The Info List - Coptic Alphabet

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The Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. There are several Coptic alphabets, as the Coptic writing system may vary greatly among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language.


1 History 2 Form 3 Alphabet

3.1 Letters derived from Demotic

4 Unicode 5 Diacritics and punctuation

5.1 Punctuation 5.2 Combining diacritics 5.3 Macrons and overlines

6 See also 7 References 8 External links


Coptic letters in a florid Bohairic

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Egyptian language Coptic language

Writing Systems

Hieroglyphs Hieratic Demotic Coptic

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History of the alphabet

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

3 c. BCE


Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

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The Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
has a long history, going back to the Hellenistic period, of using the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
to transcribe Demotic texts, with the aim of recording the correct pronunciation of Demotic. During the first two centuries of the Common Era, an entire series of magical texts were written in what scholars term Old Coptic, Egyptian language texts written in the Greek alphabet. A number of letters, however, were derived from Demotic, and many of these (though not all) are used in "true" Coptic writing. With the spread of Christianity
in Egypt, by the late 3rd century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost, as well as Demotic slightly later, making way for a writing system more closely associated with the Christian church. By the 4th century, the Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
was "standardised", particularly for the Sahidic dialect. (There are a number of differences between the alphabets as used in the various dialects in Coptic.) Coptic is not generally used today except by the members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria to write their religious texts. All the Gnostic codices found in Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
used the Coptic alphabet. The Old Nubian alphabet—used to write Old Nubian, a Nilo-Saharan language —is written mainly in an uncial Greek alphabet, which borrows Coptic and Meroitic letters of Demotic origin into its inventory. Form[edit] The Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
was the first Egyptian writing system to indicate vowels, making Coptic documents invaluable for the interpretation of earlier Egyptian texts. Some Egyptian syllables had sonorants but no vowels; in Sahidic, these were written in Coptic with a line above the entire syllable. Various scribal schools made limited use of diacritics: some used an apostrophe as a word divider and to mark clitics, a function of determinatives in logographic Egyptian; others used diereses over ⲓ and ⲩ to show that these started a new syllable, others a circumflex over any vowel for the same purpose.[1] The Coptic alphabet's glyphs are largely based on the Greek alphabet, another help in interpreting older Egyptian texts,[2] with 24 letters of Greek origin; 6 or 7 more were retained from Demotic, depending on the dialect (6 in Sahidic, another each in Bohairic
and Akhmimic).[1] In addition to the alphabetic letters, the letter ϯ stood for the syllable /te/ or /de/. As the Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
is simply a typeface of the Greek alphabet,[3] with a few added letters, it can be used to write Greek without any transliteration schemes. Latin equivalents would include the Icelandic alphabet (which likewise has added letters), or the Fraktur
alphabet (which has distinctive forms). While initially unified with the Greek alphabet by Unicode, a proposal was later accepted to separate it, with the proposal noting that Coptic is never written using modern Greek letter-forms (unlike German, which may be written with Fraktur or Roman Antiqua letter-forms), and that the Coptic letter-forms have closer mutual legibility with the Greek-based letters incorporated into the separately encoded Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic alphabet
than with the forms used in modern Greek.[4] Alphabet

Image maj. Image min. Unicode
maj. Unicode
min. Numeric value Name Greek equivalent Translit. (IPA)

Ⲁ ⲁ 1 Alpha Α, α a [a, ʔ, ʕ]

Ⲃ ⲃ 2 Bēta Β, β b, v [β~v]

Ⲅ ⲅ 3 Gamma Γ, γ g [ɡ]

Ⲇ ⲇ 4 Delta Δ, δ d [d]

Ⲉ ⲉ 5 Ei Ε, ε e [i, e][note 1]

Ⲋ ⲋ 6 So Ϛ, ϛ (stigma) or Ϝ, ϝ (digamma) –

Ⲍ ⲍ 7 Zēta Ζ, ζ z [z]

Ⲏ ⲏ 8 Ēta Η, η ē / e [eː]

Ⲑ ⲑ 9 Thēta Θ, θ th / t' [tʰ]

Ⲓ ⲓ 10 Yota Ι, ι i [iː~j]

