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On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa
Kanagawa
(Japanese: 日米和親条約, Hepburn: Nichibei Washin Jōyaku, "Japans and US Treaty of Peace and Amity") or Kanagawa
Kanagawa
Treaty (神奈川条約, Kanagawa
Kanagawa
Jōyaku) was the first treaty between the United States
United States
and the Tokugawa shogunate. Signed under threat of force, it effectively meant the end of Japan's 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku), by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate
Hakodate
to American vessels.[1] It also ensured the safety of American castaways and established the position of an American consul in Japan. The treaty also precipitated the signing of similar treaties establishing diplomatic relations with other Western powers.

Contents

1 The isolation of Japan 2 The Perry expedition 3 Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854) 4 Consequences of the treaty 5 Kanagawa
Kanagawa
Treaty House 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

The isolation of Japan[edit] Since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tokugawa shogunate pursued a policy of isolating the country from outside influences. Foreign trade was maintained only with the Dutch and the Chinese and was conducted exclusively at Nagasaki under a strict government monopoly. This policy had two main objectives. One was the fear that trade with western powers and the spread of Christianity would serve as a pretext for the invasion of Japan by imperialist forces, as had been the case with most of the nations of Asia. The second objective was fear that foreign trade and the wealth developed would lead to the rise of a daimyō powerful enough to overthrow the ruling Tokugawa clan.[2] By the early nineteenth century, this policy of isolation was increasingly under challenge. In 1844, King William II of the Netherlands
Netherlands
sent a letter urging Japan to end the isolation policy on its own before change would be forced from the outside. In 1846, an official American expedition led by Commodore James Biddle arrived in Japan asking for ports to be opened for trade, but was sent away.[3] The Perry expedition[edit] In 1853, United States
United States
Navy Commodore Matthew Perry was sent with a fleet of warships by American President Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
to force the opening of Japanese ports to American trade, through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary.[4] The growing commerce between America and China, the presence of American whalers in waters offshore Japan, and the increasing monopolization of potential coaling stations by the British and French in Asia were all contributing factors. The Americans were also driven by concepts of Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
and the desire to impose the benefits of western civilization on what they perceived as backward Asian nations. For the Japanese standpoint, increasing contacts with foreign warships and the increasing disparity between western military technology and the Japanese feudal armies created growing concern. The Japanese had been keeping abreast of world events via information gathered from Dutch traders in Dejima
Dejima
and had been forewarned by the Dutch of Perry's voyage.[5] There was considerable internal debate in Japan on how best to meet this potential threat to Japan’s economic and political sovereignty in light of events occurring in China with the Opium Wars. Perry arrived with four warships at Uraga, at the mouth of Edo Bay
Edo Bay
on July 8, 1853. After refusing Japanese demands that he proceed to Nagasaki, which was the designated port for foreign contact, and after threatening to continue directly on to Edo, the nation's capital and to burn it to the ground if necessary, he was allowed to land at nearby Kurihama on July 14 and to deliver his letter.[6] Despite years of debate on the isolation policy, Perry's letter created great controversy within the highest levels of the Tokugawa shogunate. The shōgun himself, Tokugawa Ieyoshi
Tokugawa Ieyoshi
died days after Perry's departure, and was succeeded by his sickly young son, Tokugawa Iesada, leaving effective administration in the hands of the Council of Elders (rōjū) led by Abe Masahiro. Abe felt that it was currently impossible for Japan to resist the American demands by military force, and yet was reluctant to take any action on his own authority for such an unprecedented situation. Attempting to legitimize any decision taken, Abe polled all of the daimyōs for their opinions. This was the first time that the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
had allowed its decision-making to be a matter of public debate, and had the unforeseen consequence of portraying the shogunate as weak and indecisive.[7] The results of the poll also failed to provide Abe with an answer, as of the 61 known responses, 19 were in favor of accepting the American demands, and 19 were equally opposed. Of the remainder, 14 gave vague responses expressing concern of possible war, 7 suggested making temporary concessions and two advised that they would simply go along with whatever was decided.[8] Perry returned again on February 13, 1854, with an even larger force of eight warships, and made it clear that he would not be leaving until a treaty was signed. Negotiations began on March 8 and proceeded for around one month. The Japanese side gave in to almost all of Perry's demands, with the exception of a commercial agreement modeled after previous American treaties with China, which Perry agreed to defer to a later time. The main controversy centered on the selection of the ports to open, with Perry adamantly rejecting Nagasaki. The treaty, written in English, Dutch, Chinese and Japanese was signed on 31 March 1854 at what is now known as Kaikō Hiroba (Port Opening Square) Yokohama, a site adjacent to the current Yokohama
Yokohama
Archives of History.[8] Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854)[edit]

English text of the Kanagawa
Kanagawa
Treaty

The "Japan–US Treaty of Peace and Amity" has twelve articles:

Article Summary

§ I Mutual peace between the United States
United States
and the Empire of Japan

§ II Opening of the ports of Shimoda & Hakodate

§ III Assistance to be provided to shipwrecked American sailors

§ IV Shipwrecked sailors not to be imprisoned or mistreated

§ V Freedom of movement for temporary foreign residents in treaty ports (with limitations) .[9]

§ VI Trade transactions to be permitted

§ VII Currency exchange to facilitate any trade transactions to be allowed

§ VIII Provisioning of American ships to be a Japanese government monopoly

§ IX Japan to also give the United States
United States
any favorable advantages which might be negotiated by Japan with any other foreign government in the future

§ X Forbids the United States
United States
from using any other ports aside from Shimoda and Hakodate

§ XI Opening of an American consulate at Shimoda

§ XII Treaty to be ratified within 18 months of signing

The final article, Article Twelve, stipulated that the terms of the treaty were to be ratified by the President of the United States
United States
and the "August Sovereign of Japan" within 18 months. At the time, shōgun Tokugawa Iesada was the de facto ruler of Japan; for the Emperor to interact in any way with foreigners was out of the question. Perry concluded the treaty with representatives of the shogun, led by plenipotentiary Hayashi Akira
Hayashi Akira
(林韑) and the text was endorsed subsequently, albeit reluctantly, by Emperor Kōmei.[10] The treaty was ratified on 21 February 1855.[11] Consequences of the treaty[edit]

History of Japan

Periods

Paleolithic before 14,000 BC

Jōmon 14,000 – 300 BC

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Muromachi (Ashikaga)

Nanboku-chō Sengoku

1336–1573

Azuchi–Momoyama

Nanban trade

1573–1603

Edo
Edo
(Tokugawa)

Sakoku Convention of Kanagawa Bakumatsu

1603–1868

Meiji

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1868–1912

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Glossary Timeline

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Short term, the US was content with the agreement since Perry had achieved his primary objective of breaking Japan’s sakoku policy and setting the grounds for protection of American citizens and an eventual commercial agreement. On the other hand, the Japanese were forced into this trade, and many saw it as a sign of weakness for the Japanese empire. The Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
could point out that the treaty was not actually signed by the Shogun, or indeed any of his rōjū, and by the agreement made, had at least temporarily averted the possibility of immediate military confrontation.[12] Externally, the treaty led to the United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, the "Harris Treaty" of 1858, which allowed the establishment of foreign concessions, extraterritoriality for foreigners, and minimal import taxes for foreign goods. The Japanese chafed under the "unequal treaty system" which characterized Asian and western relations during this period.[13] The Kanagawa
Kanagawa
treaty was also followed by similar agreements with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty, October 1854), the Russians
Russians
(Treaty of Shimoda, 7 February 1855), and the French (Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan, 9 October 1858). Internally, the treaty had far-reaching consequences. Decisions to suspend previous restrictions on military activities led to re-armament by many domains and further weakened the position of the Shogun.[14] Debate over foreign policy and popular outrage over perceived appeasement to the foreign powers was a catalyst for the sonnō jōi movement and a shift in political power from Edo
Edo
back to the Imperial Court in Kyoto. The opposition of Emperor Kōmei
Emperor Kōmei
to the treaties further lent support to the tōbaku (overthrow the Shogunate) movement, and eventually to the Meiji Restoration. Kanagawa
Kanagawa
Treaty House[edit] The Convention was negotiated and then signed in a purpose-built house in Yokohama, Japan, the site of which is now the Yokohama
Yokohama
Archives of History. See also[edit]

Hayashi Akira Sō Yoshiyori Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty Treaty of Shimoda Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–Japan) Sakoku List of Westerners who visited Japan before 1868

Notes[edit]

^ Perry, Matthew Calbraith (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856. ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, p.74–77 ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, p.78 ^ J. W. Hall, Japan, p.207. ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, p.88. ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, p.89. ^ J. W. Hall, Japan, p.211. ^ a b W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, pp.90–95. ^ "From Washington; The Japanese Treaty-Its Advantages and Disadvantages-The President and Col. Rinney, &c.," New York Times. October 18, 1855. ^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 173–185. ^ Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) exhibit. ^ W. G. Beasly, The Meiji Restoration, p.96–97 ^ Bert Edström, Bert. (2000). The Japanese and Europe: Images and Perceptions, p. 101. ^ J. W. Hall, Japan, p.211–213.

References[edit]

Arnold, Bruce Makoto (2005). Diplomacy Far Removed: A Reinterpretation of the U.S. Decision to Open Diplomatic Relations with Japan (Thesis). University of Arizona.  [1] Auslin, Michael R. (2004). Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01521-0; OCLC 56493769 Bert Edström, Bert. (2000). The Japanese and Europe: Images and Perceptions. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-873410-86-8 Cullen, L. M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52918-2 (paper) Perry, Matthew Calbraith. (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856. New York : D. Appleton and Company. [digitized by University of Hong Kong Libraries, Digital Initiatives, "China Through Western Eyes." ] Taylor, Bayard. (1855). A visit to India, China, and Japan in the year 1853 New York : G.P. Putnam's sons. [digitized by University of Hong Kong Libraries, Digital Initiatives, "China Through Western Eyes". Beasley, William G (1972). The Meiji Restoration. ISBN 0804708150: Stamford University Press.  Hall, John Whitney (1991). Japan: From Prehistory to Modern Times. ISBN 0939512548: University of Michigan. 

External links[edit]

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Treaty of Kanagawa

The Convention of Kanagawa, 1854 (full text) Kitahara, Michio. Commodore Perry and the Japanese: A Study in the Dramaturgy of Power, 1986 Perry Visits Japan: A Visual History; Brown University collection

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Treaties of Japan

Bakumatsu
Bakumatsu
period (1854–68)

Japan-US Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854) Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty (1854) Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and Russia (1855) Dutch-Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity (1856) (ja) Japan-US Additional Treaty (1857) Japan- Netherlands
Netherlands
Additional Treaty (1857) (ja) Japan-Russia Additional Treaty (1857) Treaty of Amity and Commerce ( United States
United States
– Japan) (1858) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Japan (1858) (ja) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Russia and Japan (1858) Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce
(1858) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan
(1858) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Portugal and Japan (1860) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Prussia and Japan (1861) London Protocol (1862) Agreement of Paris (1864) (ja) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Belgium and Japan (1866) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Italy and Japan (1866)

Meiji period (1868–1912)

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Spain and Japan (1868) Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Austria-Hungary and Japan (1869) Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty
Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty
(1871) Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Hawaii and Japan (1871) Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Peru and Japan (1873) Engagement between Japan and China respecting Formosa of 1874 Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875) Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882 Japan-Hawaii Labor Immigration Treaty (1884) Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885 Convention of Tientsin (1885) Declaration of Amity and Commerce between Thailand and Japan (1887) Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between Mexico and Japan (1888) Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
(1894) Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and the USA (1894) Italo–Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1894) Japan-China Peace Treaty (1895) Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Brazil and Japan (1895) Treaty for returning Fengtian Peninsula (1895) (ja) German–Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1896) Komura-Weber Memorandum (1896) Yamagata–Lobanov Agreement (1896) Japan–China Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1896) (ja) Franco–Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1896) Japan– Netherlands
Netherlands
Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1896) Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Chile and Japan (1897) Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Argentina and Japan (1898) Nishi–Rosen Agreement (1898) Japan-Thailand Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty (1898) Boxer Protocol
Boxer Protocol
(1901) Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
(1902) Japan-China Additional Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1903) (ja) Japan–Korea Treaty of 1904 Japan–Korea Agreement of August 1904 Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace (1905) Taft–Katsura agreement (1905) Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 Additional Agreement of the Japan-China Treaty relating to Manchuria (1905) (ja) Franco-Japanese Treaty of 1907 Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1907 Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 Root–Takahira Agreement (1908) Japan-China Agreement relating to Manchuria and Jiandao (1909) (ja) Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1910 Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and the USA (1911) Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
(1911) North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1912

World War I–II (1912–45)

Japan-China Treaty of 1915 Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1916 Lansing–Ishii Agreement
Lansing–Ishii Agreement
(1917) Japan-China Co-defense Military Pact (1918) (ja) Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Covenant of the League of Nations
Covenant of the League of Nations
(1919) Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
(1919) Svalbard Treaty
Svalbard Treaty
(1920) Gongota Agreement of 1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
(1920) Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
(1921) Four-Power Treaty (1921) Nine-Power Treaty
Nine-Power Treaty
(1922) Treaty concerning solution of Shandong issues (1922) (ja) Washington Naval Treaty
Washington Naval Treaty
(1922) Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
(1923) Klaipėda Convention
Klaipėda Convention
(1924) Soviet–Japanese Basic Convention (1925) German–Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1927) Kellogg–Briand Pact
Kellogg–Briand Pact
(1928) Japan-China Customs Agreement (1930) London Naval Treaty
London Naval Treaty
(1930) Cease Fire Agreement in Shanghai (1932) (ja) Japan-Manchukuo Protocol (1932) Tanggu Truce
Tanggu Truce
(1933) India-Japan Agreement of 1934 Japan-Manchukuo-Soviet Protocol for Cession of North Manchuria Railway (1935) (ja) He–Umezu Agreement (1935) Chin-Doihara Agreement (1935) Canada-Japan New Trade Agreement (1935) Japan- Netherlands
Netherlands
Shipping Agreement (1936) Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
(1936) Hart-Ishizawa Agreement (1937) India-Japan Agreement of 1937 Van Mook-Kotani Agreement (1938) Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
(1940) Japan-China Basic Relations Treaty (1940) Japan-Manchukuo-China Joint Declaration (1940) (ja) Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
(1941) Japan-Thailand Attack/Defence Alliance Treaty (1941) (ja) Japanese Instrument of Surrender
Japanese Instrument of Surrender
(1945)

During Cold War (1945–89)

Security Treaty between the United States
United States
and Japan (1951) Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
(1951) Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (1952) Treaty of Peace between Japan and India (1952) Treaty of Peace between Japan and Burma (1954) Japan–Philippines Reparations Agreement (1956) Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956 Treaty of Peace between Japan and Indonesia (1958) Japan–South Vietnam Reparations Agreement (1959) Japan–US Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (1960) Tokyo Convention (1963) Japan–South Korea Treaty (1965) Ogasawara Reversion Agreement (1968) Okinawa Reversion Agreement (1971) Japan–China Joint Communiqué (1972) Japan–North Vietnam Agreement (1973) Japan–China Trade Agreement (1974) Basic Treaty between Japan and Australia (1976) Sino–Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty (1978)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 258662

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