.39 63.47 120 310 Municipality 4th Benguet

Kiangan 17,048 200.00 77.22 85 220 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Kibungan 17,292 254.86 98.40 68 180 Municipality 4th Benguet

La Paz 15,437 51.41 19.85 300 780 Municipality 5th Abra

La Trinidad 129,133 70.04 27.04 1,800 4,700 Municipality 1st Benguet

Lacub 3,403 295.30 114.02 12 31 Municipality 5th Abra

Lagangilang 14,255 101.44 39.17 140 360 Municipality 5th Abra

Lagawe 19,333 208.91 80.66 93 240 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Lagayan 4,499 215.97 83.39 21 54 Municipality 5th Abra

Lamut 25,279 159.65 61.64 160 410 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Langiden 3,198 116.29 44.90 28 73 Municipality 5th Abra

Licuan-Baay 4,689 256.42 99.00 18 47 Municipality 5th Abra

Luba 6,339 148.27 57.25 43 110 Municipality 5th Abra

Lubuagan 8,733 234.20 90.43 37 96 Municipality 4th Kalinga

Luna 19,063 606.04 233.99 31 80 Municipality 2nd Apayao

Malibcong 3,428 283.17 109.33 12 31 Municipality 5th Abra

Manabo 10,761 110.95 42.84 97 250 Municipality 5th Abra

Mankayan 35,953 130.48 50.38 280 730 Municipality 1st Benguet

Mayoyao 17,331 238.05 91.91 73 190 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Natonin 10,272 252.00 97.30 41 110 Municipality 4th Mountain Province

Paracelis 28,121 570.16 220.14 49 130 Municipality 2nd Mountain Province

Pasil 9,644 189.00 72.97 51 130 Municipality 5th Kalinga

Peñarrubia 6,640 38.29 14.78 170 440 Municipality 6th Abra

Pidigan 12,185 49.15 18.98 250 650 Municipality 5th Abra

Pilar 10,223 66.10 25.52 150 390 Municipality 5th Abra

Pinukpuk 32,026 743.56 287.09 43 110 Municipality 1st Kalinga

Pudtol 14,925 401.02 154.83 37 96 Municipality 4th Apayao

Rizal 17,038 231.00 89.19 74 190 Municipality 4th Kalinga

Sabangan 9,315 72.04 27.81 130 340 Municipality 5th Mountain Province

Sablan 11,457 105.63 40.78 110 280 Municipality 5th Benguet

Sadanga 8,799 83.30 32.16 110 280 Municipality 5th Mountain Province

Sallapadan 6,622 128.62 49.66 51 130 Municipality 5th Abra

San Isidro 4,574 48.07 18.56 95 250 Municipality 5th Abra

San Juan 9,867 64.08 24.74 150 390 Municipality 5th Abra

San Quintin 5,438 66.59 25.71 82 210 Municipality 5th Abra

Santa Marcela 13,613 196.32 75.80 69 180 Municipality 4th Apayao

Tadian 19,389 145.20 56.06 130 340 Municipality 4th Mountain Province

Tanudan 9,534 307.55 118.75 31 80 Municipality 4th Kalinga

Tayum 14,467 61.14 23.61 240 620 Municipality 5th Abra

Tineg 5,097 744.80 287.57 6.8 18 Municipality 2nd Abra

Tinglayan 12,868 283.00 109.27 45 120 Municipality 4th Kalinga

Tinoc 16,559 239.70 92.55 69 180 Municipality 4th Ifugao

Tuba 47,648 295.97 114.27 160 410 Municipality 1st Benguet

Tublay 17,892 102.55 39.59 170 440 Municipality 5th Benguet

Tubo 5,699 409.87 158.25 14 36 Municipality 4th Abra

Villaviciosa 5,392 102.93 39.74 52 130 Municipality 5th Abra

Tabuk City 110,642 700.25 270.37 160 410 Component City 5th Kalinga

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Cordillera Administrative Region

Year Pop. ±%

1990 1,146,191 —    

2000 1,365,412 +19.1%

2010 1,616,867 +18.4%

2015 1,722,006 +6.5%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[28]

Ethnic groups[edit] Further information: Igorot
Igorot
people

A man from Tinglayan vested in traditional garb holding a handcrafted weapon first produced during the Second World War; traditional Kalinga cloth is draped over Orthodox icons in the manner of Russian nabozhnyks.

Cordillera is home to many ethnic tribes living on the Cordillera mountain range. They are commonly referred to as the Igorot. Ethnic people of Abra[edit] The Tingguians are composed of sub-groups known as the Itneg tribes which includes Adasen, Balatok, Banaw, Belwang, Binungan, Gubang, Inlaud, Mabaka, Maeng, Masadiit, and Muyadan or Ammutan.:[29] Their places in Abra are as follows:

Adasen — Lagayan, San Juan and Tineg Banaw — Daguioman, Malibcong, also found in Balbalan, Kalinga Binungan — Baay-Licuan and Lacub Balatok — in the villages of Amti, Kilong-olaw, & Danak, all in Boliney Belwang — in the village of Dao-angan in Boliney Gubang — Malibcong Inlaud — Lagangilang and Peñarrubia, in Lumaba village of Villaviciosa, in the villages of Abang and Patoc in Bucay, in Langiden, San Isidro, San Quintin, Danglas (also found in some parts of Nueva Era) Mabaka — Lacub and Malibcong Maeng — Luba, Tubo and Villaviciosa, (also found in San Emilio, Ilocos Sur, Banayoyo and other towns in Ilocos Sur) Masadiit — Sallapadan, Bucloc and in the village of Sapdaan in Manabo, and in barangays Poblacion, Bawiyan, and Dumagas in Boliney Ammutan a.k.a. Muyadan tribe — in Manabo

Ethnic people of Apayao[edit]

Isnag tribe — also known as Isneg comprising the sub-groups known as the Ymandaya and Imallod (Isnag refers to the people, while Isneg refers to the dialect). Isnags are found not only in Apayao
Apayao
but also in the eastern section of Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
and northwestern portion of Cagayan. Their places of abode in Apayao
Apayao
are as follows: Ymandaya (Isnag) — Calanasan (Bayag) Imallod (Isnag) — Kabugao, Conner, Pudtol, and some parts of Luna (Macatel) Malaweg — Conner

Ethnic people of Benguet[edit]

Ibaloi Kankanaey Kalanguya[30] Karao Tribe

Ethnic People of Ifugao[edit]

Tuwali Ayangan Kalanguya

Ethnic people of Kalinga[edit]

Tubog Tribe Banao Tanudan Tongrayan Tribe Ifutfut (Fugnay, Ngifat), Also found in Lacnog, Tabuk Iterkaw ;Also Found in Nambaran, Tabuk Ifasao ; Also Found in Isla, Appas Tabuk Ichananaw ;Also Found in Lacnog, Tabuk Itongrayan (Luprupa,Ifunug,Amfato), Also Found in Damsite, Tabuk Isumacher tribe ( Sumacher, Filong, Man-ufer, Mallango, Fangad) ; Also Found in Madopdop Lacnog, Ipil, Bayabat, Tannubong, Bulo Tabuk

Ethnic people of Mountain Province[edit]

Bontoc — Bontoc Balangao — Natonin Baliwon — Paracelis Applai — Bauko, Besao, Sabangan and Sagada

A Bontoc woman with a snake skeleton in her hair. Skeletons serve as a charm against lightning.

Languages[edit] The Cordillera region is the most diversified ethno-linguistic region in the Philippines
Philippines
with its major languages having sub-dialect variations. The topographic formation of the Cordillera mountain range, which has greatly influenced the upstream migration of peoples in the Cordillera into the hinterland, corresponds the various dialects pattern formation. The disparity in linguistic ethnicity however, did not form variation in cultural development as almost every Cordillera people shares similar cultural identity among different tribes.

Balangao, spoken in Natonin, Mountain Province. Bontoc, spoken in Bontoc, Mountain Province. Ibaloi, spoken in Benguet. Ifugao, spoken in Ifugao. Ilocano, spoken in Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Benguet, and Ifugao. It is the regional lingua franca. Isnag, spoken in Apayao. Itneg, spoken in Abra. Kalinga, spoken in Kalinga. Kalanguya, spoken in some parts of Benguet. Kankanaey, spoken in western Mountain Province
Mountain Province
and some parts of Benguet.

Religion[edit] Roman Catholic
Catholic
is the single largest denomination in this region. However unlike most other provinces and regions of the Philippines, they only form a slight majority in the region forming 60%-70% of the population while Protestants specifically Anglicans and Evangelicals have a very strong presence that forms 20%-30% of the population.[31][32]. Other religions such as traitional Animism
Animism
have a significant presence in the region and it's mainly practiced by tribal people. Regional economy[edit] Economy of the region is diverse; mining, agriculture, export processing zone, tourism are among economic activities in the different provinces of the region. The region is abundant with mineral reserves. These include metallic ores such as gold, copper, silver, zinc, and non-metallic minerals like sand, gravel and sulfur. Mineral reserves are found in all the provinces. However, mining is concentrated in Benguet. Its timber resources has dwindled since the introduction of slash-and-burn method of farming in all parts of the Cordillera mountain range. Vegetable crop production is well developed in Benguet, rice production in Ifugao
Ifugao
and Abra, corn production in Mountain Province, and Kalinga. Baguio
Baguio
and La Trinidad are considered as the industrial centers in the region. Baguio
Baguio
City hosts Baguio
Baguio
Export Processing Zone where operations of big companies like Texas Instruments, and MOOG are located. The city also hosts offshore and outsourcing companies operating call centers. The primary growth centers of the region are Metro Baguio
Baguio
and the Eastern Cordillera Growth Corridor. Culture[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

The Bontoc Museum, run by the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, hosts many of the materials used by the different Ethnic Tribes in the Mountain Province.

The Cordillera region is known for its unique musical instruments including the gangsa kalinga, nose flute, bamboo flute, buzzer, bangibang, tongatong, diwdiw-as, saggeypo, and bamboo zither. Tourism[edit] The Banaue Rice Terraces
Banaue Rice Terraces
is among the sites visited by tourists in the region which is situated in the province of Ifugao. The terraces, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras. The Philippine Eagle
Philippine Eagle
and the Crested-Serpent Eagle was also found in the Last forest frontier of the North the Province of Apayao. Other natural attractions of the region include the Sumaguing Cave in Sagada
Sagada
and the mummy caves of Benguet
Benguet
and Mountain Province. There are four national parks: Cassamata Hill, Mount Data, Balbalasang-Balbalan, located in the province of Kalinga, and Mount Pulag, the highest mountain in Luzon
Luzon
at 2,922 metres (9,587 ft) above sea level. Kalinga also offers white water rafting along the Chico River. The city of Baguio, dubbed the "summer capital of the Philippines", is a major tourist destination in the region. See also[edit]

List of radio stations in the Cordillera Administrative Region

References[edit]

^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ a b "Regional Profile: Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR)". CountrySTAT Philippines. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ a b "Mt. Province". VisitMyPhilippines.com The Ultimate Travel Guide for Tourists. Department of Tourism. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ Keesing, Felix Maxwell; Keesing, Marie Margaret; Keesing, Marie Martin; Institute of Pacific Relations (contributor); International Research Committee (contributor) (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. Stanford University Press. pp. 67–69. ISBN 9780804721103. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ " Benguet
Benguet
History". Province of Benguet
Benguet
(official website). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014. Benguet
Benguet
was once part of Mountain Province.  ^ "Historical Background". Provincial Government of Apayao. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ National Historical Institute (Philippines) [contributor] (1978). Kasaysayan, Volume 3, Issues 1-4 (Digitized by Google
Google
on 26 Sep 2009). National Historical Institute. p. 16. Retrieved 2 January 2015. (Original file from the University of Michigan)  ^ Ingles, Raul Rafael (2008). 1908 :The Way it Really was : Historical Journal for the UP Centennial, 1908-2008. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines
Philippines
Press. pp. 330, 339. ISBN 9715425801. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Worcester, Dean C.; Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
(1908). Seventh Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior to the Philippine Commission for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1908. Manila: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 17–19. Archived from the original (Digitized by Google
Google
on 23 Nov 2005 (Original file from the University of Michigan)) on 23 Nov 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2015. ( Google
Google
Books link  ^ Philippines. Census Office; Buencamino, Felipe; Villamor, Ignacio (1920). Census of the Philippine Islands Taken Under the Direction of the Philippine Legislature in the Year 1918, Volume 1. Bureau of printing. p. 68.  ^ " Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
History". Cordillera Connection (Blogspot). 14 August 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ " Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 4695: An Act Creating the Provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao
Ifugao
and Kalinga-Apayao". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ "Facts & Figures: Ifugao
Ifugao
Province". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board. Department of the Interior and Local Government - Cordillera Administrative Region. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ "Historical Background". Provincial Government of Apayao. 15 April 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ "The Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR)". Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ "R.A. No. 7878: An Act Converting the Sub-Provinces of Kalinga and Apayao
Apayao
into Regular Provinces to be Known as the Province of Kalinga and the Province of Apayao, Amending for the Purpose Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 4695". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 14 February 1995. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Facts & Figures: Apayao
Apayao
Province". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ a b c Ferrer, Miriam Coronel (4 September 2010). "Cordillera autonomy - Miriam Coronel Ferrer". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ a b c "Cordillera Autonomy". Scribd
Scribd
Inc. Dona Dee Lacdao. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "R.A. No. 6766: An Act Providing for an Organic Act for the Cordillera Autonomous Region". The LawPhil Project. Congress of the Philippines. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "R.A. No. 8438: An Act to Establish the Cordillera Autonomous Region". The LawPhil Project. Congress of the Philippines. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ http://www.albeebenitez.ph/news/creation-cordillera-autonomous-region-pushed ^ http://northluzon.politics.com.ph/mayor-domogan-optimistic-on-ok-of-cordillera-autonomous-region-bill-with-p75b-investments/ ^ Cordillera People's Alliance, Public Information Commission (1 January 2001). "Dams In the Cordillera" (PDF). International Rivers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Cordillera's Water Resources". Cordillera Peoples Alliance. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.  ^ http://library.thinkquest.org/C003235/tingguian.html ^ http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=4&i=227 ^ "Intriguing Patterns in Scolbert08's Map of Religion in Insular Southeast Asia". GeoCurrents. Retrieved 2017-12-06.  ^ http://philchal.org/dawn/nationalsum.asp

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cordillera Administrative Region.

Department of Interior and Local Government - Cordillera Administrative Region Philippine Standard Geographic Code Cordillera Administrative Region Tribal Art of the Cordilleras

v t e

Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR)

Regional Center

Baguio

Provinces

Abra Apayao Benguet Ifugao Kalinga Mountain Province

Highly Urbanized City

Baguio

Component City

Tabuk

Provincial Capitals

Bangued Bontoc Kabugao La Trinidad Lagawe Tabuk

Municipalities

Aguinaldo Alfonso Lista Asipulo Atok Bakun Balbalan Banaue Bangued Barlig Bauko Besao Bokod Boliney Bontoc Bucay Bucloc Buguias Calanasan Conner Daguioman Danglas Dolores Flora Hingyon Hungduan Itogon Kabayan Kabugao Kapangan Kiangan Kibungan La Paz La Trinidad Lacub Lagangilang Lagawe Lagayan Lamut Langiden Licuan-Baay Luba Lubuagan Luna Malibcong Manabo Mankayan Mayoyao Natonin Paracelis Pasil Peñarrubia Pidigan Pilar Pinukpuk Pudtol Rizal Sabangan Sablan Sadanga Sagada Sallapadan San Isidro San Juan San Quintin Santa Marcela Tadian Tanudan Tayum Tineg Tinglayan Tinoc Tuba Tublay Tubo Villaviciosa

Luzon, Republic of the Philippines

v t e

Regions of the Philippines

Luzon

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Visayas

VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas

Mindanao

IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Former regions

NIR – Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Regio

.