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Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language. It is the official language of the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and is an indigenous language of the Realm of New Zealand. Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori is closely related to New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori but is a distinct language. Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori is simply called Māori when there is no need to disambiguate it from New Zealand Māori, but it is also known as Māori Kūki 'Āirani (or Maori Kuki Airani), or, controversially, Rarotongan. Many Cook Islanders also call it Te reo Ipukarea, literally "the language of the Ancestral Homeland".

Contents

1 Official status

1.1 Te Reo Maori Act definition

2 Writing system
Writing system
and pronunciation

2.1 Consonants 2.2 Vowels

3 Grammar

3.1 Personal pronouns 3.2 Tense-Aspect-Mood markers 3.3 Possessives

4 Vocabulary 5 Dialectology 6 Notes 7 Sources 8 External links

Official status[edit] Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori became an official language of the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
in 2003,[6] but has no official status in New Zealand, despite the fact that New Zealand
New Zealand
is signatory to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Te Reo Maori Act definition[edit] The Te Reo Maori Act states that Māori:

(a) means the Māori language
Māori language
(including its various dialects) as spoken or written in any island of the Cook Islands; and (b) Is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka; and (c) Includes Māori that conforms to the national standard for Māori approved by Kopapa Reo

(see external links). Pukapukan is considered by scholars and speakers alike to be a distinct language more closely related to Sāmoan and Tokelauan than Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori. It belongs to the Samoic subgroup of the Polynesian language family. The intention behind including Pukapukan in the definition of Te Reo Maori was to ensure its protection. The dialects[7] of the East Polynesian varieties of the Cook Islands (collectively referred to as Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori) are:

Rakahanga-Manihiki Penrhyn (Tongarevan or Mangarongaro);[8] Ngā Pū Toru (the dialects of Atiu, Mitiaro
Mitiaro
and Mauke) Aitutaki ; Rarotongan Mangaia.

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori is closely related to Tahitian and New Zealand Māori, and there is a degree of mutual intelligibility with both of these languages. The language is theoretically regulated by the Kopapa Reo created in 2003, but this organisation is currently dormant. Writing system
Writing system
and pronunciation[edit] There is a debate about the standardisation of the writing system. Although the usage of the macron (־) te makarona and the glottal stop amata (ꞌ) (/ʔ/) is recommended, most speakers do not use the two diacritics in everyday writing. The Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori Revised New Testament uses a standardised orthography (spelling system) that includes the diacritics when they are phonemic but not elsewhere. Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal

Nasal m n ŋ

Plosive p t k ʔ

Tap

ɾ

Fricative f1 v s2

h3

Present only in Manihiki Present only in Penrhyn Present only in Manihiki and Penrhyn

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back

Close i iː

u uː

Close-mid e eː

o oː

Open

a aː

Grammar[edit] Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori is an isolating language with very little morphology. Case is marked by the particle that initiates a noun phrase, and like most East Polynesian languages, Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori has nominative-accusative case marking. The unmarked constituent order is predicate initial. That is, verb initial in verbal sentences and nominal-predicate initial in non-verbal sentences. Personal pronouns[edit] See also: Austronesian personal pronouns

Person Singular Dual Plural

1st inclusive au tāua tātou1

1st exclusive māua mātou2

2nd koe kōrua kōtou

3rd aia rāua rātou

you -2 or more- and I they and I

Singular pronoun examples

Pronoun Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori English Word-to-word and gloss

au Ka 'aere au ki te 'āpi'i āpōpō  listen I'm going to school tomorrow. (unaccomplished asp.)/ go / I / (prep. goal/destination) / the / learn / tomorrow

Ka 'ārote au inana'i, nō te ua rā, kua 'akakore au I was going to do the ploughing yesterday, but gave it up because of the rain. (unaccomplished asp.) / plough / I / yesterday / because (origin) / the / rain / day /(perfect asp.) / give up (litt. "do nothing") /I

koe Kua kino iā koe tō mātou mōtokā You damaged our car. (perfect asp.) / bad / by / you /(possession)/we (exclusive) /car

Ko koe 'oki, te tangata tā te 'akavā e kimi nei You are the person the police are looking for. (subject marker) / you / also / the / man / (possession) / the / police / (progressive asp. with "nei") /look for/here and now.

aia 'Ea'a 'aia i 'aere mai ei Why did he/she come? why ('ea'a... ei) / he or she / (accomplished asp) / go / towards me /

Kāre 'aia i konei He/she is not here. (negation asp.) / he or she / (marking position) / here

Dual pronoun examples

Pronoun Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori English Word-to-word and gloss

Tāua 'aere tāua ! Let us go! go / we two (inclusive)

Ko tō tāua taeake tērā ake Here come our friends. (subject marker) / (possession) / we two (inclusive) / friend or relative of the same generation (brother, sister, cousin either sex) speaking, but not in laws./ that (deictic)/ a little time (or distance)away

we two, us two (he/she and I) Ka 'oki māua ko Taria ki te kāinga  listen Taria and I are going back home. (unaccomplished asp.)/ return / we two (exclusive) / with / Taria/ (prep. goal)/ the / home

To tāua taeake tērā ake Here come our friends. (subject marker) / possession / we two (exclusive) / friend / that (deictic)/ a little time (or distance away)

Kōrua : you two 'āe ! kua rongo kōrua i te nūti! Hey! Have you heard the news? hey (interj) / (perfect asp.) / hear / you two / (object marker) / the / news /

Na kōrua teia puka This book belongs to you two. (Possession) / you two / this (deictic) / book

Rāua : they, them (the two of them) Tuatua muna tēia, ka akakite 'ua atu au kia rāua This is a confidential matter, I shall only tell it to those two. speak, speech / secret / this / (unaccomplished asp.) / reveal (make known) / only / away (from the speaker)/ I / (prep. ki+a)towards (someone)/ they two

No 'ea mai rāua ? Where have the two of them been? / What have they been doing? from / (time and space interr.) / (indicating progression of time towards present) / they two

Plural pronoun examples

Pronoun Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori English Word-to-word and gloss

Tātou : We, us (you -2 or more- and I) Ko'ai tā tātou e tiaki nei Who are we waiting for? Who (subject marker+identity interr.) / (possession) / we, all of us (inclusive) / (progressive asp.) / wait for / here and now

Kāre ā tātou kai toe We have no more food. (Negation asp.) / (possession) / we, all of us (inclusive) / eat, food / remain, remaining, the rest

Mātou : we, us (they and I) Ko mātou ma Tere mā i 'aere mai ei We came with Tere and the others. (subject marker)/ we (exclusive) / with, and / Tere / (part used only after persons meaning those in company with / (accomplisshed asp.) / go / (movement towards speaker) / (emphasis marks)

Kua kite mai koe ia mātou You saw us. (perfect asp.) / see(towards speaker) / you / at someone (i+a) / we (exclusive)

Kōtou : (all of you) E 'aere atu kōtou, ka āru atu au You go on, and I'll follow. (imperative asp.)/ go / (away from the speaker) / you all / (unaccomplished asp.) / follow / go / (away from the speaker) / I

Ko kōtou ko'ai mā i aere ei ki te tautai?  listen Who did you go fishing with? (Subject marker) / you all / who (identity interr.) / in company with / (accomplished asp.) / go / (emphasis) / (goal/destination) / the / fishing

Rātou : they, them (more than two) Kua pekapeka rātou ko Tere They and Tere have quarrelled. (perfect asp.)/ trouble / they all / (subject marker)/ Tere

Nō rātou te pupu māro'iro'i They have the strongest team. (Possession) / they all / the / team (litt. group of people) / strong

Tense-Aspect-Mood markers[edit]

Marker Aspect Examples

Tē... nei present continuous

Tē manako nei au i te 'oki ki te 'are 'I am thinking of going back to the house' Tē kata nei rātou 'They are laughing' Kāre au e tanu nei i te pia 'I'm not planting any arrowroot'

Kia Mildly imperative or exhortatory, expressing a desire, a wish rather than a strong command.

Kia vave mai! 'be quick ! (don't be long!)' Kia viviki mai! 'be quick (don't dawdle!)' Kia manuia! 'good luck!' Kia rave ana koe i tēnā 'anga'anga  : would you do that job; Kia tae mai ki te anga'anga ā te pōpongi Mōnitē : come to work on Monday morning; Teia te tātāpaka, kia kai koe : Here's the breadfruit pudding, eat up.

e Imperative, order

e 'eke koe ki raro : you get down; e tū ki kō : stand over there

Auraka interdiction, don't

Auraka rava koe e 'āmiri i tēia niuniu ora, ka 'uti'utiꞌia koe : Don't on any account touch this live wire, you'll get a shock

kāre indicate the negation, not, nothing, nowhere

Kāre nō te ua : It 'll not rain; Kāre a Tī tuatua : Tī doesn't have anything to say

e… ana habitual action or state

E 'aere ana koe ki te 'ura : Do you go to the dance?: E no'o ana aia ki Nikao i tē reira tuātau : he used to live in Nikao at that time

Ka Refers prospectively to the commencement of an action or state. Often translatable by and English future tense or "going to" construction

Ka imene a Mere ākonei ite pō : Mary is going to sing later on tonight; Kua kite au ē ka riri a Tere : I know (or knew) that Tere will (or would) be angry

Kua translatable by an English simple past or a present tense (with adjectives)

Kua kite mai koe ia mātou : You saw us; Kua meitaki koe ? : Are you better now? Kua oti te tārekareka : the match is over now

Most of the preceding examples were taken from Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995. Possessives[edit] Like most other Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
(Tahitian, New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori, Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan ...), Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori has two categories of possessives, "a" and "o". Generally, the "a" category is used when the possessor has or had control over the initiation of the possessive relationship. Usually this means that the possessor is superior or dominant to what is owned, or that the possession is considered as alienable. The "o" category is used when the possessor has or had no control over the initiation of the relationship. This usually means that the possessor is subordinate or inferior to what is owned, or that the possession is considered to be inalienable. The following list indicates the types of things in the different categories:

a is used in speaking of

– Movable property, instruments, – Food and drink, – Husband, wife, children, grandchildren, girlfriend, boyfriend, – Animals and pets, (except for horses) – People in an inferior position Te puaka a tērā vaꞌine : the pig belonging to that woman; ā Tere tamariki : Tere's children; Kāre ā Tupe mā ika inapō : Tupe and the rest didn't get any fish last night Tāku ; Tāꞌau ; Tāna ; Tā tāua ; Tā māua…. : my, mine ; your, yours ; his, her, hers, our ours… Ko tāku vaꞌine tēia : This is my wife; Ko tāna tāne tērā : That's her husband; Tā kotou ꞌapinga : your possession(s); Tā Tare ꞌapinga : Tērā possession(s);

o is used in speaking of

– Parts of anything – Feelings – Buildings and transport (including horses) – Clothes – Parents or other relatives (not husband, wife, children…) – Superiors Te 'are o Tere : The house belonging to Tere; ō Tere pare : Tere's hat; Kāre ō Tina no'o anga e no'o ei : Tina hasn't got anywhere to sit; Tōku ; Tō'ou ; Tōna ; Tō tāua ; Tō māua…: my, mine  ; your, yours ; his, her, hers ; our, ours … Ko tōku 'are tēia : This is my house; I tōku manako, ka tika tāna : In my opinion, he'll be right; Tēia tōku, tērā tō'ou : This is mine here, that's yours over there Vocabulary[edit] Pia : Polynesian arrowroot Kata : laugh at; laughter; kata 'āviri : ridicule, jeer, mock Tanu : to plant, cultivate land 'anga'anga : work, job Pōpongi : morning Tātāpaka : a kind of breadfruit pudding 'ura : dance, to dance Tuātau : time, period, season ; ē tuātau 'ua atu : forever 'īmene : to sing, song Riri : be angry with (ki) Tārekareka : entertain, amuse, match, game, play game Dialectology[edit] Although most words of the various dialects of Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori are identical, there are some variations:

Rarotonga Aitutaki Mangaia Ngāputoru Manihiki Tongareva English

tuatua 'autara taratara Araara vananga akaiti speak, speech

ꞌānau

ꞌānau ꞌānau fanau hanau family

kūmara kū'ara kū'ara kūmara kūmara kumala sweet potatoes

kāre kā'ore, 'ā'ore E'i, 'āore ꞌāita, kāre kaua, kāre kore no, not

tātā kiriti tātā tātā tātā tata write

'ura koni 'ura 'ingo, oriori, ꞌura Hupahupa kosaki dance

'akaipoipo 'akaipoipo 'ā'āipoipo 'akaipoipo fakaipoipo selenga wedding

'īkoke koroio rakiki tūngāngā Hikoke mokisi thin

'are 'are 'are 'are fare hare house

ma'ata 'atupaka ngao nui, nunui, ranuinui kore reka polia big

matū, pete ngenengene pori poripori menemene suesue fat

Notes[edit]

^ Rarotonga at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Tongareva (Penrhyn) at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Rakahanga-Manihiki at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles". Retrieved 8 December 2017.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rarotongan". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Penrhyn". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rakahanga-Manihiki". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Since 1915, English had been the only official language of the Cook Islands ^ in the sense of having mutual intelligibility ^ Tongarevan is sometimes also considered as a distinct language.

Sources[edit]

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Database Project, An online project created to build a collection of Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Words based on existing print dictionaries and other sources. Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa, edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995. A dictionary of the Maori Language of Rarotonga, Manuscript by Stephen Savage, Suva : IPS, USP in association with the Ministry of Education of the Cook Islands, 1983. Kai Korero : Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Language Coursebook, Tai Carpentier and Clive Beaumont, Pasifika Press, 1995. (A useful learning Method with oral skills cassette) Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Book by Taiora Matenga-Smith. Published by the Institute of Pacific Studies. Maori Lessons for the Cook Islands, by Taira Rere. Wellington, Islands Educational Division, Department of Education, 1960. Conversational Maori, Rarotongan Language, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga, Government Printer. 1961. Some Maori Lessons, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga. Curriculum Production Unit, Department of Education. 1976. More Maori Lessons, by Taira Rere. Suva, University of the South Pacific.1976 Maori Spelling: Notes for Teachers, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga: Curriculum Production Unit, Education Department.1977. Traditions and Some Words of the Language of Danger or Pukapuka Island. Journal of the Polynesian Society
Polynesian Society
13:173-176.1904. Collection of Articles on Rarotonga Language, by Jasper Buse. London: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. 1963. Manihikian Traditional Narratives: In English and Manihikian: Stories of the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(Na fakahiti o Manihiki). Papatoetoe, New Zealand: Te Ropu Kahurangi.1988 Te korero o Aitutaki, na te Are Korero o Aitutaki, Ministry of Cultural Development, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 1992 Atiu
Atiu
nui Maruarua : E au tua ta'ito, Vainerere Tangatapoto et al. University of South Pacific, Suva 1984. (in Maori and English) Learning Rarotonga Maori, by Maki'uti Tongia, Ministry of Cultural Development, Rarotonga 1999. Te uri Reo Maori (translating in Maori), by Maki'uti Tongia, Punanga o te reo. 1996. Atiu, e enua e tona iti tangata, te au tata tuatua Ngatupuna Kautai...(et al.), Suva, University of the South Pacific.1993. (Maori translation of Atiu : an island Community) A vocabulary of the Mangaian language by Christian, F. W. 1924. Bernice P. Bishop Bulletin 2. Honolulu, Bernice P. Bishop Museum. E au tuatua ta'ito no Manihiki, Kauraka Kauraka, IPS, USP, Suva. 1987.

External links[edit]

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Database Dictionary of Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Languages. Te akataka reo Rarotonga; or, Rarotongan and English grammar by the Rev Aaron Buzacott of the London Missionary Society, Rarotonga. 1854. Old grammar in english and Rarotongan "Tuatua mai!" Learn Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Te Reo Maori Act 2003 SBS Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori Radio Program. Updated each week http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/dictionaries.asp http://www.cookislandsmaori.com/ Online version of Jasper Buse and Raututi Taringa Dictionary Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Ministry of Cultural Development Te Reo Māori Kūki 'Āirani i roto i te Kurakarāma o Aotearoa (Cook Islands Maori in the New Zealand
New Zealand
Curriculum) Collected songs and legends from the southern Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(c. 1883–1912) at the New Zealand
New Zealand
Electronic Text Centre Box of 324 index cards of plant and animal names archived with Kaipuleohone Paradisec has an open access collection of Cook Island Maori materials Materials on Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Maori are included in the open access [Arthur Capell] collection (AC1) held by Paradisec.

v t e

Languages of the Realm of New Zealand

Major language

English

New Zealand
New Zealand
English

Indigenous languages

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori Moriori Niuean Penrhyn Pukapukan Rakahanga-Manihiki Tokelauan

Immigrant languages

Chinese

Cantonese Mandarin

French Hindi

Fiji Hindi

Kiribati Rotuman Samoan Tongan Tuvaluan

Sign languages

New Zealand
New Zealand
Sign Language

v t e

Languages of French Polynesia

Official languages

French Tahitian

Indigenous languages

Mangarevan Marquesan Puka-Pukan Rapan Rarotongan Tubuaian Tuamotuan

v t e

Fijian–Polynesian languages

Polynesian

East

Marquesic

Hawaiian Mangerevan Marquesan

Tahitic

Austral Māori Moriori Penrhyn Rakahanga-Manihiki Rarotongan Tahitian Tuamotuan

Other

Rapa Rapa Nui

West

Samoic

Niuatoputapu Pukapuka Samoan Tokelauan

Ellicean

Kapingamarangi Nukumanu Nukuoro Nukuria Ontong Java Sikaiana Takuu Tuvaluan Vaeakau-Taumako

Futunic

Anuta Emae Futunan Futuna-Aniwan Mele-Fila Pukapukan Rennellese Tikopia Wallisian West Uvean

Tongic

Niuafoʻou Niuean Tongan

Fijian

East

Fijian Gone Dau Lauan Lomaiviti

West

Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Western Fijian

Other

Rotuman

Authority control

.