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Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Tennessee. He is known as the longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".[1] Born in Olympus, Tennessee, he pursued a legal career after graduating from the Cumberland School of Law. He won election to the Tennessee House of Representatives and served in Cuba
Cuba
during the Spanish–American War. He represented Tennessee
Tennessee
in the United States House of Representatives from 1907 to 1921 and from 1923 to 1931. As a member of the House Ways and Means Committee, Hull helped pass the Revenue Act of 1913
Revenue Act of 1913
and the Revenue Act of 1916, which implemented the federal income tax and the federal estate tax. He served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee
Democratic National Committee
from 1921 to 1924 and was a presidential candidate at the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Hull won election to the Senate in 1930, but resigned from the Senate in 1933 to become Secretary of State. Roosevelt and Hull pursued the Good Neighbor policy, which sought to avoid U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs. In the aftermath of Mexican agrarian reforms, he developed the Hull Doctrine as a way to compensate foreign investors in the aftermath of nationalization. In November 1941, he presented the Hull note to Japan, demanding Japanese withdrawal from French Indochina and China. In 1943, Hull and his staff drafted the document that became the United Nations
United Nations
Charter. Hull resigned as Secretary of State due to poor health in 1944.

Contents

1 Life and government 2 Early life 3 Early national career 4 U.S. Senate, Secretary of State 5 SS St. Louis incident 6 United Nations
United Nations
establishment 7 Later years 8 Legacy 9 Fictional appearance or mention 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Primary 11.2 Secondary

12 External links

Life and government[edit]

The Davis-Hull House
Davis-Hull House
in Carthage, Tennessee. The house was built by merchant Calvin Davis in 1889, and purchased by William Hull (the father of Cordell Hull) in 1906.

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
was born in a log cabin in Olympus, Tennessee, which is now part of Pickett County, Tennessee, but was then part of Overton County. He was the son of Elizabeth (née Riley) and William Pascal Hull. He became the elected chairman of the Clay County Democratic Party at the age of 19. Hull studied at National Normal University
National Normal University
(later merged with Wilmington College, Ohio) from 1889 until 1890 and was admitted to the bar. In 1891, Hull graduated from Cumberland School of Law
Cumberland School of Law
at Cumberland University. He served in the Tennessee
Tennessee
House of Representatives from 1893 to 1897. During the Spanish–American War, he served in Cuba
Cuba
as a captain in the Fourth Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. Hull served eleven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1907–1921 and 1923–1931) and authored the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. After an electoral defeat in 1920, Hull served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He was returned to the House in 1922 and was then elected to the Senate in 1930, but resigned upon being named Secretary of State in 1933. Hull recorded thirty years of combined service in the House and the Senate. In 1933, Hull was appointed Secretary of State by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; he served 11 years until he retired from public office. Hull became the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, drafting, along with his staff, the United Nations Charter in mid-1943. He resigned as Secretary of State on November 30, 1944 because of failing health. In 1945, Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for "co-initiating the United Nations". Hull died after suffering several strokes and heart attacks in 1955 in Washington, D.C., and is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral, which is an Episcopal church. Were coming the persons of who is do support him from his life to he can success [1] The Rajput Bhavan In California, [2] Kashtriya House New York City, and [3] Smt. Sanaya Singh There is now a Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Museum located near his birthplace in Byrdstown, Tennessee, which houses his papers and other memorabilia. Early life[edit]

Cordell Hull's boyhood home in Olympus, Tennessee.

Hull was born in Olympus, Pickett County, Tennessee, third of the five sons of William Paschal Hull (1840–1923) and Mary Elizabeth Riley Hull (1841–1903). His brothers were named Orestes (1868), Sanadius (1870), Wyoming (1875), and Roy (1881). Hull's father reportedly tracked down and killed a man because of a blood feud.[2] His mother was a descendant of Isaac Riley who was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) in Pickett County near Byrdstown for Revolutionary War service (this land is still in the family), as well as Samuel Wood who immigrated from Leicestershire, England on the ship Hopewell and fought in the Virginia Militia. Hull's mother's family (Riley-Wood) holds the DAR distinction of the most documented ancestors to have fought in the Revolutionary War.[citation needed] Hull devoted a section in his memoirs "Cabin on the Hill" to dispelling an old rumor that his mother was part Cherokee Indian, and subsequent documented family history has confirmed his ancestry. Hull attended college from 1889 until 1890. He gave his first speech at the age of 16. At the age of 19, Hull became the elected chairman of the Clay County Democratic Party. In 1891, he graduated from Cumberland School of Law
Cumberland School of Law
at Cumberland University
Cumberland University
and was admitted to the bar. He served in the Tennessee
Tennessee
House of Representatives from 1893 to 1897. During the Spanish–American War, Hull served in Cuba
Cuba
as a captain in the Fourth Regiment of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Volunteer Infantry. At the age of 45, in 1917 he married a widow Rose Frances (Witz) Whitney Hull (1875–1954), of an Austrian Jewish family of Staunton, Virginia; the couple had no children. Mrs. Hull died at age 79, in Washington, D.C., in 1954. Early national career[edit]

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
as Secretary of State, from life TIME Magazine in September 1944, before his resignation (November 30, 1944).

From 1903 to 1907, Hull served as a local judge; later he was elected to the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
where he served 11 terms (1907–1921 and 1923–1931) totaling 22 years. As a member of the powerful Ways and Means committee, he fought for low tariffs and claimed authorship of the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. After his defeat in the congressional election of 1920, he served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He was one of several candidates for president at the 1928 Democratic National Convention, which ultimately chose Al Smith
Al Smith
as nominee. Hull was influential in advising Albert Gore, Sr., then a state legislator, to run for the U.S. Congress in 1938. U.S. Senate, Secretary of State[edit]

Cordell Hull, flanked by, from left, Russell B. Kingman and Joseph Ward on his right, and, on his left, Homcombe Ward and Richard Dudley Sears, presided as representative of the U.S. over the drawing of the matchups of 1938 Davis Cup tie against Japan
Japan
(with unknown Japanese representative) in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
on February 3, 1938.

Hull was elected to the Senate in 1930. In 1933, Roosevelt named him Secretary of State and appointed him to lead the American delegation to the London Economic Conference. Hull strove to enlarge foreign trade and lower tariffs. In 1943, Hull served as United States delegate to the Moscow Conference.

Signing of the United States-Canada Trade Agreement. (Seated, L-R) by Cordell Hull, William L. M. King and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
in Washington, on November 16, 1935.

In a speech in 1937, Mayor LaGuardia of New York said that brown-shirted Nazis ought to be featured as the "climax" of a chamber of horrors in the upcoming World's Fair. The Nazi government organ, the Angriff, called the Mayor a "Jewish Ruffian" saying he had been bribed by Jewish and Communistic agents and was a criminal disguised as an officeholder.[3] In the ensuing exchanges, Hull sent a letter of regret to Berlin for intemperate comments on both sides, while also explaining the principle of freedom of speech. As the response of Nazi propaganda organs rose in pitch, to include characterizing American women as "prostitutes", Hull sent a letter of protest to Berlin, which elicited an "explanation" but no apology.[4] In 1938, Hull engaged in a famous dialog with Mexican Foreign Minister Eduardo Hay concerning the failure of Mexico
Mexico
to compensate Americans who lost farmlands during the Agrarian reforms of the late 1920s. He insisted that compensation must be "prompt, adequate and effective". Though the Mexican Constitution guaranteed compensation for expropriation or nationalization, nothing had yet been paid. While Hay admitted Mexico's responsibility, he replied that there is "no rule universally accepted in theory nor carried out in practice which makes obligatory the payment of immediate compensation..." The so-called "Hull formula" has been adopted in many treaties concerning international investment, but is still controversial, especially in Latin American
Latin American
countries, which historically have subscribed to the Calvo Doctrine, which among other things, suggests that compensation is to be decided by the host country and that as long as there is equality between nationals and foreigners and no discrimination, there cannot be any claim in international law. The tension between the Hull formula and the Calvo Doctrine is still of importance today in the law of international investment.

Japanese Ambassador Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura
Kichisaburō Nomura
(left) and Special Envoy Saburō Kurusu
Saburō Kurusu
(right) meet Hull on 17 November 1941, two weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941).

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
pursued the "Good Neighbor Policy" with Latin American nations, which has been credited with preventing Nazi subterfuge in that region. Hull and Roosevelt also maintained relations with Vichy France, which Hull credits with allowing General Henri Giraud's forces to join allied forces in the North African campaign
North African campaign
against Germany.[5] Hull was responsible for United States foreign relations
United States foreign relations
before and during the attack on Pearl Harbor. He sent the Hull note to Japan prior to the attack, which was formally titled "Outline of proposed Basis for Agreement Between The United States and Japan" but had been part of the United States' attempt to open Chinese markets to U.S. goods against Japanese interests there. On the day of the attack, not long after it had begun, Hull received the news that it was taking place while outside his office the Japanese ambassador Kichisaburō Nomura
Kichisaburō Nomura
and Japan's special envoy Saburō Kurusu
Saburō Kurusu
were waiting to see Hull with a fourteen-part message from the Japanese government officially notifying of a breakdown in negotiations. Admiral Edwin T. Layton, at the time chief intelligence officer to the commander of the Pacific Fleet, recounts: "Roosevelt advised him not to tell them about the raid but 'to receive them formally and coolly bow them out'. "After he had glanced at their copy of the fourteen-part message, Hull's anger burst forth. 'In all my fifty years of public service,' he told the astonished diplomats, 'I have never seen such a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehood and distortion.' Nomura and Kurusu, who had not been told of the attack, bowed themselves out in an embarrassed fluster. A department official overheard Hull muttering under his breath as the door closed, 'Scoundrels and piss-ants.'"[6] Hull chaired the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy, created in February 1942. "He was not one of Roosevelt's favorites...The President preferred to deal with Under Secretary Sumner Welles...As a result, Welles...usurped many of the Secretary's functions, and Hull did not attend any of the summit meetings"[7] When the Free French Forces
Free French Forces
of Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
occupied the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
south of Newfoundland in December 1941, Hull lodged a very strong protest and even went as far as referring to the Gaullist
Gaullist
naval forces as "the so-called Free French". His request to have the Vichy governor reinstated was met with strong criticism in the American press. The islands remained under the Free French movement until the end of World War II.

The 26 United Nations
United Nations
Flags from Dr. Francisco Castillo Najera, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Manuel Quezon, and the U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
in July 1942.

SS St. Louis incident[edit] In 1939, Hull advised President Roosevelt to reject the SS St. Louis, a German ocean liner carrying 936 Jews seeking asylum from Germany. Hull's decision sent the Jews back to Europe on the eve of the Nazi Holocaust. Many of the passengers were ultimately murdered by the Nazis.

. . . there were two conversations on the subject between (Secretary of the Treasury) Morgenthau and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. In the first, 3:17 PM on 5 June 1939, Hull made it clear to Morgenthau that the passengers could not legally be issued U.S. tourist visas as they had no return addresses. Furthermore, Hull made it clear to Morgenthau that the issue at hand was between the Cuban government and the passengers. The U.S., in effect, had no role. In the second conversation at 3:54 PM on June 6, 1939, Morgenthau said they did not know where the ship was and he inquired whether it was "proper to have the Coast Guard look for it". Hull responded by saying that he didn't see any reason why it could not. Hull then informed him that he did not think that Morgenthau would want the search for the ship to get into the newspapers. Morgenthau said. "Oh no. No, no. They would just—oh, they might send a plane to do patrol work. There would be nothing in the papers." Hull responded, "Oh, that would be all right."[8]

Hull and Chinese Ambassador Wei Daoming
Wei Daoming
at the State Department exchanging ratifications of the treaty abolishing extraterritorial rights of the United States in China.

In September 1940, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
maneuvered with another State Department official to bypass Hull's refusal to allow Jewish refugees aboard a Portuguese ship, the SS Quanza, to receive visas to enter the U.S. Through Mrs. Roosevelt's efforts, the Jewish refugees disembarked on September 11, 1940, in Virginia.[9] In a similar incident, American Jews sought to raise money to prevent the mass murder of Romanian Jews. However, "In wartime, in order to send money out of the United States, two government agencies had to sign a simple release- the Treasury Department under Henry Morgenthau and the State Department under Secretary Cordell Hull. Morgenthau signed immediately. The State Department delayed, delayed, and delayed, as more Jews were dying in the Transnistria camps."[10] In 1940, Jewish representatives in the USA lodged an official complaint against the discriminatory policies the State Department was using against the Jews; the results were fatal: The Secretary of State [Cordell Hull] gave strict orders to every USA consulate worldwide forbidding the issuing of visas to Jews ... At the same time a Jewish congressman petitioned the President [FDR], requesting his permission to allow twenty thousand Jewish children from Europe to enter the USA. The President totally ignored this petition as well as its sender. (The Australian Jewish News, 6 May 1994, p. 9 (translated from the Yiddish). United Nations
United Nations
establishment[edit] Hull was the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, as recognized by the 1945 Nobel Prize for Peace, an honor for which Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
nominated him. During World War II, Hull and Roosevelt had worked toward the development of a world organization to prevent a third World War. Hull and his staff drafted the "Charter of the United Nations" in mid-1943. Later years[edit]

Gravesite of Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
at the St. Joseph of Arimathea Chapel, in Washington National Cathedral
Washington National Cathedral
Church.

Hull resigned on November 30, 1944 because of failing health as the longest-serving Secretary of State, having served 11 years, nine months in that post. Roosevelt described Hull upon his departure as "the one person in all the world who has done his most to make this great plan for peace (the United Nations) an effective fact". The Norwegian Nobel Committee
Norwegian Nobel Committee
honored Hull with the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1945 in recognition of his efforts for peace and understanding in the Western Hemisphere, his trade agreements, and his work to establish the United Nations. He died on July 23, 1955, at age 83, at his home in Washington, D.C., after a lifelong struggle with familial remitting-relapsing sarcoidosis (often confused with tuberculosis). He is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral. Legacy[edit]

Cumberland School of Law's Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Moot Court
Moot Court
Room—portrait at head of room

Hull's memory is preserved by Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Dam
Dam
on the Cumberland River near Carthage, Tennessee. The dam impounds Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Lake, covering approximately 12,000 acres (49 km2). His law school, Cumberland School of Law, continues to honor him with a Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Speaker's Forum and the pictured Moot Court
Moot Court
Room.

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
commemorative stamp issued in 1964

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Birthplace State Park, near Byrdstown, Tennessee, was established in 1997 to preserve Hull's birthplace and various personal effects Hull had donated to the citizens of Pickett County, including his Nobel Peace Prize. A segment of Kentucky
Kentucky
highway routes 90, 63, and 163, from Interstate 65 at Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park
south to the Tennessee
Tennessee
State Line, is named " Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Highway". The Shoreline School District in Shoreline, Washington, formerly had a Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Middle School; it was renamed in the mid-1990s to Meridian Park Elementary, after a renovation. The Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
State Office Building. Located at the base of Capital Hill, Nashville, Tennessee, is a secure 10 story building that contains the offices of Attorney General, Health and Child Services. The Eisenhower Executive Office Building
Eisenhower Executive Office Building
(formerly the Old Executive Office Building) in Washington, DC, next to the White House, contains the ornately decorated " Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Room" on the second floor, which is used for meetings. The room was Cordell Hull's office when he served as U.S. Secretary of State. Fictional appearance or mention[edit]

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Hull is a significant character in the Worldwar
Worldwar
series of science fiction/alternate history novels by Harry Turtledove, and also plays a background role in the same author's Southern Victory Series
Southern Victory Series
volume American Empire: The Center Cannot Hold. Hull was portrayed by veteran actor George Macready
George Macready
in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora! Actor Charles Trowbridge
Charles Trowbridge
played Hull in the 1941 film Sergeant York. Hull is one of the presidential cabinet members who are characters in the musical Annie.[11] During the scene at the dinner table in the 2005 film Wedding Crashers, "Grandma" Mary Cleary (played by actress Ellen Albertini Dow) mentions Hull (though only by his cabinet position, rather than by name) was "her late husband".[12] There was a very small chain of hotels named after him (which he allegedly owned or co-owned) in Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
and Southern Kentucky, one of which was the Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Hotel in downtown Gallatin, Tennessee, which c. 1971 was used to house the first-ever classes of the new Volunteer State Community College while the campus was being built. This was one of the hotel's last official uses. Hull is mentioned by name in the 1937 calypso song "FDR in Trinidad" popularized by Attila the Hun, and also by Ry Cooder
Ry Cooder
on his 1972 album Into the Purple Valley. Hull is prominently featured in Robert Ludlum's novel The Scarlatti Inheritance.

Notes[edit]

^ Hulen, Bertram D. (1946-10-25). "Charter Becomes 'Law of Nations,' 29 Ratifying It". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 5, 2014.  ^ Gunther, John (1950). Roosevelt in Retrospect. Harper & Brothers. p. 132.  ^ "Hull gives Reich Official 'Apology'". The New York Times. March 5, 1937. pp. 1, 8. Retrieved May 5, 2014. The Angriff carries a headline, 'Jewish ruffian La Guardia's new Insolence,'...  ^ Michael Zalampas (1989). Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in American Magazines, 1923–1939. Popular Press. p. 108. ISBN 0879724625.  ^ Cordell Hull, Memoirs ^ Layton, Edwin T. (1985). "And I Was There": Pearl Harbor and Midway—Breaking the Secrets. New York: William Morrow. p. 314. ISBN 0688048838.  ^ Bohlen, Charles E. Witness to History 1929–1969, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1973 ^ "What was the Coast Guard's role in the SS St. Louis affair, often referred to as 'The Voyage of the Damned'?". United States Coast Guard. October 10, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2014.  ^ Buckley, Cara (July 8, 2007). "Fleeing Hitler and Meeting a Reluctant Miss Liberty". The New York Times.  ^ Gruber, Inside of Time p. 159 (2003). ^ Annie Casting Information, Music Theatre International website Archived October 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Granny from Wedding Crashers
Wedding Crashers
on YouTube

References[edit] Primary[edit]

Cordell Hull. Memoirs (1948). The Papers of Cordell Hull

Secondary[edit]

Julius W. Pratt, Cordell Hull, 1933–44, 2 vol. (1964) Biography from U.S. Congress biography page Hull, Cordell by EB Butler, Michael A. (1998), Cautious Visionary: Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
and Trade Reform, 1933–1937, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, ISBN 0-87338-596-9 . O'Sullivan, Christopher D. Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning and the Quest for a New World Order. Columbia University Press, 2008. ISBN 0231142587 Gellman, Irwin F., Secret Affairs: FDR, Cordell Hull, and Sumner Welles, Enigma Books, 2002. ISBN 978-1-929631-11-7.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Cordell Hull

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Cordell Hull

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cordell Hull.

United States Congress. " Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(id: H000940)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Works by or about Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
at Internet Archive The Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Foundation, a non-profit NGO, based around furthering international peace and co-operation. The Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Institute, a U.S. think-tank focusing on furthering debate in international economic development and trade. The Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Museum, located in Byrdstown, Tennessee, focusing on Hull's life and work. Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
State Park

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Mounce Gore Butler Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee's 4th congressional district 1907–1921 Succeeded by Wynne F. Clouse

Preceded by Wynne F. Clouse Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee's 4th congressional district 1923–1931 Succeeded by John R. Mitchell

Party political offices

Preceded by George White Chair of the Democratic National Committee 1921–1924 Succeeded by Clem L. Shaver

Preceded by Lawrence Tyson Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Tennessee (Class 2) 1930 Succeeded by Nathan L. Bachman

U.S. Senate

Preceded by William Emerson Brock U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee 1931–1933 Served alongside: Kenneth McKellar Succeeded by Nathan L. Bachman

Political offices

Preceded by Henry L. Stimson United States Secretary of State 1933–1944 Succeeded by Edward Stettinius Jr.

Awards and achievements

Preceded by International Committee of the Red Cross Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 1945 Succeeded by Emily Greene Balch John Mott

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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
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High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–45)

Vice President

John N. Garner (1933–41) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–45) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945)

Secretary of State

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(1933–44) Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944–45)

Secretary of the Treasury

William Hartman Woodin (1933–34) Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1934–45)

Secretary of War

George H. Dern (1933–36) Harry H. Woodring (1936–40) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1940–45)

Attorney General

Homer S. Cummings (1933–39) Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
(1939–40) Robert H. Jackson
Robert H. Jackson
(1940–41) Francis B. Biddle (1941–45)

Postmaster General

James A. Farley (1933–40) Frank C. Walker (1940–45)

Secretary of the Navy

Claude A. Swanson
Claude A. Swanson
(1933–39) Charles Edison
Charles Edison
(1940) Frank Knox
Frank Knox
(1940–44) James V. Forrestal (1944–45)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1933–45)

Secretary of Agriculture

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1933–40) Claude Raymond Wickard (1940–45)

Secretary of Commerce

Daniel C. Roper
Daniel C. Roper
(1933–38) Harry L. Hopkins (1938–40) Jesse H. Jones
Jesse H. Jones
(1940–45) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1933–45)

v t e

(1936 ←) United States presidential election, 1940
United States presidential election, 1940
(→ 1944)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

Henry A. Wallace

Candidates

James Farley John Nance Garner Cordell Hull Millard Tydings

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Wendell Willkie

VP nominee

Charles L. McNary

Candidates

Styles Bridges Thomas Dewey Frank Gannett Arthur James Robert Taft Arthur H. Vandenberg

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Roger Babson

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Maynard C. Krueger

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

John W. Aiken

VP nominee

Aaron M. Orange

Independents and other candidates

Gracie Allen

Other 1940 elections: House Senate

v t e

Tennessee's delegation(s) to the 60th–72nd United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)

60th Senate: J. Frazier, Sr. • R. Taylor House: W. Brownlow • J. Gaines • J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • N. Hale • W. Houston • G. Gordon • C. Hull

61st Senate: J. Frazier Sr. • R. Taylor House: W. Brownlow • J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • G. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin

61st Senate: J. Frazier Sr. • R. Taylor House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • G. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • Z. Massey

62nd Senate: R. Taylor • L. Lea House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • G. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells

62nd Senate: R. Taylor • L. Lea House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • K. McKellar

62nd Senate: L. Lea • N. Sanders House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • K. McKellar

62nd Senate: L. Lea • W. Webb House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • K. McKellar

63rd Senate: L. Lea • J. Shields House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • K. McKellar

64th Senate: L. Lea • J. Shields House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • K. McKellar

65th Senate: J. Shields • K. McKellar House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • W. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • R. Austin • S. Sells • H. Fisher

66th Senate: J. Shields • K. McKellar House: J. Moon • T. Sims • L. Padgett • F. Garrett • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr. • S. Sells • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor

67th Senate: J. Shields • K. McKellar House: L. Padgett • F. Garrett • J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • J. Brown • W. Clouse • C. Reece • L. Scott

67th Senate: J. Shields • K. McKellar House: F. Garrett • J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • J. Brown • W. Clouse • C. Reece • L. Scott • C. Turner

68th Senate: J. Shields • K. McKellar House: F. Garrett • J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • C. Reece • G. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynolds • W. Salmon

69th Senate: K. McKellar • L. Tyson House: F. Garrett • J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • C. Reece • G. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynolds • E. Eslick

70th Senate: K. McKellar • L. Tyson House: F. Garrett • J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • C. Reece • G. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynolds • E. Eslick

71st Senate: K. McKellar • L. Tyson House: J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • C. Reece • G. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynolds • E. Eslick • J. Cooper

71st Senate: K. McKellar • W. Brock House: J. Byrns Sr. • H. Fisher • E. Davis • W. Taylor • C. Reece • G. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynolds • E. Eslick • J. Cooper

72nd Senate: K. McKellar • C. Hull House: J. Byrns Sr. • E. Davis • W. Taylor • G. Browning • S. McReynolds • E. Eslick • J. Cooper • E. H. Crump • J. Mitchell • O. Lovette

72nd Senate: K. McKellar • C. Hull House: J. Byrns Sr. • E. Davis • W. Taylor • G. Browning • S. McReynolds • J. Cooper • E. H. Crump • J. Mitchell • O. Lovette • W. Eslick

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 62343345 LCCN: n86012032 ISNI: 0000 0001 2211 7259 GND: 118708031 SELIBR: 319787 SUDOC: 034594760 BNF: cb12533463n (data) NLA: 35903308 NDL: 00522777 NKC: jx20090901004 US Congress: H000940 BNE: XX1691

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