Intaglio (/ɪnˈtæli.oʊ/ in-TAL-ee-oh; Italian: [inˈtaʎʎo]) is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print. Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may also be printed as intaglio plates.
1 Process 2 Brief history 3 Current use 4 Famous intaglio artists 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
In intaglio printing, the lines to be printed are cut into a metal
plate by means either of a cutting tool called a burin, held in the
hand – in which case the process is called engraving; or through the
corrosive action of acid – in which case the process is known as
etching. In etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin
ground or an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or
a similar tool, the image is engraved into the ground, revealing the
plate underneath. The plate is then dipped into acid. The acid bites
into the surface of the plate where it was exposed. Biting is a
printmaking term to describe the acid's etching, or incising, of the
image. After the plate is sufficiently bitten, the plate is removed
from the acid bath, and the ground is removed to prepare for the next
step in printing.
To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping
and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, or
grooves. The plate is then rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most
of the excess ink. The final smooth wipe is often done with newspaper
or old public phone book pages, leaving ink only in the incisions. A
damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going
through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the
plate's ink-filled grooves.The paper and plate are then covered by a
thick blanket to ensure even pressure when going through the rolling
press. The rolling press applies very high pressure through the
blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate. The
blanket is then lifted, revealing the paper and printed image.
Main articles: old master print and line engraving
Intaglio printmaking emerged in Europe well after the woodcut print,
with the earliest known surviving examples being undated designs for
playing cards made in Germany, using drypoint technique, probably in
the late 1430s.
Intaglio plate used in printmaking
At one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates, newspapers, books, maps and magazines, fabrics, wallpapers and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for paper or plastic currency, banknotes, passports and occasionally for high-value postage stamps. The appearance of engraving is sometimes mimicked for items such as wedding invitations by producing an embossment around lettering printed by another process (such as lithography or offset) to suggest the edges of an engraving plate.
Intaglio book page print
Famous intaglio artists
William Blake Albrecht Dürer Helen Frank Francisco Goya Stanley William Hayter Edward Hopper Max Klinger Käthe Kollwitz Mauricio Lasansky Lucas van Leyden Cheryl Anne Lorance Gabor Peterdi Pablo Picasso Anton Pieck Krishna Reddy Rembrandt Ludwig von Siegen James Abbott McNeill Whistler
Photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing
^ Strauss, Victor (1967). The printing industry: an introduction to
its many branches, processes, and products. Washington: Printing
Industries of America. ISBN 0835202720.
^ Mustalish, Rachel (2003). "
Look up intaglio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Stamping (metalworking) Intaglio (printmaking)
Inherently impermanent material
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