Ⲕ ⲕ 20 Kappa Κ, κ k [k]

Ⲗ ⲗ 30 Lambda Λ, λ l [l]

Ⲙ ⲙ 40 Me Μ, μ m [m]

Ⲛ ⲛ 50 Ne Ν, ν n [n]

Ⲝ ⲝ 60 Eksi Ξ, ξ ks

Ⲟ ⲟ 70 O Ο, ο o [o]

Ⲡ ⲡ 80 Pi Π, π p [p]

Ⲣ ⲣ 100 Ro Ρ, ρ r [r]

Ⲥ ⲥ 200 Sima Σ, σ, ς s [s]

Ⲧ ⲧ 300 Taw Τ, τ t [t]

Ⲩ ⲩ 400 Epsilon Υ, υ u / ou [uː][note 2]

Ⲫ ⲫ 500 Fi Φ, φ ph / p' [pʰ]

Ⲭ ⲭ 600 Khe Χ, χ kh [kʰ]

Ⲯ ⲯ 700 Epsi Ψ, ψ ps

Ⲱ ⲱ 800 Ōu Ω, ω ō / o [oː]

Ϣ ϣ

Shay (none) sh / š [ʃ]

Ϥ ϥ 90 Fay Ϙ, ϙ (koppa) (form, number) f [f]

(Ⳉ) ϧ (ⳉ)[note 3]

Khay (none) x [x]

Ϩ ϩ

Hōri (none) h [h, ħ]

Ϫ ϫ

Janja (none) j / dzh [dʒ]

Ϭ ϭ

Tshēma Ϙ, ϙ (koppa) (function) q / tsh [kʲ, tʃ][note 4]

Ϯ ϯ

Ti / De (none) ti / de [ti, de][note 5]

Ⳁ ⳁ 900

^ In Sahidic dialect, it is [i], while, in Bohairic
dialect, it is [e]. ^ The vowel /uː/ is commonly written with ⲟⲩ not ⲩ alone. ^ The additional letter xai is Ⳉ ⳉ in Akhmimic and Ⳳ ⳳ in Bohairic, both for a velar fricative /x/. ^ Some scholars constructed its pronunciation as [kʲ], while others as [tʃ]. ^ In Sahidic dialect, it is [ti], while in Bohairic
dialect, it is [de].

Letters derived from Demotic[edit] The following letters were derived from Demotic:

Hieroglyph   Demotic   Coptic   Translit. (IPA)

→ Ϣ

sh / š [ʃ]

→ Ϥ

f [f]

→ Ϧ

x [x]

→ Ϩ

h [h, ħ]

→ Ϫ

j [dʒ]

→ Ϭ

q / ch [kʲ, tʃ]

→ Ϯ

ti / de [ti, de]

Unicode[edit] Main articles: Greek and Coptic ( Unicode
block), Coptic (Unicode block), and Coptic Epact Numbers ( Unicode
block) In Unicode, most Coptic letters formerly shared codepoints with similar Greek letters, but a disunification was accepted for version 4.1, which appeared in 2005. The new Coptic block is U+2C80 to U+2CFF. Most fonts contained in mainstream operating systems use a distinctive Byzantine style for this block. The Greek block includes seven Coptic letters (U+03E2–U+03EF highlighted below) derived from Demotic, and these need to be included in any complete implementation of Coptic.

Greek and Coptic[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+037x Ͱ ͱ Ͳ ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͷ ͷ

ͺ ͻ ͼ ͽ ; Ϳ


΄ ΅ Ά · Έ Ή Ί



U+039x ΐ Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο

U+03Ax Π Ρ

Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω Ϊ Ϋ ά έ ή ί

U+03Bx ΰ α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο

U+03Cx π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω ϊ ϋ ό ύ ώ Ϗ

U+03Dx ϐ ϑ ϒ ϓ ϔ ϕ ϖ ϗ Ϙ ϙ Ϛ ϛ Ϝ ϝ Ϟ ϟ

U+03Ex Ϡ ϡ Ϣ ϣ Ϥ ϥ Ϧ ϧ Ϩ ϩ Ϫ ϫ Ϭ ϭ Ϯ ϯ

U+03Fx ϰ ϱ ϲ ϳ ϴ ϵ ϶ Ϸ ϸ Ϲ Ϻ ϻ ϼ Ͻ Ͼ Ͽ


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Coptic[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+2C8x Ⲁ ⲁ Ⲃ ⲃ Ⲅ ⲅ Ⲇ ⲇ Ⲉ ⲉ Ⲋ ⲋ Ⲍ ⲍ Ⲏ ⲏ

U+2C9x Ⲑ ⲑ Ⲓ ⲓ Ⲕ ⲕ Ⲗ ⲗ Ⲙ ⲙ Ⲛ ⲛ Ⲝ ⲝ Ⲟ ⲟ

U+2CAx Ⲡ ⲡ Ⲣ ⲣ Ⲥ ⲥ Ⲧ ⲧ Ⲩ ⲩ Ⲫ ⲫ Ⲭ ⲭ Ⲯ ⲯ

U+2CBx Ⲱ ⲱ Ⲳ ⲳ Ⲵ ⲵ Ⲷ ⲷ Ⲹ ⲹ Ⲻ ⲻ Ⲽ ⲽ Ⲿ ⲿ

U+2CCx Ⳁ ⳁ Ⳃ ⳃ Ⳅ ⳅ Ⳇ ⳇ Ⳉ ⳉ Ⳋ ⳋ Ⳍ ⳍ Ⳏ ⳏ

U+2CDx Ⳑ ⳑ Ⳓ ⳓ Ⳕ ⳕ Ⳗ ⳗ Ⳙ ⳙ Ⳛ ⳛ Ⳝ ⳝ Ⳟ ⳟ

U+2CEx Ⳡ ⳡ Ⳣ ⳣ ⳤ ⳥ ⳦ ⳧ ⳨ ⳩ ⳪ Ⳬ ⳬ Ⳮ ⳮ ⳯

U+2CFx ⳰ ⳱ Ⳳ ⳳ

⳹ ⳺ ⳻ ⳼ ⳽ ⳾ ⳿


1. ^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Coptic Epact Numbers[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+102Ex 𐋠 𐋡 𐋢 𐋣 𐋤 𐋥 𐋦 𐋧 𐋨 𐋩 𐋪 𐋫 𐋬 𐋭 𐋮 𐋯

U+102Fx 𐋰 𐋱 𐋲 𐋳 𐋴 𐋵 𐋶 𐋷 𐋸 𐋹 𐋺 𐋻


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Diacritics and punctuation[edit] These are also included in the Unicode
specification. Punctuation[edit]

Normal English punctuation (comma, period, question mark, semicolon, colon, hyphen) uses the regular Unicode
codepoints for punctuation Dicolon: standard colon U+003A Middle dot: U+00B7 En dash: U+2013 Em dash: U+2014 Slanted double hyphen: U+2E17

Combining diacritics[edit] These are codepoints applied after that of the character they modify.

Combining overstroke: U+0305 (= supralinear stroke) Combining character-joining overstroke (from middle of one character to middle of the next): U+035E Combining dot under a letter: U+0323 Combining dot over a letter: U+0307 Combining overstroke and dot below: U+0305,U+0323 Combining acute accent: U+0301 Combining grave accent: U+0300 Combining circumflex accent (caret shaped): U+0302 Combining circumflex (curved shape) or inverted breve above: U+0311 Combining circumflex as wide inverted breve above joining two letters: U+0361 Combining diaeresis: U+0308

