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Iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate
(British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O. These compounds exist most commonly as the heptahydrate (x = 7) but are known for several values of x. The hydrated form is used medically to treat iron deficiency, and also for industrial applications. Known since ancient times as copperas and as green vitriol, the blue-green heptahydrate is the most common form of this material. All the iron(II) sulfates dissolve in water to give the same aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry and is paramagnetic. The name copperas dates from times when the copper(II) sulfate was known as blue copperas, and perhaps in analogy, iron(II) and zinc sulfate were known respectively as green and white copperas.[14] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[15]

Contents

1 Uses

1.1 Medical use 1.2 Colorant 1.3 Other uses

2 Hydrates 3 Production and reactions

3.1 Reactions

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Uses[edit] Industrially, ferrous sulfate is mainly used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is a reducing agent, and as such is useful for the reduction of chromate in cement to less toxic Cr(III) compounds. Historically ferrous sulfate was used in the textile industry for centuries as a dye fixative. It is used historically to blacken leather and as a constituent of ink.[16] The preparation of sulfuric acid ('oil of vitriol') by the distillation of green vitriol (Iron(II) sulfate) has been known for at least 700 years. Medical use[edit] Main article: Iron
Iron
supplement Together with other iron compounds, ferrous sulfate is used to fortify foods and to treat and prevent iron deficiency anemia. Constipation is a frequent and uncomfortable side effect associated with the administration of oral iron supplements. Stool softeners often are prescribed to prevent constipation. Colorant[edit] Ferrous sulfate was used in the manufacture of inks, most notably iron gall ink, which was used from the middle ages until the end of the eighteenth century. Chemical tests made on the Lachish letters (c.588–586 BCE) showed the possible presence of iron.[17] It is thought that oak galls and copperas may have been used in making the ink on those letters.[18] It also finds use in wool dyeing as a mordant. Harewood, a material used in marquetry and parquetry since the 17th century, is also made using ferrous sulfate. Two different methods for the direct application of indigo dye were developed in England in the eighteenth century and remained in use well into the nineteenth century. One of these, known as china blue, involved iron(II) sulfate. After printing an insoluble form of indigo onto the fabric, the indigo was reduced to leuco-indigo in a sequence of baths of ferrous sulfate (with reoxidation to indigo in air between immersions). The china blue process could make sharp designs, but it could not produce the dark hues of other methods. Sometimes, it is included in canned black olives as an artificial colorant. Ferrous sulfate can also be used to stain concrete and some limestones and sandstones a yellowish rust color.[19] Woodworkers use ferrous sulfate solutions to color maple wood a silvery hue. Other uses[edit] In horticulture it is used for treating iron chlorosis.[20] Although not as rapid-acting as ferric edta, its effects are longer-lasting. It can be mixed with compost and dug into the soil to create a store which can last for years.[21] It is also used as a lawn conditioner,[21] and moss killer. In the second half of the 1850s ferrous sulfate was used as a photographic developer for collodion process images.[citation needed] Ferrous sulfate is sometimes added to the cooling water flowing through the brass tubes of turbine condensers to form a corrosion-resistant protective coating. It is used in gold refining to precipitate metallic gold from auric chloride solutions (gold dissolved in solution with aqua regia). It has been used in the purification of water by flocculation and for phosphate removal in municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants to prevent eutrophication of surface water bodies.[citation needed] It is used as a traditional method of treating wood panelling[clarification needed] on houses, either alone, dissolved in water, or as a component of water-based paint.[citation needed] Green vitriol
Green vitriol
is also a useful reagent in the identification of mushrooms.[22] Hydrates[edit] Iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate
can be found in various states of hydration, and several of these forms exist in nature.

FeSO4·H2O (mineral: Szomolnokite,[7] relatively rare) FeSO4·4H2O (mineral: Rozenite,[8] white, relatively common, may be dehydratation product of melanterite) FeSO4·5H2O (mineral: Siderotil,[1] relatively rare) FeSO4·6H2O (mineral: Ferrohexahydrite,[2] relatively rare) FeSO4·7H2O (mineral: Melanterite,[9] blue-green, relatively common)

Anhydrous iron(II) sulfate

The tetrahydrate is stabilized when the temperature of aqueous solutions reaches 56.6 °C (133.9 °F). At 64.8 °C (148.6 °F) these solutions form both the tetrahydrate and monohydrate.[4] All mentioned mineral forms are connected with oxidation zones of iron-bearing ore beds (pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, etc.) and related environments (like coal fire sites). Many undergo rapid dehydration and sometimes oxidation. Production and reactions[edit] In the finishing of steel prior to plating or coating, the steel sheet or rod is passed through pickling baths of sulfuric acid. This treatment produces large quantities of iron(II) sulfate as a by-product.[23]

Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2

Another source of large amounts results from the production of titanium dioxide from ilmenite via the sulfate process. Ferrous sulfate is also prepared commercially by oxidation of pyrite:

2 FeS2 + 7 O2 + 2 H2O → 2 FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4

Reactions[edit] Upon dissolving in water, ferrous sulfates form the metal aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which is an almost colorless, paramagnetic ion. On heating, iron(II) sulfate first loses its water of crystallization and the original green crystals are converted into a brown colored anhydrous solid. When further heated, the anhydrous material releases sulfur dioxide and white fumes of sulfur trioxide, leaving a reddish-brown iron(III) oxide. Decomposition of iron(II) sulfate begins at about 680 °C (1,256 °F).

2 FeSO4 → Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3

Like all iron(II) salts, iron(II) sulfate is a reducing agent. For example, it reduces nitric acid to nitrogen monoxide and chlorine to chloride:

6 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 + 2 HNO3 → 3 Fe2(SO4)3 + 4 H2O + 2 NO 6 FeSO4 + 3 Cl2 → 2 Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 FeCl3

Iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate
outside a titanium dioxide factory in Kaanaa, Pori, Finland.

Upon exposure to air, it oxidizes to form a corrosive brown-yellow coating of "basic ferric sulfate", which is an adduct of iron(III) oxide and iron(III) sulfate:

12 FeSO4 + 3 O2 → 4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 Fe2O3

See also[edit]

Iron(III) sulfate
Iron(III) sulfate
(ferric sulfate), the other common simple sulfate of iron. Copper(II) sulfate Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, also known as Mohr's salt, the common double salt of ammonium sulfate with iron(II) sulfate. Chalcanthum Ephraim Seehl known as an early manufacturer of green vitriol.[24]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f " Siderotil Mineral Data". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d e f "Ferrohexahydrite Mineral Data". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d e f g h Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0.  ^ a b Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 343.  ^ a b Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "iron(II) sulfate". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich
Co., Iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate
heptahydrate. Retrieved on 2014-08-03. ^ a b c d e Ralph, Jolyon; Chautitle, Ida. "Szomolnokite". Mindat.org. Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d e " Rozenite Mineral Data". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d e " Melanterite
Melanterite
Mineral Data". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c "MSDS of Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate". Fair Lawn, New Jersey: Fisher Scientific, Inc. Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d Weil, Matthias (2007). "The High-temperature β Modification of Iron(II) Sulfate". Acta Crystallographica Section E. International Union of Crystallography. 63 (12): i192. doi:10.1107/S160053680705475X. Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ a b c d Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate". Retrieved 2014-08-03.  ^ "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0346". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ Brown, Lesley (1993). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-861271-0.  ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ British Archeology magazine. http://www.archaeologyuk.org/ba/ba66/feat2.shtml (archive) ^ Torczyner, Lachish Letters, pp. 188–95 ^ Hyatt, The Interpreter's Bible, 1951, volume V, p. 1067 ^ How To Stain Concrete with Iron
Iron
Sulfate ^ Koenig, Rich and Kuhns, Mike: Control of Iron
Iron
Chlorosis
Chlorosis
in Ornamental and Crop Plants. (Utah State University, Salt Lake City, August 1996) p.3 ^ a b Handreck, Kevin (2002). Gardening Down Under: A Guide to Healthier Soils and Plants (2nd ed.). Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. pp. 146–47. ISBN 0-643-06677-2.  ^ Svrček, Mirko (1975). A color guide to familiar mushrooms (2nd ed.). London: Octopus Books. p. 30. ISBN 0-7064-0448-3.  ^ Wildermuth, Egon; Stark, Hans; Friedrich, Gabriele; Ebenhöch, Franz Ludwig; Kühborth, Brigitte; Silver, Jack; Rituper, Rafael (2005), " Iron
Iron
Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH  ^ Pryce, William (1778). Mineralogia Cornubiensis; a Treatise on Minerals, Mines and Mining. London: Phillips. p. 33. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iron(II) sulfate.

"Product Information". Chemical Land21. January 10, 2007.  How to Make Copperas ( Iron
Iron
Sulfate) from Pyrites  Hunt, T. Sterry (1879). "Copperas". The American Cyclopædia. 

v t e

Iron
Iron
compounds

Fe(-II)

Na2Fe(CO)4

Fe(0)

Fe(CO)5 Fe2(CO)9 Fe3(CO)12 Fe(CO)3CH3COC2H2C6H6

Fe(I)

FeH

Organoiron(I) compounds

(C5H5FeCO)2(CO)2

Fe(0,II)

Fe3C

Fe(II)

FeBr2 FeCl2 FeF2 FeI2 FeH2 FeMoO4 FeO Fe(OH)2 FeS FeSO4 FeSe FeSeO4 FeSi2 FeTiO3 FeCO3 FeC2O4 Fe(C2H3O2)2 Fe(C3H5O3)2 FeC6H6O7 FeC12H22O14 Fe2CrO4 Fe3(PO4)2 FeH2(CO)4 Fe(HCO3)2 Mg2FeH6

Organoiron(II) compounds

Fe(C5H5)2 Fe(C5H4P(C6H5)2)2 C4H4Fe(CO)3

Fe(0,III)

Fe3P

Fe(II,III)

Fe3O4 Fe3S4

Fe(III)

FeBr3 FeCl3 FeF3 FeI3 Fe(NO3)3 FeOCl FeO(OH) FePO4 Fe4(P2O7)3 Fe2(CrO4)3 Fe2(C2O4)3 Fe2O3 Fe2S3 Fe2(SO4)3 FeBO3 FeB

Organoiron(III) compounds

Fe(C5H5)2BF4 C6H8O7⋅xFe3+⋅yNH3

Fe(VI)

K2FeO4 BaFeO4

v t e

Salts and esters of the sulfate ion

H2SO4

He

Li2SO4 BeSO4 B esters ROSO3− (RO)2SO2 (NH4)2SO4 [N2H5]HSO4 (NH3OH)2SO4 NOHSO4 HOSO4 F Ne

Na2SO4 NaHSO4 MgSO4 Al2(SO4)3 Al2SO4(OAc)4 Si P SO42− HSO3HSO4 (HSO4)2 Cl Ar

K2SO4 KHSO4 CaSO4 Sc2(SO4)3 TiOSO4 VSO4 V2(SO4)3 VOSO4 CrSO4 Cr2(SO4)3 MnSO4 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 CoSO4 NiSO4 CuSO4 Cu2SO4 [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)]SO4 ZnSO4 Ga2(SO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr

RbHSO4 Rb2SO4 SrSO4 Y2(SO4)3 Zr(SO4)2 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh PdSO4 Ag2SO4 CdSO4 In2(SO4)3 SnSO4 Sb2(SO4)3 Te I Xe

Cs2SO4 BaSO4   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2SO4 HgSO4 Tl2SO4 Tl2(SO4)3 PbSO4 Bi2(SO4)3 Po At Rn

Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og

La Ce2(SO4)3 Ce(SO4)2 Pr2(SO4)3 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb2(SO4)3 Lu

Ac Th Pa U(SO4)2 UO2SO4 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

v t e

Other hematological agents

Antianemic preparations (B03)

Erythropoietins

Darbepoetin alfa Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta Peginesatide

Iron
Iron
supplements

Ferrous ascorbate Ferrous aspartate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous chloride Ferrous fumarate Ferrous gluconate Ferrous glycine sulfate Ferrous iodine Ferrous succinate Ferrous sulfate Ferrous tartrate Iron
Iron
sucrose Sodium ferric gluconate complex

Blood substitutes and perfusion solutions (B05)

Dextran Gelatin agents Hemoglobin crosfumaril Hemoglobin raffimer Hydroxyethyl starch Icodextrin Mannitol Serum albumin Sorbitol

Enzymes (B06AA)

Bromelain Chymotrypsin Deoxyribonuclease Fibrinolysin Hyaluronidase Streptokinase Trypsin

Drugs used i hereditary angioedema (B06AC)

C1-inhibitor Conestat alfa Ecallantide Icatibant

Pharmacy and pharmacology port

.