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The Info List - Copley Medal


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The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.[1] Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society
Royal Society
medal still awarded, and is the oldest surviving scientific award in the world,[2] having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray, for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge".[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Medal Recipients 3 References 4 External links

History[edit] The medal was created following a donation of £100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years.[4] The conditions for the medal have been changed several times; in 1736, it was suggested that "a medal or other honorary prize should be bestowed on the person whose experiment should be best approved", and this remained the rule until 1831, when the conditions were changed so that the medal would be awarded to the researcher that the Royal Society
Royal Society
Council decided most deserved it.[4] A second donation of £1666 13s. 4d. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, and the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal.[4] The medal in its current format is made of silver gilt and awarded with a £25000 prize.[1] Since its inception, it has been awarded to many notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize: 17 in Physics, 21 in Physiology or Medicine, and 14 in Chemistry. John Theophilus Desaguliers has won the medal the most often, winning in 1734, 1736 and 1741. In 1976, Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
became the first and, as of 2017, the only female recipient. Medal Recipients[edit]

Year Image Name Rationale Notes

1731

Gray, StephenStephen Gray "For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge" [5]

1732

Gray, StephenStephen Gray "For the Experiments he made for the year 1732" [5]

1733

No Award — —

1734

Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers "In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society" [6]

1735

No Award — —

1736

Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers "For his experiments made during the year" [6]

1737

Belchier, JohnJohn Belchier "For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour" [7]

1738

Valoue, JamesJames Valoue "For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society" —

1739

Hales, StephenStephen Hales "For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea" [8]

1740

Stuart, AlexanderAlexander Stuart "For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein" [9]

1741

Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers "For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year." [6]

1742

Middleton, ChristopherChristopher Middleton "For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay" [10]

1743

Trembley, AbrahamAbraham Trembley "For his Experiments on the Polypus" —

1744

Baker, HenryHenry Baker "For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum" [11]

1745

Watson, WilliamWilliam Watson "On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments" [12]

1746

Robins, BenjaminBenjamin Robins "On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles" [13]

1747

Knight, GowinGowin Knight "On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets" [14]

1748

Bradley, JamesJames Bradley "On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion" [15]

1749

Harrison, JohnJohn Harrison "On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time" [16]

1750

Edwards, GeorgeGeorge Edwards "On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects." [17]

1751

Canton, JohnJohn Canton "On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones" [18]

1752

Pringle, JohnJohn Pringle "On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society" [19]

1753

Franklin, BenjaminBenjamin Franklin "On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity" [20]

1754

Lewis, WilliamWilliam Lewis "For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials" [21]

1755

Huxham, JohnJohn Huxham "For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society" [22]

1756

No Award — —

1757

Cavendish, Lord CharlesLord Charles Cavendish "On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer" [14]

1758

Dollond, JohnJohn Dollond "On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society" [23]

1759

Smeaton, JohnJohn Smeaton "On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills" [24]

1760

Wilson, BenjaminBenjamin Wilson "For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year" [25]

1761

No Award — —

1762

No Award — —

1763

No Award — —

1764

Canton, JohnJohn Canton "For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids" [18]

1765

No Award — —

1766

Brownrigg, WilliamWilliam Brownrigg, Edward Delaval
Edward Delaval
and Henry Cavendish

"For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit. (Brownrigg)" "For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations. (Delaval)" "For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air. (Cavendish)"

[26]

1767

Ellis, JohnJohn Ellis "For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands" [27]

1768

Woulfe, PeterPeter Woulfe "For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances" [28]

1769

Hewson, WilliamWilliam Hewson "For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, – and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish" —

1770

Hamilton, WilliamWilliam Hamilton "For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna" [29]

1771

Raper, MatthewMatthew Raper "For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money" —

1772

Priestley, JosephJoseph Priestley "On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"

1773

Walsh, JohnJohn Walsh "For his Paper on the Torpedo" [30]

1774

No Award — —

1775

Maskelyne, NevilNevil Maskelyne "In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien" [31]

1776

Cook, JamesJames Cook "For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public" [32]

1777

Mudge, JohnJohn Mudge "On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form" —

1778

Hutton, CharlesCharles Hutton "For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments" [33]

1779

No Award — —

1780

Vince, SamuelSamuel Vince "For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [34]

1781

Herschel, WilliamWilliam Herschel "For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this star has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers" [35]

1782

Kirwan, RichardRichard Kirwan "As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts" [34]

1783

Goodricke, John John Goodricke
John Goodricke
and Thomas Hutchins "For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. (Goodricke)" "For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation. (Hutchins)"

[34]

1784

Waring, EdwardEdward Waring "For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series" [36]

1785

Roy, WilliamWilliam Roy "For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath" [37]

1786

No Award — —

1787

Hunter, JohnJohn Hunter "For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787" [38]

1788

Blagden, CharlesCharles Blagden "For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions" [39]

1789

Morgan, WilliamWilliam Morgan "For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [40]

1790

No Award — —

1791

Rennell, James James Rennell
James Rennell
and Jean-André Deluc

"For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions. (Rennell)" "For his Improvements in Hygrometry. (De Luc)"

[41]

1792

Thompson, BenjaminBenjamin Thompson "For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat" [42]

1793

No Award — —

1794

Volta, AlessandroAlessandro Volta "For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani" [41]

1795

Ramsden, JesseJesse Ramsden "For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates" [43]

1796

Atwood, GeorgeGeorge Atwood "For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies" [44]

1797

No Award — —

1798

Shuckburgh-Evelyn, George George Shuckburgh-Evelyn
George Shuckburgh-Evelyn
and Charles Hatchett

"For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Evelyn)" "For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Hatchett)"

[45]

1799

Hellins, JohnJohn Hellins "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [46]

1800

Howard, Edward CharlesEdward Charles Howard "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [47]

1801

Cooper, AstleyAstley Cooper "For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [48]

1802

Wollaston, William HydeWilliam Hyde Wollaston "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [49]

1803

Chenevix, RichardRichard Chenevix "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [50]

1804

Tennant, SmithsonSmithson Tennant "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [51]

1805

Davy, HumphryHumphry Davy "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [52]

1806

Knight, Thomas AndrewThomas Andrew Knight "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [53]

1807

Home, EverardEverard Home "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" —

1808

Henry, WilliamWilliam Henry "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions" —

1809

Troughton, EdwardEdward Troughton "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [54]

1810

No Award — —

1811

Brodie, Benjamin CollinsBenjamin Collins Brodie "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons" [55]

1812

No Award — —

1813

Brande, William ThomasWilliam Thomas Brande "For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" —

1814

Ivory, JamesJames Ivory "For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [56]

1815

Brewster, DavidDavid Brewster "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [57]

1816

No Award — —

1817

Kater, HenryHenry Kater "For his Experiments on the Pendulum" [58]

1818

Seppings, RobertRobert Seppings "For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" —

1819

No Award — —

1820

Orsted, Hans Christian !Hans Christian Ørsted "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [59]

1821

Sabine, Edward Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
and John Herschel

"For his various Communications to the Royal Society
Royal Society
relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions. (Sabine)" "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Herschel)"

[60]

1822

Buckland, WilliamWilliam Buckland "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [61]

1823

Pond, JohnJohn Pond "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" —

1824

Brinkley, JohnJohn Brinkley "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" [62]

1825

Arago, François François Arago
François Arago
and Peter Barlow "For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago)" "For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)"

[63]

1826

South, JamesJames South "For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions" [64]

1827

Prout, William William Prout
William Prout
and Henry Foster

"For his Paper entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general. (Prout)" "For his magnetic and other observations made during the Arctic expedition to Port Bowen. (Foster)"

[65]

1828

No Award — —

1829

No Award — —

1830

No Award — —

1831

Airy, George BiddellGeorge Biddell Airy "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [66]

1832

Faraday, Michael Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
and Siméon Denis Poisson "For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year. (Faraday)" "For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire. (Poisson)"

[67]

1833

No Award — —

1834

Plana, Giovanni Antonio AmedeoGiovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana "For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune" [68]

1835

Harris, William SnowWilliam Snow Harris "For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834" [52]

1836

Berzelius, Jöns Jacob Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
and Francis Kiernan "For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works. (Berzelius)" "For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. (Kiernan)"

1837

Becquerel, Antoine César Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel
and John Frederic Daniell

"For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. (Becquerel)" "For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836. (Daniell)"

[69]

1838

Gauss, Carl FriedrichCarl Friedrich Gauss and Michael Faraday

"For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism. (Gauss)" "For his researches in specific electrical induction. (Faraday)"

[70]

1839

Brown, RobertRobert Brown "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [71]

1840

von Liebig, Justus Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
and Jacques Charles François Sturm

"For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals. (Liebig)" "For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835. (Sturm)"

[72][73]

1841

Ohm, GeorgGeorg Ohm "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [74]

1842

MacCullagh, JamesJames MacCullagh "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [75]

1843

Dumas, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Dumas "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements" —

1844

Matteucci, CarloCarlo Matteucci "For his various researches in animal electricity" [76]

1845

Schwann, TheodorTheodor Schwann "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen" —

1846

Le Verrier, UrbainUrbain Le Verrier "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [77]

1847

Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [60]

1848

Adams, John CouchJohn Couch Adams "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [78]

1849

Murchison, RoderickRoderick Murchison "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains" —

1850

Hansen, Peter AndreasPeter Andreas Hansen "For his researches in physical astronomy" [52]

1851

Owen, RichardRichard Owen "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [79]

1852

von Humboldt, AlexanderAlexander von Humboldt "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [80]

1853

Dove, Heinrich WilhelmHeinrich Wilhelm Dove "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth" —

1854

Müller, Johannes PeterJohannes Peter Müller "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [81]

1855

Foucault, LéonLéon Foucault "For his various researches in experimental physics" [52]

1856

Milne-Edwards, HenriHenri Milne-Edwards "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology" —

1857

Chevreul, Michel EugèneMichel Eugène Chevreul "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [52]

1858

Lyell, CharlesCharles Lyell "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [52]

1859

Weber, Wilhelm EduardWilhelm Eduard Weber "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [82]

1860

Bunsen, RobertRobert Bunsen "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [52]

1861

Agassiz, LouisLouis Agassiz "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [52]

1862

Graham, ThomasThomas Graham "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [83]

1863

Sedgwick, AdamAdam Sedgwick "For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire" [84]

1864

Darwin, CharlesCharles Darwin "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [52]

1865

Chasles, MichelMichel Chasles "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [85]

1866

Plücker, JuliusJulius Plücker "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [86]

1867

von Baer, Karl ErnstKarl Ernst von Baer "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [52]

1868

Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [52]

1869

Regnault, Henri VictorHenri Victor Regnault "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaires au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [52]

1870

Joule, James PrescottJames Prescott Joule "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [52]

1871

von Mayer, JuliusJulius von Mayer "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [52]

1872

Wöhler, FriedrichFriedrich Wöhler "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [52]

1873

von Helmholtz, HermannHermann von Helmholtz "For his researches in physics and physiology" [87]

1874

Pasteur, LouisLouis Pasteur "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [52]

1875

von Hofmann, August WilhelmAugust Wilhelm von Hofmann "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [88]

1876

Bernard, ClaudeClaude Bernard "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [52]

1877

Dana, James DwightJames Dwight Dana "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [52]

1878

Boussingault, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Boussingault "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [89]

1879

Clausius, RudolfRudolf Clausius "For his well-known researches upon heat" [90]

1880

Sylvester, James JosephJames Joseph Sylvester "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [91]

1881

Wurtz, Charles-AdolpheCharles-Adolphe Wurtz "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry" —

1882

Cayley, ArthurArthur Cayley "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [92]

1883

Thomson, WilliamWilliam Thomson "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [93]

1884

Ludwig, CarlCarl Ludwig "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science" —

1885

Kekulé, AugustAugust Kekulé "For his researches in organic chemistry" [52]

1886

Neumann, Franz ErnstFranz Ernst Neumann "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [94]

1887

Hooker, Joseph DaltonJoseph Dalton Hooker "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [52]

1888

Huxley, Thomas HenryThomas Henry Huxley "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [52]

1889

Salmon, GeorgeGeorge Salmon "For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author" [95]

1890

Newcomb, SimonSimon Newcomb "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [96]

1891

Cannizzaro, StanislaoStanislao Cannizzaro "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [52]

1892

Virchow, RudolfRudolf Virchow "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [52]

1893

Stokes, GeorgeGeorge Stokes "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [97]

1894

Frankland, EdwardEdward Frankland "For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry" [98]

1895

Weierstrass, KarlKarl Weierstrass "For his investigations in pure mathematics" [99]

1896

Gegenbaur, KarlKarl Gegenbaur "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc" —

1897

von Kölliker, AlbertAlbert von Kölliker "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist" —

1898

Huggins, WilliamWilliam Huggins "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies" [52]

1899

Rayleigh, LordLord Rayleigh "In recognition of his contributions to physical science" [100]

1900

Berthelot, MarcellinMarcellin Berthelot "For his brilliant services to chemical science" [52]

1901

Gibbs, Josiah WillardJosiah Willard Gibbs "For his contributions to mathematical physics" [101]

1902

Lister, JosephJoseph Lister "In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery" [102]

1903

Suess, EduardEduard Suess "For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'" [102]

1904

Crookes, WilliamWilliam Crookes "For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects" [102]

1905

Mendeleev, DmitriDmitri Mendeleev "For his contributions to chemical and physical science" [102]

1906

Metchnikoff, ÉlieÉlie Metchnikoff "On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology" [102]

1907

Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson "On the ground of his investigations in optics" [102]

1908

Wallace, Alfred RusselAlfred Russel Wallace "On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection" [102]

1909

Hill, George WilliamGeorge William Hill "On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy" [102]

1910

Galton, FrancisFrancis Galton "On the ground of his researches in heredity" [102]

1911

Darwin, GeorgeGeorge Darwin "On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects" [102]

1912

Klein, FelixFelix Klein "On the ground of his researches in mathematics" [103]

1913

Lankester, RayRay Lankester "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [104]

1914

Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson "On the ground of his discoveries in physical science" [102]

1915

Pavlov, IvanIvan Pavlov "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [102]

1916

Dewar, JamesJames Dewar "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" [102]

1917

Roux, Pierre Paul ÉmilePierre Paul Émile Roux "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [105]

1918

Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [102]

1919

Bayliss, WilliamWilliam Bayliss "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [102]

1920

Brown, Horace TabbererHorace Tabberer Brown "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [106]

1921

Larmor, JosephJoseph Larmor "For his researches in mathematical physics" [107]

1922

Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [102]

1923

Lamb, HoraceHorace Lamb "For his researches in mathematical physics" [108]

1924

Sharpey-Schafer, Edward AlbertEdward Albert Sharpey-Schafer "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences" —

1925

Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [102]

1926

Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [109]

1927

Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington "For his distinguished work on neurology" [110]

1928

Parsons, Charles AlgernonCharles Algernon Parsons "For his contributions to engineering science" —

1929

Planck, MaxMax Planck "For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory" [111]

1930

Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg "For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity" [112]

1931

Schuster, ArthurArthur Schuster "For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism" [113]

1932

Hale, George ElleryGeorge Ellery Hale "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [114]

1933

Smith, TheobaldTheobald Smith "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [115]

1934

Haldane, John ScottJohn Scott Haldane "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [116]

1935

Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [117]

1936

Evans, ArthurArthur Evans "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [118]

1937

Dale, HenryHenry Dale "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [119]

1938

Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [120]

1939

Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [121]

1940

Langevin, PaulPaul Langevin "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [122]

1941

Lewis, ThomasThomas Lewis "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [123]

1942

Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [124]

1943

Barcroft, JosephJoseph Barcroft "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [125]

1944

Taylor, G. I.G. I. Taylor "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [126]

1945

Avery, OswaldOswald Avery "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [127]

1946

Adrian, EdgarEdgar Adrian "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [128]

1947

Hardy, G. H.G. H. Hardy "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [129]

1948

Hill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [130]

1949

de Hevesy, GeorgeGeorge de Hevesy "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [131]

1950

Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [132]

1951

Keilin, DavidDavid Keilin "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [133]

1952

Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [134]

1953

Kluyver, AlbertAlbert Kluyver "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology" —

1954

Whittaker, E. T.E. T. Whittaker "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [135]

1955

Fisher, RonaldRonald Fisher "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [136]

1956

Blackett, PatrickPatrick Blackett "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism" —

1957

Florey, HowardHoward Florey "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [137]

1958

Littlewood, John EdensorJohn Edensor Littlewood "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [138]

1959

Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [139]

1960

Jeffreys, HaroldHarold Jeffreys "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [140]

1961

Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [141]

1962

Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [142]

1963

Fildes, PaulPaul Fildes "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology." —

1964

Chapman, SydneySydney Chapman "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [143]

1965

Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology" —

1966

Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [102]

1967

Katz, BernardBernard Katz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction" —

1968

Reichstein, TadeuszTadeusz Reichstein "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids" —

1969

Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [102]

1970

Todd, Alexander R.Alexander R. Todd "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [102]

1971

Pirie, NormanNorman Pirie "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses" —

1972

Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [102]

1973

Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction" —

1974

Hodge, W. V. D.W. V. D. Hodge "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [144]

1975

Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology" [102]

1976

Hodgkin, DorothyDorothy Hodgkin "In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin" [102]

1977

Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" [102]

1978

Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [102]

1979

Perutz, MaxMax Perutz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [102]

1980

Barton, DerekDerek Barton "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and, in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [102]

1981

Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell "In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction" [102]

1982

Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth "In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules" [145]

1983

Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins" —

1984

Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [146]

1985

Klug, AaronAaron Klug "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them" —

1986

Peierls, RudolfRudolf Peierls "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials" —

1987

Hill, RobinRobin Hill "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis" —

1988

Atiyah, MichaelMichael Atiyah "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics" [147]

1989

Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response" —

1990

Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam "In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces" [148]

1991

Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner "In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project" —

1992

Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter "In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology" [149]

1993

Watson, JamesJames Watson "In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome" [150]

1994

Frank, Frederick CharlesFrederick Charles Frank "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems" —

1995

Fenner, FrankFrank Fenner "In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease" —

1996

Cottrell, AlanAlan Cottrell "In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects" [151]

1997

Huxley, HughHugh Huxley "In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology" —

1998

Lighthill, JamesJames Lighthill "In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics – analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying – and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing" [152]

1999

Smith, John MaynardJohn Maynard Smith "In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth" [153]

2000

Battersby, Alan R.Alan R. Battersby "In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12" —

2001

Miller, JacquesJacques Miller "For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells" —

2002

Pople, JohnJohn Pople "For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology" [154]

2003

Gurdon, JohnJohn Gurdon "For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology" —

2004

Kroto, HarryHarry Kroto "in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science" [155]

2005

Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse "for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division." —

2006

Hawking, StephenStephen Hawking "For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. " [32]

2007

May, RobertRobert May "for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance." —

2008

Penrose, RogerRoger Penrose "for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang." —

2009

Evans, MartinMartin Evans "for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics." —

2010

Cox, DavidDavid Cox "for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics." [156]

Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl "for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair." [156]

2011

McKenzie, DanDan McKenzie "For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates." —

2012

Walker, JohnJohn Walker "For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion." [157]

2013

Geim, AndreAndre Geim "For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two‐dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures." —

2014

Jeffreys, AlecAlec Jeffreys "For his pioneering work on variation and mutation in the human genome." [158]

2015

Higgs, PeterPeter Higgs "For his fundamental contribution to particle physics with his theory explaining the origin of mass in elementary particles, confirmed by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider." [159]

2016

Henderson, RichardRichard Henderson "In recognition of his fundamental and revolutionary contributions to the development of electron microscopy of biological materials, enabling their atomic structures to be deduced." [160]

2017

Wiles, AndrewAndrew Wiles "For his beautiful and unexpected proof of Fermat's Last Theorem which is one of the most important mathematical achievements of the 20th century." [161]

References[edit]

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Collection". American Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Chasles summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Plucker summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Helmholtz summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Journal of Industrial Science. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Jean Baptiste Boussingault" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Clausius summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Sylvester summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Cayley summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Thompson summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Neumann_Franz summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Salmon summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Newcomb summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Stokes summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863–1883". Science and Society Picture Library. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Weierstrass summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Rayleigh summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ "Gibbs summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Klein summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester" (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Notes and Records of the Royal Society". Royal Society
Royal Society
Publishing. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown" (PDF). Biochemical Journal. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Larmour summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Lamb summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Sir Charles Sherrington – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Planck summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "William Bragg – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Sir Arthur Schuster". The Astrophysical Journal. 81: 97. Bibcode:1935ApJ....81...97H. doi:10.1086/143618.  ^ "George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society
Royal Society
to Professor Theobald Smith". Science. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 78: 598. Bibcode:1933Sci....78R.598.. doi:10.1126/science.78.2035.598.  ^ "Oxford DNB article: Haldane, John Scott (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "C.T.R.Wilson – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S: Abstract". Nature. 148: 46. doi:10.1038/148046a0. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Sir Henry Dale – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Bohr_Niels summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Thomas H. Morgan – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Medal Awards of the Royal Society". Nature. Nature. 146: 750–752. doi:10.1038/146750a0. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Thomas Lewis". Cardiology Journal. Retrieved 2009-02-05. [dead link] ^ "Sir Robert Robinson – Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Sir Joseph Barcroft
Joseph Barcroft
of Cambridge". Archives of Disease in Childhood. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Taylor_Geoffrey summay". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "The Oswald T. Avery Collection: Biographical Information". United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Adrian, Edgar Douglas (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Hardy summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hill, Archibald Vivian (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S". Nature. 164: 1023–1030. doi:10.1038/1641023a0. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Chadwick, James (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Keilin, David (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Dirac, Paul(subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Whittaker summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Fisher summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Florey, Howard (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Littlewood summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
– Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Jeffreys summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Sir Hans Adolf Krebs". nobel-winners.com. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Chapman, Sydney (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Hodge summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ "Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth
John Cornforth
– Alumni & Friends". University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Chandrasekhar biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Atiyah biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Salam, Abdus (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Oxford DNB article:Porter, George (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Copley Medal". Royal Society
Royal Society
website. The Royal Society. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  ^ "MRS Website: Award Presentations". Materials Research Society. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Lighthill summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ " John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
January 6, 1920 – April 19, 2004". Genetics. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "Obituary: John A. Pople". The Observer. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ "FSU highlights". Florida State University. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ a b Two medals were awarded to celebrate the Society's 350th anniversary: "Recent award winners 2010". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2010-10-06.   ^ . The Royal Society http://royalsociety.org/news/top-scientists-2012/. Retrieved 2012-09-06.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Leicester University Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys
Alec Jeffreys
wins science's oldest prize". Leicester Mercury. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.  ^ Copley Medal 2015 ^ Copley Medal 2016 ^ [1]

External links[edit]

"Royal Society: Copley Medal". 

v t e

Awards, lectures and medals of the Royal Society

Awards

Armourers and Brasiers' Company Prize GlaxoSmithKline Prize Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
Prize Mullard Award Royal Society
Royal Society
Pfizer Award Royal Society
Royal Society
Wolfson Research Merit Award Royal Society
Royal Society
Prizes for Science Books

Prize Lectures

Bakerian Lecture Crick Lecture Croonian Lecture Ferrier Lecture Kavli Medal Leeuwenhoek Lecture Milner Award Paterson Lecture Rosalind Franklin Award Rutherford Memorial Lecture Wilkins-Bernal-Medawar Lecture

Fellowships

Fellow of the Royal Society Royal Society
Royal Society
University Research Fellowship Royal Society
Royal Society
Leverhulme Trust
Leverhulme Trust
Senior Research Fellowships Newton Advanced Fellowships Royal Society
Royal Society
Research Professorship Industry Fellowships Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
Fellowships

Medals

Buchanan Medal Copley Medal Darwin Medal Davy Medal Gabor Medal Hughes Medal Leverhulme Medal Royal Medal Rumford Medal Sylvester Medal

Previous awards

Bernal Lecture Esso Energy Award Florey Lecture Kohn Award Medawar Lecture Philips Lecture Pilgrim Trust Lecture Tercentenary Lectures Wilkins Lecture Microsoft Award UK-Canada Rutherford Lecture Blackett Memorial Lecture Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
Lecture Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
Lecture

v t e

Copley Medallists (1731–1750)

Stephen Gray (1731) Stephen Gray (1732) John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers
(1734) John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers
(1736) John Belchier
John Belchier
(1737) James Valoue (1738) Stephen Hales
Stephen Hales
(1739) Alexander Stuart (1740) John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers
(1741) Christopher Middleton (1742) Abraham Trembley
Abraham Trembley
(1743) Henry Baker (1744) William Watson (1745) Benjamin Robins
Benjamin Robins
(1746) Gowin Knight (1747) James Bradley
James Bradley
(1748) John Harrison
John Harrison
(1749) George Edwards (1750)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1751–1800)

John Canton
John Canton
(1751) John Pringle
John Pringle
(1752) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1753) William Lewis (1754) John Huxham
John Huxham
(1755) Charles Cavendish (1757) John Dollond
John Dollond
(1758) John Smeaton
John Smeaton
(1759) Benjamin Wilson (1760) John Canton
John Canton
(1764) William Brownrigg / Edward Delaval
Edward Delaval
/ Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish
(1766) John Ellis (1767) Peter Woulfe (1768) William Hewson (1769) William Hamilton (1770) Matthew Raper (1771) Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
(1772) John Walsh (1773) Nevil Maskelyne
Nevil Maskelyne
(1775) James Cook
James Cook
(1776) John Mudge
John Mudge
(1777) Charles Hutton
Charles Hutton
(1778) Samuel Vince
Samuel Vince
(1780) William Herschel
William Herschel
(1781) Richard Kirwan
Richard Kirwan
(1782) John Goodricke
John Goodricke
/ Thomas Hutchins (1783) Edward Waring
Edward Waring
(1784) William Roy
William Roy
(1785) John Hunter (1787) Charles Blagden
Charles Blagden
(1788) William Morgan (1789) James Rennell
James Rennell
/ Jean-André Deluc
Jean-André Deluc
(1791) Benjamin Thompson
Benjamin Thompson
(1792) Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
(1794) Jesse Ramsden
Jesse Ramsden
(1795) George Atwood (1796) George Shuckburgh-Evelyn
George Shuckburgh-Evelyn
/ Charles Hatchett
Charles Hatchett
(1798) John Hellins (1799) Edward Charles Howard (1800)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1801–1850)

Astley Cooper
Astley Cooper
(1801) William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
(1802) Richard Chenevix (1803) Smithson Tennant
Smithson Tennant
(1804) Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
(1805) Thomas Andrew Knight
Thomas Andrew Knight
(1806) Everard Home
Everard Home
(1807) William Henry (1808) Edward Troughton
Edward Troughton
(1809) Benjamin Collins Brodie (1811) William Thomas Brande
William Thomas Brande
(1813) James Ivory (1814) David Brewster
David Brewster
(1815) Henry Kater
Henry Kater
(1817) Robert Seppings
Robert Seppings
(1818) Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted
(1820) Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
/ John Herschel
John Herschel
(1821) William Buckland
William Buckland
(1822) John Pond (1823) John Brinkley (1824) François Arago
François Arago
/ Peter Barlow (1825) James South (1826) William Prout
William Prout
/ Henry Foster (1827) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1831) Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
/ Siméon Denis Poisson
Siméon Denis Poisson
(1832) Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
(1834) William Snow Harris
William Snow Harris
(1835) Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
/ Francis Kiernan (1836) Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel
/ John Frederic Daniell
John Frederic Daniell
(1837) Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss
/ Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
(1838) Robert Brown (1839) Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
/ Jacques Charles François Sturm
Jacques Charles François Sturm
(1840) Georg Ohm
Georg Ohm
(1841) James MacCullagh
James MacCullagh
(1842) Jean-Baptiste Dumas
Jean-Baptiste Dumas
(1843) Carlo Matteucci (1844) Theodor Schwann
Theodor Schwann
(1845) Urbain Le Verrier
Urbain Le Verrier
(1846) John Herschel
John Herschel
(1847) John Couch Adams
John Couch Adams
(1848) Roderick Murchison
Roderick Murchison
(1849) Peter Andreas Hansen
Peter Andreas Hansen
(1850)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1851–1900)

Richard Owen
Richard Owen
(1851) Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
(1852) Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
(1853) Johannes Peter Müller
Johannes Peter Müller
(1854) Léon Foucault
Léon Foucault
(1855) Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards
(1856) Michel Eugène Chevreul
Michel Eugène Chevreul
(1857) Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
(1858) Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Wilhelm Eduard Weber
(1859) Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
(1860) Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
(1861) Thomas Graham (1862) Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
(1863) Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(1864) Michel Chasles
Michel Chasles
(1865) Julius Plücker
Julius Plücker
(1866) Karl Ernst von Baer (1867) Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
(1868) Henri Victor Regnault
Henri Victor Regnault
(1869) James Prescott Joule
James Prescott Joule
(1870) Julius Robert von Mayer (1871) Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler
(1872) Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1873) Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(1874) August Wilhelm von Hofmann
August Wilhelm von Hofmann
(1875) Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
(1876) James Dwight Dana
James Dwight Dana
(1877) Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
(1878) Rudolf Clausius
Rudolf Clausius
(1879) James Joseph Sylvester
James Joseph Sylvester
(1880) Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Charles Adolphe Wurtz
(1881) Arthur Cayley
Arthur Cayley
(1882) William Thomson (1883) Carl Ludwig
Carl Ludwig
(1884) Friedrich August Kekulé
August Kekulé
von Stradonitz (1885) Franz Ernst Neumann
Franz Ernst Neumann
(1886) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1887) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1888) George Salmon
George Salmon
(1889) Simon Newcomb
Simon Newcomb
(1890) Stanislao Cannizzaro
Stanislao Cannizzaro
(1891) Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
(1892) George Gabriel Stokes (1893) Edward Frankland
Edward Frankland
(1894) Karl Weierstrass
Karl Weierstrass
(1895) Karl Gegenbaur
Karl Gegenbaur
(1896) Albert von Kölliker
Albert von Kölliker
(1897) William Huggins
William Huggins
(1898) John William Strutt (1899) Marcellin Berthelot
Marcellin Berthelot
(1900)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1901–1950)

Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
(1901) Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister
(1902) Eduard Suess
Eduard Suess
(1903) William Crookes
William Crookes
(1904) Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
(1905) Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
(1906) Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson
(1907) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(1908) George William Hill
George William Hill
(1909) Francis Galton
Francis Galton
(1910) George Darwin
George Darwin
(1911) Felix Klein
Felix Klein
(1912) Ray Lankester
Ray Lankester
(1913) J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
(1914) Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
(1915) James Dewar
James Dewar
(1916) Pierre Paul Émile Roux
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
(1917) Hendrik Lorentz
Hendrik Lorentz
(1918) William Bayliss
William Bayliss
(1919) Horace Tabberer Brown
Horace Tabberer Brown
(1920) Joseph Larmor (1921) Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
(1922) Horace Lamb
Horace Lamb
(1923) Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
(1924) Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(1926) Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
(1927) Charles Algernon Parsons
Charles Algernon Parsons
(1928) Max Planck
Max Planck
(1929) William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
(1930) Arthur Schuster
Arthur Schuster
(1931) George Ellery Hale
George Ellery Hale
(1932) Theobald Smith
Theobald Smith
(1933) John Scott Haldane
John Scott Haldane
(1934) Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
(1935) Arthur Evans
Arthur Evans
(1936) Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
(1937) Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1938) Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan
(1939) Paul Langevin
Paul Langevin
(1940) Thomas Lewis (1941) Robert Robinson (1942) Joseph Barcroft
Joseph Barcroft
(1943) Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1944) Oswald Avery
Oswald Avery
(1945) Edgar Douglas Adrian (1946) G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
(1947) Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
(1948) George de Hevesy
George de Hevesy
(1949) James Chadwick
James Chadwick
(1950)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1951–2000)

David Keilin
David Keilin
(1951) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1952) Albert Kluyver
Albert Kluyver
(1953) E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker
(1954) Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
(1955) Patrick Blackett (1956) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1957) John Edensor Littlewood (1958) Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
(1959) Harold Jeffreys
Harold Jeffreys
(1960) Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs
(1961) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1962) Paul Fildes
Paul Fildes
(1963) Sydney Chapman (1964) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1965) Lawrence Bragg
Lawrence Bragg
(1966) Bernard Katz (1967) Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
(1968) Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
(1969) Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd
(1970) Norman Pirie (1971) Nevill Francis Mott (1972) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1973) W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge
(1974) Francis Crick
Francis Crick
(1975) Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1976) Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1977) Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
(1978) Max Perutz
Max Perutz
(1979) Derek Barton (1980) Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell
(1981) John Cornforth
John Cornforth
(1982) Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter
(1983) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1984) Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1985) Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
(1986) Robin Hill (1987) Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1988) César Milstein
César Milstein
(1989) Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
(1990) Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
(1991) George Porter
George Porter
(1992) James D. Watson (1993) Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank
(1994) Frank Fenner (1995) Alan Cottrell
Alan Cottrell
(1996) Hugh Huxley (1997) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1998) John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
(1999) Alan Battersby (2000)

v t e

Copley Medallists (2001–present)

Jacques Miller (2001) John Pople (2002) John Gurdon
John Gurdon
(2003) Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
(2004) Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2005) Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(2006) Robert May (2007) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
(2008) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(2009) David Cox / Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
(2010) Dan McKenzie (2011) John E. Walker (2012) Andre Geim
Andre Geim
(2013) Alec Jeffreys
Alec Jeffreys
(2014) Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2015) Richard Henderson (2016) A

.