Macrons and overlines[edit] Coptic uses U+0304 ◌̄ COMBINING MACRON to indicate syllabic consonants, for example ⲛ̄.[5][6] Coptic abbreviations use U+0305 ◌̅ COMBINING OVERLINE to draw a continuous line across the remaining letters of an abbreviated word.[6][7] It extends from the left edge of the first letter to the right edge of the last letter. For example, ⲡ̅ⲛ̅ⲁ̅. A different kind of overline uses U+FE24 ◌︤ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF, U+FE26 ◌︦ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON, and U+FE25 ◌︥ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF to distinguish the spelling of certain common words or to highlight proper names of divinities and heroes.[6][7] For this the line begins in the middle of the first letter and continues to the middle of the last letter. A few examples: ⲣ︤ⲙ︥, ϥ︤ⲛ︦ⲧ︥, ⲡ︤ϩ︦ⲣ︦ⲃ︥. Coptic numerals are indicated with letters of the alphabet such as ⲁ for 1.[8] Sometimes numerical use is indicated with a continuous line above using U+0305 ◌̅ COMBINING OVERLINE as in ⲁ͵ⲱ̅ⲡ̅ⲏ̅ for 1,888 (where "ⲁ͵" is 1,000 and "ⲱ̅ⲡ̅ⲏ̅" is 888). Multiples of 1,000 can be indicated by a continuous double line above using U+033F ◌̿ COMBINING DOUBLE OVERLINE as in ⲁ̿ for 1,000. See also[edit]

Coptic pronunciation reform Institute of Coptic Studies


^ a b Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World's Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287–290. ^ Campbell, George L. "Coptic." Compendium of the World's Writing Systems. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Biddles LTD, 1991. 415. ^ "Coptic". Ancient Scripts. Retrieved 2 December 2017.  ^ Everson, Michael; Mansour, Kamal (2002-05-08). "L2/02-205 N2444: Coptic supplementation in the BMP" (PDF).  ^ "Revision of the Coptic block under ballot for the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. 2004-04-20.  ^ a b c Everson, Michael; Emmel, Stephen; Marjanen, Antti; Dunderberg, Ismo; Baines, John; Pedro, Susana; Emiliano, António (2007-05-12). "N3222R: Proposal to add additional characters for Coptic and Latin to the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.  ^ a b "Section 7.3: Coptic, Supralineation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. The Unicode
Consortium. July 2017.  ^ "Section 7.3: Coptic, Numerical Use of Letters" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. The Unicode
Consortium. July 2016. 

Quaegebeur, Jan. 1982. "De la préhistoire de l'écriture copte." Orientalia lovaniensia analecta 13:125–136. Kasser, Rodolphe. 1991. " Alphabet
in Coptic, Greek". In The Coptic Encyclopedia, edited by Aziz S. Atiya. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Volume 8. 30–32. Kasser, Rodolphe. 1991. "Alphabets, Coptic". In The Coptic Encyclopedia, edited by Aziz S. Atiya. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Volume 8. 32–41. Kasser, Rodolphe. 1991. "Alphabets, Old Coptic". In The Coptic Encyclopedia, edited by Aziz S. Atiya. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Volume 8. 41–45. Wolfgang Kosack: Koptisches Handlexikon des Bohairischen. Koptisch - Deutsch - Arabisch. Verlag Christoph Brunner, Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-9524018-9-7.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coptic script.

Michael Everson's Revised proposal to add the Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
to the BMP of the UCS Final Proposal to Encode Coptic Epact Numbers in ISO/IEC 1064 Copticsounds – a resource for the study of Coptic phonology Phonological overview of the Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
in comparison to classical and modern Greek. Coptic Unicode
input Michael Everson's Antinoou: A standard font for Coptic supported by the International Association for Coptic Studies. Ifao N Copte – A professional Coptic font for researchers, students and publishers has been developed by the French institute of oriental archeology (IFAO). Unicode, Mac and Windows compatible, this free font is available through downloading from the IFAO website (direct link). Coptic fonts ; Coptic fonts made by Laurent Bourcellier & Jonathan Perez, type designers ⲡⲓⲥⲁϧⲟ: Coptic font support – how to install, use and manipulate Coptic ASCII and Unicode
fonts Download Free Coptic Fonts The Coptic Alphabet
(omniglot.com) GNU FreeFont Coptic range in serif face

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Types of writing systems


History of writing Grapheme


Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts






Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician


Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic




Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung


Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma



Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand



Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa


Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type


Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec


Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang


Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut


Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)


Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs


Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman



Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom


Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao


ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation


Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

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1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
braille patterns


French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille

Frequency-based scripts

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Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code


e-book Braille
embosser Braille
translator Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo


Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait


Institute of America Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Library National Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio