1 Definition and characterization 2 Classification
2.1 Banter 2.2 Discussion 2.3 Subject 2.4 Functions
3.1 Differences between men and women 3.2 Between strangers 3.3 Narcissism 3.4 Artificial intelligence 3.5 One's self
4 In the media 5 Literature
5.1 In fiction 5.2 In "Six Benefits of Better Conversation"
6 See also 7 References 8 Works cited 9 External links
Definition and characterization
No generally accepted definition of conversation exists, beyond the
fact that a conversation involves at least two people talking
together. Consequently, the term is often defined by what it is
not. A ritualized exchange such as a mutual greeting is not a
conversation, and an interaction that includes a marked status
differential (such as a boss giving orders) is also not a
conversation. An interaction with a tightly focused topic or
purpose is also generally not considered a conversation.
Summarizing these properties, one authority writes that "Conversation
is the kind of speech that happens informally, symmetrically, and for
the purposes of establishing and maintaining social ties."
From a less technical perspective, a writer on etiquette in the early
20th century defined conversation as the polite give and take of
subjects thought of by people talking with each other for company.
Conversations follow rules of etiquette because conversations are
social interactions, and therefore depend on social convention.
Specific rules for conversation arise from the cooperative principle.
Failure to adhere to these rules causes the conversation to
deteriorate or eventually to end. Contributions to a conversation are
responses to what has previously been said.
Conversations may be the optimal form of communication, depending on
the participants' intended ends. Conversations may be ideal when, for
example, each party desires a relatively equal exchange of
information, or when the parties desire to build social ties. On the
other hand, if permanency or the ability to review such information is
important, written communication may be ideal. Or if time-efficient
communication is most important, a speech may be preferable.
Important factors in delivering a banter is the subtext, situation and the rapport with the person. Every line in a banter should be able to evoke both an emotional response and ownership without hurting one's feelings. Following a structure that the involved parties understand is important, even if the subject and structure is absurd, a certain level of progression should be kept in a manner that it connects with the involved parties. Different methods of story telling could be used in delivering banter, like making an unexpected turn in the flow of structure (interrupting a comfortable structure), taking the conversation towards an expected crude form with evoking questions, doubts, self-conscientiousness (creating intentional misunderstandings) or layering the existing pattern with multiple anchors...etc. It is important to quit the bantering with the sensibility of playground rules, both parties shouldn't obsess on topping each other, continuously after a certain point of interest. It is as Shakespeare said "Brevity is the soul of wit." Discussion One element of conversation is discussion: sharing opinions on subjects that are thought of during the conversation. In polite society the subject changes before discussion becomes dispute or controversial. For example, if theology is being discussed, no one is insisting a particular view be accepted. Subject Many conversations can be divided into four categories according to their major subject content:
Subjective ideas, which often serve to extend understanding and awareness. Objective facts, which may serve to consolidate a widely held view. Other people (usually absent), which may be either critical, competitive, or supportive. This includes gossip. Oneself, which sometimes indicate attention-seeking behavior or can provide relevant information about oneself to participants in the conversation.
Practically, few conversations fall exclusively into one category. Nevertheless, the proportional distribution of any given conversation between the categories can offer useful psychological insights into the mind set of the participants. This is the reason that the majority of conversations are difficult to categorize. Functions Most conversations may be classified by their goal. Conversational ends may, however, shift over the life of the conversation.
Functional conversation is designed to convey information in order to help achieve an individual or group goal. Small talk is a type of conversation where the topic is less important than the social purpose of achieving bonding between people or managing personal distance, such as 'how is the weather' might be portrayed as an example, which conveys no practicality whatsoever.
Differences between men and women
A study completed in July 2007 by Matthias Mehl of the University of
Arizona shows that contrary to popular belief, there is little
difference in the number of words used by men and women in
conversation. The study showed that on average each of the sexes
uses about 16,000 words per day.
There are certain situations, typically encountered while traveling,
which result in strangers sharing what would ordinarily be an intimate
social space such as sitting together on a bus or airplane. In such
situations strangers are likely to share intimate personal information
they would not ordinarily share with strangers. A special case emerges
when one of the travelers is a mental health professional and the
other party shares details of their personal life in the apparent hope
of receiving help or advice.
Milton Wright wrote The Art of Conversation, a comprehensive treatment
of the subject, in 1936. The book deals with conversation both for its
own sake, and for political, sales, or religious ends. Milton portrays
conversation as an art or creation that people can play with and give
Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Al Switzler, and Ron McMillan have
New York Times
The Argument Culture: Stopping America's War of Words
Conversational Style: Analyzing
Daniel Menaker – A Good Talk: The Story and Skill of Conversation (published 2010) Stephen Miller – Conversation: A History of a Declining Art: provides an extensive history of conversation which dates back to the ancient Greeks with Socrates, and moving forward, to coffeehouses around the world, as well as the modern forces of the electronic age, talk shows, etc.
Conversation in the Cathedral
In "Six Benefits of Better Conversation" The benefits are:
Being better understood Better understanding Better self-confidence Workplace value Better self-care Better relationships
A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation
^ Warren 2006, p. 8.
^ Warren 2006, pp. 8–9.
^ Warren 2006, p. 9.
^ Thornbury & Slade 2006, p. 25.
^ Conklin, Mary Greer. 1738. Conversation: What to Say and How to Say
It, pp. 21–32. New York and London: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
^ Winograd, Terry (1972). "Understanding natural language". Cognitive
Psychology. 3 (1): 1–191. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(72)90002-3.
^ William C. Martell, 2011[full citation needed]
^ Conklin, Mary Greer (1912). Conversation: What to Say and How to Say
It. pp. 35–60 New York and London: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
^ Mehl, M. R.; Vazire, S.; Ramirez-Esparza, N.; Slatcher, R. B.;
Pennebaker, J. W. (2007). "Are Women Really More Talkative Than Men?".
Science. 317 (5834): 82. Bibcode:2007Sci...317...82M.
doi:10.1126/science.1139940. PMID 17615349. Lay summary – New
Scientist (July 6, 2007).
^ "Cornered: Therapists on Planes", Liz Galst. The
New York Times
Thornbury, Scott; Slade, Diana (2006). Conversation: From Description to Pedagogy. ISBN 9780521814263. Warren, Martin (2006). Features of Naturalness in Conversation. ISBN 9789027253958.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to People in conversation.
Empathic listening skills How to listen so others will feel heard, or listening first aid (University of California). Download a one-hour seminar on empathic listening and attending skills. "The art of conversation", Economist, 19 December 2006
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