CORDELL HULL (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American
politician from the
U.S. state of
* 1 Life and government
* 2 Early life
* 3 Early national career
* 4 U.S. Senate, Secretary of State
* 5 SS _St. Louis_ incident
* 11 References
* 11.1 Primary * 11.2 Secondary
* 12 External links
LIFE AND GOVERNMENT
The Davis-Hull House in Carthage, Tennessee. The house was built by merchant Calvin Davis in 1889, and purchased by William Hull (the father of Cordell Hull) in 1906.
Hull studied at
National Normal University (later merged with
Wilmington College, Ohio ) from 1889 until 1890 and was admitted to
the bar . In 1891, Hull graduated from
Cumberland School of Law at
Cumberland University . He served in the
Hull served 11 terms in the
In 1934, Hull was appointed Secretary of State by Franklin D.
Roosevelt; he served 11 years until he retired from public office.
Hull became the underlying force and architect in the creation of the
Hull died after suffering several strokes and heart attacks in 1955
Cordell Hull's boyhood home in Olympus, Tennessee.
Hull was born in Olympus, Pickett County,
Hull's father reportedly tracked down and killed a man because of a blood feud . His mother was a descendant of Isaac Riley who was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) in Pickett County near Byrdstown for Revolutionary War service (this land is still in the family), as well as Samuel Wood who immigrated from Leicestershire, England on the ship Hopewell and fought in the Virginia Militia. Hull's mother's family (Riley-Wood) holds the DAR distinction of the most documented ancestors to have fought in the Revolutionary War. Hull devoted a section in his memoirs "Cabin on the Hill" to dispelling an old rumor that his mother was part Cherokee Indian, and subsequent documented family history has confirmed his ancestry.
Hull attended college from 1889 until 1890. He gave his first speech
at the age of 16. At the age of 19, Hull became the elected chairman
of the Clay County Democratic Party . In 1891, he graduated from
Cumberland School of Law at
Cumberland University and was admitted to
the bar . He served in the
At the age of 45, in 1917 he married a widow Rose Frances (Witz)
Whitney Hull (1875–1954), of an Austrian Jewish family of Staunton,
Virginia; the couple had no children. Mrs. Hull died at age 79, in
EARLY NATIONAL CAREER
From 1903 to 1907, Hull served as a local judge; later he was elected
U.S. SENATE, SECRETARY OF STATE
Cordell Hull, flanked by, from left, Russell B. Kingman and
Joseph Ward on his right, and, on his left, Homcombe Ward and Richard
Dudley Sears, presided as representative of the U.S. over the drawing
of the matchups of 1938 Davis Cup tie against Japan (with unknown
Japanese representative) in
Hull was elected to the Senate in 1930. In 1933, Roosevelt named him Secretary of State and appointed him to lead the American delegation to the London Economic Conference . Hull strove to enlarge foreign trade and lower tariffs. In 1943, Hull served as United States delegate to the Moscow Conference . Signing of the United States-Canada Trade Agreement. (Seated, L-R) by Cordell Hull, William L. M. King and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, on November 16, 1935.
In a speech in 1937, Mayor LaGuardia of New York said that brown-shirted Nazis ought to be featured as the "climax" of a chamber of horrors in the upcoming World's Fair. The Nazi government organ, the Angriff , called the Mayor a "Jewish Ruffian" saying he had been bribed by Jewish and Communistic agents and was a criminal disguised as an officeholder. In the ensuing exchanges, Hull sent a letter of regret to Berlin for intemperate comments on both sides, while also explaining the principle of freedom of speech. As the response of Nazi propaganda organs rose in pitch, to include characterizing American women as "prostitutes", Hull sent a letter of protest to Berlin, which elicited an "explanation" but no apology.
In 1938, Hull engaged in a famous dialog with Mexican Foreign
Minister Eduardo Hay concerning the failure of
Hull was responsible for
On the day of the attack, not long after it had begun, Hull received the news that it was taking place while outside his office the Japanese ambassador Kichisaburō Nomura and Japan's special envoy Saburō Kurusu were waiting to see Hull with a fourteen-part message from the Japanese government officially notifying of a breakdown in negotiations. Admiral Edwin T. Layton , at the time chief intelligence officer to the commander of the Pacific Fleet, recounts:
"Roosevelt advised him not to tell them about the raid but 'to receive them formally and coolly bow them out'.
"After he had glanced at their copy of the fourteen-part message, Hull's anger burst forth. 'In all my fifty years of public service,' he told the astonished diplomats, 'I have never seen such a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehood and distortion.' Nomura and Kurusu, who had not been told of the attack, bowed themselves out in an embarrassed fluster. A department official overheard Hull muttering under his breath as the door closed, 'Scoundrels and piss-ants.'"
Hull chaired the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy , created in February 1942.
"He was not one of Roosevelt's favorites...The President preferred to deal with Under Secretary Sumner Welles...As a result, Welles...usurped many of the Secretary's functions, and Hull did not attend any of the summit meetings"
Free French Forces of
Charles de Gaulle occupied the islands
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon south of Newfoundland in December 1941,
Hull lodged a very strong protest and even went as far as referring to
Gaullist naval forces as "the so-called Free French". His request
to have the Vichy governor reinstated was met with strong criticism in
the American press. The islands remained under the Free French
movement until the end of
World War II
SS _ST. LOUIS_ INCIDENT
In 1939, Hull advised President Roosevelt to reject the SS _St.
Louis_ , a German ocean liner carrying 936 Jews seeking asylum from
Germany. Hull's decision sent the Jews back to Europe on the eve of
. . . there were two conversations on the subject between (Secretary
of the Treasury) Morgenthau and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. In
the first, 3:17 PM on 5 June 1939, Hull made it clear to Morgenthau
that the passengers could not legally be issued U.S. tourist visas as
they had no return addresses. Furthermore, Hull made it clear to
Morgenthau that the issue at hand was between the Cuban government and
the passengers. The U.S., in effect, had no role. In the second
conversation at 3:54 PM on June 6, 1939, Morgenthau said they did not
know where the ship was and he inquired whether it was "proper to have
the Coast Guard look for it". Hull responded by saying that he didn't
see any reason why it could not. Hull then informed him that he did
not think that Morgenthau would want the search for the ship to get
into the newspapers. Morgenthau said. "Oh no. No, no. They would
just—oh, they might send a plane to do patrol work. There would be
nothing in the papers." Hull responded, "Oh, that would be all right."
Hull and Chinese Ambassador
Wei Daoming at the State Department
exchanging ratifications of the treaty abolishing extraterritorial
rights of the
In September 1940, First Lady
In 1940, Jewish representatives in the USA lodged an official complaint against the discriminatory policies the State Department was using against the Jews; the results were fatal: The Secretary of State gave strict orders to every USA consulate worldwide forbidding the issuing of visas to Jews ... At the same time a Jewish congressman petitioned the President , requesting his permission to allow twenty thousand Jewish children from Europe to enter the USA. The President totally ignored this petition as well as its sender. (The Australian Jewish News, 6 May 1994, p. 9 (translated from the Yiddish).
UNITED NATIONS ESTABLISHMENT
Hull was the underlying force and architect in the creation of the
Hull resigned in November 1944 because of failing health as the
longest-serving Secretary of State, having served 11 years, nine
months in that post. Roosevelt described Hull upon his departure as
"the one person in all the world who has done his most to make this
great plan for peace (the United Nations) an effective fact". The
Norwegian Nobel Committee honored Hull with the
Nobel Peace Prize
He died on July 23, 1955, at age 83, at his home in Washington, D.C. , after a lifelong struggle with familial remitting-relapsing sarcoidosis (often confused with tuberculosis ). He is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral .
Hull's memory is preserved by
His law school,
Cumberland School of Law , continues to honor him
Cordell Hull Birthplace State Park , near Byrdstown,
A segment of
The Cordell Hull State Office Building . Located at the base of Capital Hill, Nashville, Tennessee, is a secure 10 story building that contains the offices of Attorney General, Health and Child Services.
Eisenhower Executive Office Building (formerly the Old Executive
Office Building) in Washington, DC, next to the White House, contains
the ornately decorated "
FICTIONAL APPEARANCE OR MENTION
* Hull is a significant character in the
Worldwar series of science
fiction/alternate history novels by
Harry Turtledove , and also plays
a background role in the same author's
Southern Victory Series volume
_American Empire: The Center Cannot Hold _.
* Hull was portrayed by veteran actor
George Macready in the 1970
Tora! Tora! Tora! _
Charles Trowbridge played Hull in the 1941 film _Sergeant
* Hull is one of the presidential cabinet members who are characters
in the musical _Annie _.
* During the scene at the dinner table in the 2005 film _Wedding
Crashers _, "Grandma" Mary Cleary (played by actress Ellen Albertini
Dow ) mentions Hull (though only by his cabinet position, rather than
by name) was "her late husband".
* There was a very small chain of hotels named after him (which he
allegedly owned or co-owned) in Middle
* ^ Hulen, Bertram D. (1946-10-25). "Charter Becomes \'Law of
Nations,\' 29 Ratifying It". _
The New York Times _. p. 1. Retrieved
May 5, 2014.
* ^ Gunther, John (1950). _Roosevelt in Retrospect_. Harper &
Brothers. p. 132.
* ^ "Hull gives Reich Official \'Apology\'". _The New York Times_.
March 5, 1937. pp. 1, 8. Retrieved May 5, 2014. The Angriff carries a
headline, 'Jewish ruffian La Guardia's new Insolence,'...
* ^ Michael Zalampas (1989). _Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in
American Magazines, 1923–1939_. Popular Press. p. 108. ISBN
* ^ Cordell Hull, _Memoirs_
* ^ Layton, Edwin T. (1985). _"And I Was There": Pearl Harbor and
Midway—Breaking the Secrets_. New York: William Morrow. p. 314. ISBN
* ^ Bohlen, Charles E. _Witness to History 1929-1969_, W. W. Norton
& Company, Inc. 1973
* ^ "What was the Coast Guard\'s role in the SS St. Louis affair,
often referred to as \'The Voyage of the Damned\'?". United States
Coast Guard. October 10, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
* ^ Buckley, Cara (July 8, 2007). "Fleeing Hitler and Meeting a
Reluctant Miss Liberty". _
The New York Times _.
* ^ Gruber, _Inside of Time_ p. 159 (2003).
* ^ Annie Casting Information, Music Theatre International website
Archived October 7, 2007, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Granny from
* Cordell Hull. _Memoirs_ (1948). * The Papers of Cordell Hull
* Julius W. Pratt, _Cordell Hull, 1933–44_, 2 vol. (1964)
* Biography from U.S. Congress biography page
* Hull, Cordell by EB
* Butler, Michael A. (1998), _Cautious Visionary: