Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek)
Constantinopolis (in Latin)
Map of Constantinople
Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse),
Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the
Istanbul Province, Turkey
41°00′50″N 28°57′20″E / 41.01389°N 28.95556°E /
41.01389; 28.95556Coordinates: 41°00′50″N 28°57′20″E /
41.01389°N 28.95556°E / 41.01389; 28.95556
6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) enclosed within Constantinian Walls
14 km2 (5.4 sq mi) enclosed within Theodosian Walls
Constantine the Great
Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages
Timeline of Constantinople
Capital of the
Byzantine Empire 330-1204 AD; 1261-1453 AD
330 AD: Founding of Constantinople
ca. 404/05-413 AD: Construction of the Theodosian Walls
474 AD: Great Fire of
Nika Riots and Fire of Constantinople
537 AD: Completion of the
Hagia Sophia by Justinian I
626 AD: First Siege of Constantinople
674-78 AD: First Arab Siege of Constantinople
717-18 AD: Great Siege of Constantinople/Second Arab Siege of
1204 AD: Sack of Constantinople
1261 AD: Liberation of Constantinople
1453 AD: Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις
Konstantinoúpolis; Latin: Constantinopolis) was the capital city of
the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the
brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923)
empires. It was reinaugurated in 324 AD from ancient
Byzantium as the
new capital of the
Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great,
after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330 AD.
From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century,
the largest and wealthiest city in Europe and it was instrumental
in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as
the home of the
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the
guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns
and the True Cross. After the final loss of its provinces in the early
15th century, the
Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople
and its environs, along with
Morea in Greece, and the city eventually
fell to the Ottomans after a 53-day siege on 29 May 1453.[citation
Aerial view of Byzantine
Constantinople and the Propontis (Sea of
Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various peoples, the
Constantinople proved invulnerable for nearly nine hundred
years before the city was taken in 1204 by the Crusader armies of the
Fourth Crusade, and after it was liberated in 1261 by the Byzantine
Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, a second and final time in 1453 when
it was conquered by the Ottoman
Sultan Mehmed II. The first wall of
the city was erected by Constantine I, and surrounded the city on both
land and sea fronts. Later, in the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect
Anthemius under the child emperor
Theodosius II undertook the
construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall
lying about 2 km (1.2 miles) to the west of the first wall and a
moat with palisades in front. This formidable complex of defences
was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built
intentionally to rival Rome, and it was claimed that several
elevations within its walls matched the 'seven hills' of Rome. Because
it was located between the
Golden Horn and the
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara the land
area that needed defensive walls was reduced, and this helped it to
present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes,
and towers, the result of the prosperity that was engendered by its
being the gateway between two continents (
Europe and Asia) and two
Mediterranean and the Black Sea).
The city was also famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as
the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat
of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the
Emperors lived, the
Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of
the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the
arcaded avenues and squares. The
University of Constantinople was
founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and
literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including
its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library
of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
Constantinople never truly recovered from the devastation of the
Fourth Crusade and the decades of misrule by the Latins. Although the
city partially recovered in the early years after the restoration
Palaiologos dynasty, the advent of the Ottomans and the
subsequent loss of the Imperial territories until it became an enclave
inside the fledgling
Ottoman Empire rendered the city severely
depopulated when it fell to the Ottoman Turks, whereafter it
Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman
1.1 Before Constantinople
1.2 Names of Constantinople
1.3 Modern names of the city
Byzantium and earlier settlements
2.2 324–337: Foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople during the
Barbarian Invasions and the
fall of the West
Constantinople in the Age of Justinian
2.5 Survival, 565–717:
Constantinople during the Byzantine Dark Ages
Constantinople during the Macedonian Renaissance
2.6.1 Iconoclast controversy in Constantinople
Constantinople after Basil II
Constantinople under the Comneni
Constantinople during the Imperial Exile
2.10 1261–1453: Palaiologan Era and the Fall of Constantinople
2.11 1453–1922: Ottoman Kostantiniyye
3.2 International status
3.5 Popular culture
4 See also
4.1 People from Constantinople
4.2 Secular buildings and monuments
4.3 Churches, monasteries and mosques
7 External links
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known
name of a settlement on the site of
Constantinople was Lygos,  a
settlement of likely Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th
century BC. The site, according to the founding myth of the city,
was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara
Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) in around
657 BC, across from the town of
Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of
the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more commonly known by the later
Latin Byzantium, are not entirely clear, though some suggest it is of
Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it
told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian
colonists, Byzas. The later Byzantines of
would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men, Byzas and
Antes, though this was more likely just a play on the word
The city was briefly renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century
by the Emperor
Septimius Severus (193–211), having razed the city to
the ground in 196 AD for supporting a rival contender in the civil war
and rebuilt, in honour of his son Antoninus, the later Emperor
Caracalla. The name appears to have been quickly forgotten and
abandoned, and the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either
the assassination of
Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of
Severan dynasty in 235.
Names of Constantinople
Main article: Names of Constantinople
This huge keystone found in
Çemberlitaş, Fatih might have belonged
to a triumphal arch at the Forum of Constantine; the forum was built
Constantine I in the quarter of modern-day Çemberlitaş.
The Column of Constantine, built by
Constantine I in 330 AD to
commemorate the establishment of
Constantinople as the new capital of
the Roman Empire.
Byzantium took on the name of Konstantinoupolis ("city of
Constantine", Constantinople) after its re-foundation under Roman
emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire
Byzantium in 330 AD and designated his new capital
officially as Nova Roma (Νέα Ῥώμη) 'New Rome'. During this
time, the city was also called 'Second Rome', 'Eastern Rome', and Roma
Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital
Roman Empire after the fall of the West, and its wealth,
population, and influence grew, the city also came to have a multitude
of nicknames.
As the largest and wealthiest city in
Europe during the 4th–13th
centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean
Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as
Basileuousa (Queen of Cities) and Megalopolis (the Great City) and
was, in colloquial speech, commonly referred to as just Polis (η
πόλη) 'the City' by Constantinopolitans and provincial Byzantines
In the language of other peoples,
Constantinople was referred to just
as reverently. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire
through their expansion in eastern
Europe (Varangians) used the Old
Norse name Miklagarðr (from mikill 'big' and garðr 'city'), and
later Miklagard and Miklagarth. In Arabic, the city was sometimes
called Rūmiyyat al-kubra (Great City of the Romans) and in Persian as
Takht-e Rum (Throne of the Romans).
In East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia,
Constantinople was referred to as
Tsargrad (Царьград) or
Carigrad, 'City of the Caesar (Emperor)', from the Slavonic words tsar
('Caesar' or 'King') and grad ('city'). This was presumably a calque
on a Greek phrase such as Βασιλέως Πόλις (Vasileos
Polis), 'the city of the emperor [king]'.
Modern names of the city
The modern Turkish name for the city, İstanbul, derives from the
Greek phrase eis tin polin (εἰς τὴν πόλιν), meaning "into
the city" or "to the city". This name was used in Turkish
alongside Kostantiniyye, the more formal adaptation of the original
Constantinople, during the period of Ottoman rule, while western
languages mostly continued to refer to the city as Constantinople
until the early 20th century. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was
changed from Arabic script to Latin script. After that, as part of the
Turkey started to urge other countries
to use Turkish names for Turkish cities, instead of other
transliterations to Latin script that had been used in the Ottoman
times. In time the city came to be known as Istanbul
and its variations in most world languages.
The name "Constantinople" is still used by members of the Eastern
Orthodox Church in the title of one of their most important leaders,
the Orthodox patriarch based in the city, referred to as "His Most
Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of
New Rome and
Ecumenical Patriarch." In Greece today, the city is still called
or simply just "the City" (Η Πόλη / Η Πόλις).[citation
Byzantium and earlier settlements
Main article: Byzantium
Constantinople was founded by the
Roman Emperor Constantine I
(272–337 AD) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city,
Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial
expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara.
This is the first major settlement that would develop on the site of
later Constantinople, but the first known settlements was that of
Lygos, referred to in Pliny's Natural Histories, Apart from this,
little is known about this initial settlement. The site, according to
the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek
settlers from the city-state of
Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) in around 657 BC, across from the
Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.[citation
The city maintained independence as a city-state until it was annexed
Darius I in 512 BC into the Persian Empire, who saw the site as the
optimal location to construct a pontoon bridge crossing into
Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus strait.
Persian rule lasted until 478 BC when as part of the Greek
counterattack to the Second Persian Invasion of Greece, a Greek army
led by the Spartan general Pausanias captured the city which remained
an independent, yet subordinate, city under the Athenians, and later
to the Spartans after 411 BC. A farsighted treaty with the
emergent power of
Rome in c.150 BC which stipulated tribute in
exchange for independent status allowed it to enter Roman rule
unscathed. This treaty would pay dividends retrospectively as
Byzantium would maintain this independent status, and prosper under
peace and stability in the Pax Romana, for nearly three centuries
until the late 2nd century AD.
Byzantium was never a major influential city-state like that of
Athens, Corinth, and Sparta, but the city enjoyed relative peace and
steady growth as a prosperous trading city lent by its remarkable
position. The site lay astride the land route from
the seaway from the
Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and had in the
Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. Already then, in Greek
and early Roman times,
Byzantium was famous for its strategic
geographic position that made it difficult to besiege and capture, and
its position at the crossroads of the Asiatic-European trade route
over land and as the gateway between the
Mediterranean and Black Seas
made it too valuable a settlement to abandon, as Emperor Septimius
Severus later realized when he razed the city to the ground for
supporting Pescennius Niger's claimancy. It was a move greatly
criticized by the contemporary consul and historian
Cassius Dio who
said that Severus had destroyed "a strong Roman outpost and a base of
operations against the barbarians from Pontus and Asia". He would
Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it
would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, fortifying it with a new
city wall in his name, the Severan Wall.
324–337: Foundation of Constantinople
Constantine I presents a representation of the city of
Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and Christ Child in
this church mosaic. Hagia Sophia, c. 1000.
Another coin struck by
Constantine I in 330–333 AD to commemorate
the foundation of
Constantinople and to also reaffirm
Rome as the
traditional centre of the Roman Empire.
Coin struck by
Constantine I to commemorate the founding of
Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Having restored the
unity of the Empire, and, being in the course of major governmental
reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian
church, he was well aware that
Rome was an unsatisfactory capital.
Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the
imperial courts, and it offered an undesirable playground for
disaffected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the state for
over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest
that the capital be moved to a different location. Nevertheless,
Constantine identified the site of
Byzantium as the right place: a
place where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access
Danube or the
Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the
rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries
filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire.
Constantinople was built over 6 years, and consecrated on 11 May
330. Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14
regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial
metropolis. Yet, at first, Constantine's new
Rome did not have all
the dignities of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul, rather than an
urban prefect. It had no praetors, tribunes, or quaestors. Although it
did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like
those of Rome. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative
offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers,
aqueducts, or other public works. The new programme of building was
carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors, and tiles were
taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new
city. In similar fashion, many of the greatest works of Greek and
Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor
stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land
from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica and on 18 May 332 he
announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made
to the citizens. At the time, the amount is said to have been 80,000
rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the
Constantine laid out a new square at the centre of old Byzantium,
naming it the Augustaeum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed
in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square
was erected the Great Palace of the Emperor with its imposing
entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of
Daphne. Nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over
80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus. At the western
entrance to the Augustaeum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from
which distances were measured across the Eastern Roman
From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese (Greek: Μέση
[Οδός] lit. "Middle [Street]"), lined with colonnades. As it
descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it
passed on the left the
Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through
Forum of Constantine
Forum of Constantine where there was a second Senate-house
and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of
Helios, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking toward the
rising sun. From there, the Mese passed on and through the Forum Tauri
and then the Forum Bovis, and finally up the Seventh Hill (or
Xerolophus) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall.
After the construction of the
Theodosian Walls in the early 5th
century, it was extended to the new Golden Gate, reaching a total
length of seven Roman miles.
Constantinople during the
Barbarian Invasions and the fall
of the West
Theodosius I was the last
Roman emperor who ruled over an undivided
empire (detail from the Obelisk at the Hippodrome of Constantinople).
The importance of
Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. From
the death of Constantine in 337 to the accession of Theodosius I,
emperors had been resident only in the years 337-8, 347–51,
358–61, 368–69. Its status as a capital was recognized by the
appointment of the first known Urban Prefect of the City Honoratus,
who held office from 11 December 359 until 361. The urban prefects had
concurrent jurisdiction over three provinces each in the adjacent
Thrace (in which the city was located), Pontus and Asia
comparable to the 100-mile extraordinary jurisdiction of the prefect
of Rome. The emperor Valens, who hated the city and spent only one
year there, nevertheless built the Palace of
Hebdomon on the shore of
the Propontis near the Golden Gate, probably for use when reviewing
troops. All the emperors up to Zeno and
Basiliscus were crowned and
acclaimed at the Hebdomon.
Theodosius I founded the Church of John the
Baptist to house the skull of the saint (today preserved at the
Topkapı Palace), put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of
Taurus, and turned the ruined temple of
Aphrodite into a coach house
for the Praetorian Prefect;
Arcadius built a new forum named after
himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine.
After the shock of the
Battle of Adrianople
Battle of Adrianople in 378, in which the
Valens with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by
Visigoths within a few days' march, the city looked to its
defences, and in 413–414
Theodosius II built the 18-metre
(60-foot)-tall triple-wall fortifications, which were not to be
breached until the coming of gunpowder. Theodosius also founded a
University near the Forum of Taurus, on 27 February 425.[citation
Uldin, a prince of the Huns, appeared on the
Danube about this time
and advanced into Thrace, but he was deserted by many of his
followers, who joined with the Romans in driving their king back north
of the river. Subsequent to this, new walls were built to defend the
city and the fleet on the
Danube improved.
After the barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire, Constantinople
became the indisputable capital city of the Roman Empire. Emperors
were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces.
They remained in their palace in the Great City and sent generals to
command their armies. The wealth of the eastern
Asia flowed into Constantinople.
Constantinople in the Age of Justinian
Constantinople (1422) by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo
Buondelmonti is the oldest surviving map of the city, and the only
one that predates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453.
Hagia Sophia was commissioned by Emperor
Justinian I after
the previous one was destroyed in the
Nika riots of 532. It was
converted into a mosque in 1453 when the
Ottoman Empire commenced and
became a museum in 1935.
Justinian I (527–565) was known for his successes in
war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from
Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former
Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Before their
departure, the ship of the commander
Belisarius was anchored in front
of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the
success of the enterprise. After the victory, in 534, the Temple
treasure of Jerusalem, looted by the Romans in 70 AD and taken to
Carthage by the
Vandals after their sack of
Rome in 455, was brought
Constantinople and deposited for a time, perhaps in the Church of
St. Polyeuctus, before being returned to
Jerusalem in either the
Church of the Resurrection or the New Church.
Chariot-racing had been important in
Rome for centuries. In
Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place
of political significance. It was where (as a shadow of the popular
elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval
of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the
government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. In
the time of Justinian, public order in
Constantinople became a
critical political issue.
Throughout the late Roman and early Byzantine periods, Christianity
was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute
between the orthodox and the monophysites became the cause of serious
disorder, expressed through allegiance to the horse-racing parties of
the Blues and the Greens. The partisans of the Blues and the Greens
were said to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the
front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the
wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street
violence. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion
of 532, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Victory!"
of those involved).
Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed Constantine's basilica of
Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), the city's principal church, which lay to
the north of the Augustaeum. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of
Isidore of Miletus
Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and
incomparable Hagia Sophia. This was the great cathedral of the
Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone,
and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial
family could attend services without passing through the streets.
The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the
emperor, who exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee!" Hagia
Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000
pounds of gold to build.
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the
Church of the Holy Apostles
Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new
church under the same dedication. This was designed in the form of an
equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful
mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the Emperors
from Constantine himself until the 11th century. When the city fell to
the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb
Mehmet II the Conqueror. Justinian was also concerned with other
aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse
of laws prohibiting building within 100 feet (30 m) of the sea
front, in order to protect the view.
During Justinian I's reign, the city's population reached about
500,000 people. However, the social fabric of
also damaged by the onset of the
Plague of Justinian
Plague of Justinian between 541–542
AD. It killed perhaps 40% of the city's inhabitants.
Restored section of the fortifications that protected Constantinople
during the medieval period.
Constantinople during the Byzantine Dark
In the early 7th century, the Avars and later the
much of the Balkans, threatening
Constantinople with attack from the
west. Simultaneously, the Persian Sassanids overwhelmed the Prefecture
of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia. Heraclius, son of the
exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the purple. He
found the military situation so dire that he is said to have
contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but
relented after the people of
Constantinople begged him to stay. The
citizens lost their right to free grain in 618 when
that the city could no longer be supplied from
Egypt as a result of
the Persian wars: the population fell substantially as a result.
While the city withstood a siege by the Sassanids and Avars in 626,
Heraclius campaigned deep into Persian territory and briefly restored
the status quo in 628, when the Persians surrendered all their
conquests. However, further sieges followed the Arab conquests, first
from 674 to 678 and then in 717 to 718. The
Theodosian Walls kept the
city impregnable from the land, while a newly discovered incendiary
substance known as
Greek Fire allowed the
Byzantine navy to destroy
the Arab fleets and keep the city supplied. In the second siege, the
second ruler of Bulgaria, Khan Tervel, rendered decisive help. He was
called Saviour of Europe.
Constantinople during the Macedonian Renaissance
Emperor Leo VI
Emperor Leo VI (886–912) adoring
Mosaic above the
Imperial Gate in the Hagia Sophia.
In the 730s Leo III carried out extensive repairs of the Theodosian
walls, which had been damaged by frequent and violent attacks; this
work was financed by a special tax on all the subjects of the
Theodora, widow of the Emperor Theophilus (died 842), acted as regent
during the minority of her son Michael III, who was said to have been
introduced to dissolute habits by her brother Bardas. When Michael
assumed power in 856, he became known for excessive drunkenness,
appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the
religious processions of the clergy. He removed Theodora from the
Great Palace to the Carian Palace and later to the monastery of
Gastria, but, after the death of Bardas, she was released to live in
the palace of St Mamas; she also had a rural residence at the
Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867.
In 860, an attack was made on the city by a new principality set up a
few years earlier at
Kiev by Askold and Dir, two
Varangian chiefs: Two
hundred small vessels passed through the
Bosporus and plundered the
monasteries and other properties on the suburban Prince's Islands.
Oryphas, the admiral of the Byzantine fleet, alerted the emperor
Michael, who promptly put the invaders to flight; but the suddenness
and savagery of the onslaught made a deep impression on the
In 980, the emperor
Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince
Vladimir of Kiev: 6,000
Varangian warriors, which Basil formed into a
new bodyguard known as the
Varangian Guard. They were known for their
ferocity, honour, and loyalty. It is said that, in 1038, they were
dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian theme when one of their
number attempted to violate a countrywoman, but in the struggle she
seized his sword and killed him; instead of taking revenge, however,
his comrades applauded her conduct, compensated her with all his
possessions, and exposed his body without burial as if he had
committed suicide. However, following the death of an Emperor,
they became known also for plunder in the Imperial palaces. Later
in the 11th Century the
Varangian Guard became dominated by
Anglo-Saxons who preferred this way of life to subjugation by the new
Norman kings of England.
The Book of the Eparch, which dates to the 10th century, gives a
detailed picture of the city's commercial life and its organization at
that time. The corporations in which the tradesmen of Constantinople
were organised were supervised by the Eparch, who regulated such
matters as production, prices, import, and export. Each guild had its
own monopoly, and tradesmen might not belong to more than one. It is
an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how little these
arrangements had changed since the office, then known by the Latin
version of its title, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban
prefecture of Rome.
In the 9th and 10th centuries,
Constantinople had a population of
between 500,000 and 800,000.
Iconoclast controversy in Constantinople
In the 8th and 9th centuries, the iconoclast movement caused serious
political unrest throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III issued a
decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of a statue
of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act that was
fiercely resisted by the citizens.
Constantine V convoked a church
council in 754, which condemned the worship of images, after which
many treasures were broken, burned, or painted over with depictions of
trees, birds or animals: One source refers to the church of the Holy
Blachernae as having been transformed into a "fruit store
and aviary". Following the death of her son Leo IV in 780, the
empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of
Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
The iconoclast controversy returned in the early 9th century, only to
be resolved once more in 843 during the regency of Empress Theodora,
who restored the icons. These controversies contributed to the
deterioration of relations between the Western and the Eastern
Constantinople after Basil II
In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and
calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the
Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert in
Armenia in 1071. The Emperor Romanus Diogenes was captured. The peace
terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not
excessive, and Romanus accepted them. On his release, however, Romanus
found that enemies had placed their own candidate on the throne in his
absence; he surrendered to them and suffered death by torture, and the
Michael VII Ducas, refused to honour the treaty. In
response, the Turks began to move into
Anatolia in 1073. The collapse
of the old defensive system meant that they met no opposition, and the
empire's resources were distracted and squandered in a series of civil
wars. Thousands of Turkoman tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier
and moved into Anatolia. By 1080, a huge area had been lost to the
Empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of
Constantinople under the Comneni
Byzantine Empire under Manuel I, c. 1180.
12th century mosaic from the upper gallery of the Hagia Sophia,
Constantinople. Emperor John II (1118–1143) is shown on the left,
with the Virgin Mary and infant
Jesus in the centre, and John's
consort Empress Irene on the right.
Under the Comnenian dynasty (1081–1185),
Byzantium staged a
remarkable recovery. In 1090–91, the nomadic
Pechenegs reached the
walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the
Kipchaks annihilated their army. In response to a call for aid
from Alexius, the
First Crusade assembled at
Constantinople in 1096,
but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for
Jerusalem on its own account. John II built the monastery of the
Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds.
With the restoration of firm central government, the empire became
fabulously wealthy. The population was rising (estimates for
Constantinople in the 12th century vary from some 100,000 to 500,000),
and towns and cities across the realm flourished. Meanwhile, the
volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. This was
Constantinople by the construction of the Blachernae
palace, the creation of brilliant new works of art, and general
prosperity at this time: an increase in trade, made possible by the
growth of the Italian city-states, may have helped the growth of the
economy. It is certain that the Venetians and others were active
traders in Constantinople, making a living out of shipping goods
between the Crusader Kingdoms of
Outremer and the West, while also
trading extensively with
Byzantium and Egypt. The Venetians had
factories on the north side of the Golden Horn, and large numbers of
westerners were present in the city throughout the 12th century.
Toward the end of Manuel I Komnenos's reign, the number of foreigners
in the city reached about 60,000–80,000 people out of a total
population of about 400,000 people. In 1171,
contained a small community of 2,500 Jews. In 1182, all Latin
(Western European) inhabitants of
Constantinople were massacred.
In artistic terms, the 12th century was a very productive period.
There was a revival in the mosaic art, for example: Mosaics became
more realistic and vivid, with an increased emphasis on depicting
three-dimensional forms. There was an increased demand for art, with
more people having access to the necessary wealth to commission and
pay for such work. According to N.H. Baynes (Byzantium, An
Introduction to East Roman Civilization):
"With its love of luxury and passion for colour, the art of this age
delighted in the production of masterpieces that spread the fame of
Byzantium throughout the whole of the Christian world. Beautiful silks
from the workshops of
Constantinople also portrayed in dazzling colour
animals – lions, elephants, eagles, and griffins – confronting
each other, or represented Emperors gorgeously arrayed on horseback or
engaged in the chase."
"From the tenth to the twelfth century
Byzantium was the main source
of inspiration for the West. By their style, arrangement, and
iconography the mosaics of St. Mark's at
Venice and of the cathedral
Torcello clearly reveal their Byzantine origin. Similarly those of
the Palatine Chapel, the
Martorana at Palermo, and the cathedral of
Cefalù, together with the vast decoration of the cathedral at
Monreale, demonstrate the influence of
Byzantium on the Norman Court
Sicily in the twelfth century. Hispano-
Moorish art was
unquestionably derived from the Byzantine.
Romanesque art owes much to
the East, from which it borrowed not only its decorative forms but the
plan of some of its buildings, as is proved, for instance, by the
domed churches of south-western France. Princes of Kiev, Venetian
doges, abbots of Monte Cassino, merchants of Amalfi, and the kings of
Sicily all looked to
Byzantium for artists or works of art. Such was
the influence of
Byzantine art in the twelfth century, that Russia,
Venice, southern Italy and
Sicily all virtually became provincial
centres dedicated to its production."
Constantinople during the Imperial Exile
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The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix,
The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, and the
Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain.
On 25 July 1197,
Constantinople was struck by a severe fire which
burned the Latin Quarter and the area around the Gate of the
Droungarios (Turkish: Odun Kapısı) on the Golden Horn.
Nevertheless, the destruction wrought by the 1197 fire paled in
comparison with that brought by the Crusaders. In the course of a plot
between Philip of Swabia,
Boniface of Montferrat
Boniface of Montferrat and the Doge of
Fourth Crusade was, despite papal excommunication,
diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the
claims of Alexius, son of the deposed emperor Isaac. The reigning
emperor Alexius III had made no preparation. The Crusaders occupied
Galata, broke the defensive chain protecting the Golden Horn, and
entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls:
Alexius III fled. But the new
Alexius IV found the Treasury
inadequate, and was unable to make good the rewards he had promised to
his western allies. Tension between the citizens and the Latin
soldiers increased. In January 1204, the protovestiarius Alexius
Murzuphlus provoked a riot, it is presumed, to intimidate Alexius IV,
but whose only result was the destruction of the great statue of
Athena, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum facing
In February 1198, the people rose again:
Alexius IV was imprisoned and
executed, and Murzuphlus took the purple as Alexius V. He made some
attempt to repair the walls and organise the citizenry, but there had
been no opportunity to bring in troops from the provinces and the
guards were demoralised by the revolution. An attack by the Crusaders
on 6 April failed, but a second from the
Golden Horn on 12 April
succeeded, and the invaders poured in.
Alexius V fled. The Senate met
Hagia Sophia and offered the crown to Theodore Lascaris, who had
married into the Angelid family, but it was too late. He came out with
the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and
Varangian Guard. Then the two of them slipped away with
many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. By the next day the Doge
and the leading Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the
city was given over to pillage for three days.
Sir Steven Runciman, historian of the Crusades, wrote that the sack of
Constantinople is “unparalleled in history”.
“For nine centuries,” he goes on, “the great city had been the
capital of Christian civilisation. It was filled with works of art
that had survived from ancient Greece and with the masterpieces of its
own exquisite craftsmen. The Venetians ... seized treasures and
carried them off to adorn ... their town. But the Frenchmen and
Flemings were filled with a lust for destruction. They rushed in a
howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up
everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not
carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the
wine-cellars ... . Neither monasteries nor churches nor libraries were
Hagia Sophia itself, drunken soldiers could be seen tearing
down the silken hangings and pulling the great silver iconostasis to
pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under foot. While
they drank merrily from the altar-vessels a prostitute set herself on
the Patriarch’s throne and began to sing a ribald French song. Nuns
were ravished in their convents. Palaces and hovels alike were entered
and wrecked. Wounded women and children lay dying in the streets. For
three days the ghastly scenes ... continued, till the huge and
beautiful city was a shambles. ... When ... order was restored, ...
citizens were tortured to make them reveal the goods that they had
contrived to hide.
For the next half-century,
Constantinople was the seat of the Latin
Empire. Under the rulers of the Latin Empire, the city declined, both
in population and the condition of its buildings. Alice-Mary Talbot
cites an estimated population for
Constantinople of 400,000
inhabitants; after the destruction wrought by the Crusaders on the
city, about one third were homeless, and numerous courtiers, nobility,
and higher clergy, followed various leading personages into exile. "As
Constantinople became seriously depopulated," Talbot
The Latins took over at least 20 churches and 13 monasteries, most
prominently the Hagia Sophia, which became the cathedral of the Latin
Patriarch of Constantinople. It is to these that E.H. Swift attributed
the construction of a series of flying buttresses to shore up the
walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by
earthquake tremors. However, this act of maintenance is an
exception: for the most part, the Latin occupiers were too few to
maintain all of the buildings, either secular and sacred, and many
became targets for vandalism or dismantling. Bronze and lead were
removed from the roofs of abandoned buildings and melted down and sold
to provide money to the chronically under-funded Empire for defense
and to support the court; Deno John Geanokoplos writes that "it may
well be that a division is suggested here: Latin laymen stripped
secular buildings, ecclesiastics, the churches." Buildings were
not the only targets of officials looking to raise funds for the
impoverished Latin Empire: the monumental sculptures which adorned the
Hippodrome and fora of the city were pulled down and melted for
coinage. "Among the masterpieces destroyed, writes Talbot, "were a
Herakles attributed to the fourth-century B.C. sculptor Lysippos, and
monumental figures of Hera, Paris, and Helen."
The Nicaean emperor
John III Vatatzes
John III Vatatzes reportedly saved several
churches from being dismantled for their valuable building materials;
by sending money to the Latins "to buy them off" (exonesamenos), he
prevented the destruction of several churches. According to
Talbot, these included the churches of Blachernae, Rouphinianai, and
St. Michael at Anaplous. He also granted funds for the restoration of
the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been seriously damaged in
The Byzantine nobility scattered, many going to Nicaea, where Theodore
Lascaris set up an imperial court, or to Epirus, where Theodore
Angelus did the same; others fled to Trebizond, where one of the
Comneni had already with Georgian support established an independent
seat of empire. Nicaea and Epirus both vied for the imperial
title, and tried to recover Constantinople. In 1261, Constantinople
was captured from its last Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by the forces of
the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
1261–1453: Palaiologan Era and the Fall of Constantinople
Byzantine Empire under the
Palaiologos dynasty and Fall of
Mehmed the Conqueror enters Constantinople, painting by Fausto Zonaro.
Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII Palaiologos, the
Empire had lost many of its key economic resources, and struggled to
survive. The palace of
Blachernae in the north-west of the city became
the main Imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores
Bosporus going into decline. When Michael VIII captured the
city, its population was 35,000 people, but, by the end of his reign,
he had succeeded in increasing the population to about 70,000
people. The Emperor achieved this by summoning former residents
who had fled the city when the crusaders captured it, and by
relocating Greeks from the recently reconquered
Peloponnese to the
capital. In 1347, the
Black Death spread to Constantinople. In
1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured the city, it contained
approximately 50,000 people.
Constantinople was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453, due
to the newly discovered technology of gunpowder, not yet known in
Europe. The Ottomans were commanded by 22-year-old Ottoman Sultan
Mehmed II. The conquest of
Constantinople followed a seven-week siege
which had begun on 6 April 1453.
1453–1922: Ottoman Kostantiniyye
Constantinople during the Ottoman era
The Christian Orthodox city of
Constantinople was now under Ottoman
Mehmed II finally entered
Constantinople through what is
now known as the Topkapi Gate, he immediately rode his horse to the
Hagia Sophia, where he ordered his soldiers to stop hacking at the
marbles and 'be satisfied with the booty and captives; as for all the
buildings, they belonged to him'. He ordered that an imam meet him
there in order to chant the adhan thus transforming the Orthodox
cathedral into a Muslim mosque, solidifying Islamic rule in
Mehmed’s main concern with
Constantinople had to do with rebuilding
the city’s defenses and population. Building projects were commenced
immediately after the conquest, which included the repair of the
walls, construction of the citadel, and building a new palace.
Mehmed issued orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and
Jews should resettle the city; he demanded that five thousand
households needed to be transferred to
September. From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and
deported people were sent to the city: these people were called
"Sürgün" in Turkish (Greek: σουργούνιδες). Two
centuries later, Ottoman traveler
Evliya Çelebi gave a list of groups
introduced into the city with their respective origins. Even today,
many quarters of Istanbul, such as Aksaray, Çarşamba, bear the names
of the places of origin of their inhabitants. However, many people
escaped again from the city, and there were several outbreaks of
plague, so that in 1459 Mehmet allowed the deported Greeks to come
back to the city.
Eagle and Snake, 6th century mosaic flooring Constantinople, Grand
Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern
Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a
result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between
the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It would remain the capital of the
eastern, Greek-speaking empire for over a thousand years. At its peak,
roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and
largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and
dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants
were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of
the city, in particular, Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom.
According to Russian 14th-century traveler Stephen of Novgorod: "As
for Hagia Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make
description of it."
It was especially important for preserving in its libraries
manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when
instability and disorder caused their mass-destruction in western
Europe and north Africa: On the city's fall, thousands of these were
brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the
Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world. The cumulative
influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its
existence, is incalculable. In terms of technology, art and culture,
as well as sheer size,
Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in
Europe for a thousand years.
Armenians, Syrians, Slavs, and
Georgians were part of the Byzantine
Constantinople's monumental center.
The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman
Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century. The
18-meter-tall walls built by
Theodosius II were, in essence,
impregnable to the barbarians coming from south of the
who found easier targets to the west rather than the richer provinces
to the east in Asia. From the 5th century, the city was also protected
by the Anastasian Wall, a 60-kilometer chain of walls across the
Thracian peninsula. Many scholars[who?] argue that these sophisticated
fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested while
Ancient Rome and the west collapsed.
Constantinople's fame was such that it was described even in
contemporary Chinese histories, the Old and New Book of Tang, which
mentioned its massive walls and gates as well as a purported clepsydra
mounted with a golden statue of a man. The Chinese
histories even related how the city had been besieged in the 7th
Muawiyah I and how he exacted tribute in a peace
Main article: Byzantine architecture
Interior view of the Hagia Sophia, currently a museum.
Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural models and
styles to create its own unique type of architecture. The influence of
Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it
throughout Europe. Particular examples include
St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica in
Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the
Slavic East. Also, alone in
Europe until the 13th-century Italian
florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the
Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle
Ages. Its city walls were much imitated (for example, see Caernarfon
Castle) and its urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout
the Middle Ages, keeping alive the art, skill and technical expertise
of the Roman Empire. In the Ottoman period Islamic architecture and
symbolism were used.
Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of
Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical
Patriarch, and made it a prime center of Christianity alongside Rome.
This contributed to cultural and theological differences between
Eastern and Western Christianity eventually leading to the Great
Schism that divided Western
Eastern Orthodoxy from
Constantinople is also of great religious importance to
Islam, as the conquest of
Constantinople is one of the signs of the
End time in Islam.
Constantinople in the
Nuremberg Chronicle published in
1493, forty years after the city's fall to the Muslims.
Constantinople appears as a city of wondrous majesty, beauty,
remoteness, and nostalgia in William Butler Yeats' 1928 poem "Sailing
Constantinople, as seen under the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II,
makes several on-screen appearances in the television miniseries
"Attila" as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Mika Waltari wrote one of his most-acclaimed historical
novels, Johannes Angelos (published in English by name "The Dark
Angel") on the fall of Constantinople.
Robert Graves, author of I, Claudius, also wrote Count Belisarius, a
historical novel about Belisarius. Graves set much of the novel in the
Constantinople of Justinian I.
Constantinople provides the setting of much of the action in Umberto
Eco's 2000 novel Baudolino.
Constantinople was made easy to spell thanks to a novelty
song, "C-O-N-S-T-A-N-T-I-N-O-P-L-E," written by Harry Carlton and
performed by Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra, in the 1920s.
Constantinople's change of name was the theme for a song made famous
The Four Lads
The Four Lads and later covered by
They Might Be Giants
They Might Be Giants and many
others, titled "
Istanbul (Not Constantinople)."
"Constantinople" was one of the "big words" the Father knows toward
the end of Dr. Seuss's book, Hop on Pop. (The other was Timbuktu.)
"Constantinople" was also the title of the opening edit of The
Residents' EP Duck Stab!, released in 1978.
Roger Meddows Taylor
Roger Meddows Taylor included the track "Interlude in
Constantinople" on Side 2 of his debut album Fun in Space.
A Montreal-based folk/classical/fusion band calls itself
Constantinople under Justinian is the scene of the book A Flame in
Byzantium (ISBN 0-312-93026-7) by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro, released
"Constantinople" is the title of a song by The Decemberists.
Stephen Lawhead's novel
Byzantium (1996) is set in 9th-century
Folk Metal band
Turisas makes multiple references to
their song "Miklagard Overture," referring to it as
"Konstantinopolis," "Tsargrad," and "Miklagard."
Constantinople makes an appearance in the MMORPG game Silkroad as a
major capital, along with a major Chinese capital.
Constantinople makes an appearance in the "
Rome Total War" expansion
Barbarian Invasion" belonging to the Eastern Roman Empire. It would
reappear in the same role for the spiritual sequel, Total War: Attila.
Constantinople also makes an appearance in "Medieval Total War." It is
a starting province and city of the Byzantines.
Constantinople makes an appearance in the game "Age of Empires II: The
Age of Kings" in the fifth scenario of the Barbarossa campaign and
again in the third scenario of the Attila the Hun campaign in the
expansion pack "Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion."
Constantinople is the main setting of the game "Assassin's Creed:
Revelations," the fourth major title in the best-selling "Assassin's
Constantinople is also a setting of the Vampire: The Dark Ages role
playing game by White Wolf.
Constantinople is one of the territories featured in the Board Game
Diplomacy. It is one of the default territories of Turkey.
Constantinople apple quinces
People from Constantinople
List of people from Constantinople
A fragment of the
Milion (Greek: Μίλ(λ)ιον), a mile-marker
Secular buildings and monuments
The final siege of Constantinople, contemporary 15th-century French
Column of Justinian
Baths of Zeuxippus
Column of Marcian
Forum of Constantine
Column of Constantine
Great Palace of Constantinople
Hippodrome of Constantinople
Horses of Saint Mark
Obelisk of Theodosius
Palace of Lausus
Cistern of Philoxenos
Palace of Blachernae
Palace of the Porphyrogenitus
Prison of Anemas
Walls of Constantinople
Churches, monasteries and mosques
Atik Mustafa Pasha Mosque
Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus
Church of St. Polyeuctus
Church of the Holy Apostles
Eski Imaret Mosque
Fenari Isa Mosque
Hirami Ahmet Pasha Mosque
Koca Mustafa Pasha Mosque
Vefa Kilise Mosque
Mosque established during Byzantine times for visiting Muslim
Ahmed Bican Yazıcıoğlu
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Eparch of Constantinople
Eparch of Constantinople (List of eparchs)
Fall of Constantinople
List of people from Constantinople
Massacre of the Latins
Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae
Sieges of Constantinople
University of Constantinople
^ Croke, Brian (2001). Count Marcellinus and His Chronicle, p. 103.
University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0198150016.
^ Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 86.
^ "The Chronicle of John Malalas," Bk 18.86 Translated by E. Jeffreys,
M. Jeffreys, and R. Scott. Australian Association of Byzantine
Studies, 1986 vol 4.
^ "The Chronicle of Theophones Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern
History AD 284-813." Translated with commentary by
Cyril Mango and
Roger Scott. AM 6030 pg 316, with this note: Theophanes' precise date
should be accepted.
^ a b c Mango, Cyril (1991). "Constantinople". In Kazhdan, Alexander.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press. pp. 508–512. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
^ Pounds, Norman John Greville. An Historical Geography of Europe,
1500–1840, p. 124. CUP Archive, 1979. ISBN 0-521-22379-2.
^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of Byzantine State and Society.
Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 89.
^ Janin (1964), passim
^ "Preserving The Intellectual Heritage—Preface".
^ a b c d Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 28
^ Rosenberg, Matt. "Largest cities through history." About.com.
^ Pliny the Elder, book IV, chapter XI: Archived 2017-01-01 at the
Wayback Machine. "On leaving the Dardanelles we come to the Bay of
Casthenes, ... and the promontory of the Golden Horn, on which is the
town of Byzantium, a free state, formerly called Lygos; it is 711
miles from Durazzo, ..." Archived 2017-01-01 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Vailhé, S. (1908). "Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New
York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings
of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural
Features, and Historic Sites (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland
& Company. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
^ Janin, Raymond (1964).
Constantinople byzantine. Paris: Institut
Français d'Études Byzantines. p. 10f.
^ Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). "The Names of Constantinople".
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association
(The Johns Hopkins University Press) 78: 347–67. doi:10.2307/283503.
^ Harris, Johnathan (2007). Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. New
York: Continuum USA. p. 24.
^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" ["The names of
Istanbul"]. In: 'Dünden bugüne
İstanbul ansiklopedisi', ed.
Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.
^ "Augusta Antonina Turkey". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
^ Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). "The Names of Constantinople".
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological
Association(The Johns Hopkins University Press) 78: 347–67.
doi:10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
^ Harris, 2007, p. 5
^ Harper, Douglas. "Istanbul". Online Etymology Dictionary.
^ Stanford and Ezel Shaw (1977): History of the
Ottoman Empire and
Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol II, p. 386;
Robinson (1965), The First Turkish Republic, p. 298
^ Tom Burham, The Dictionary of Misinformation, Ballantine, 1977.
^ Room, Adrian, (1993), Place Name changes 1900–1991, Metuchen,
N.J., & London:The Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0-8108-2600-3
pp. 46, 86.
^ Britannica, Istanbul.
^ Pliny, IV, xi
^ Thucydides, I, 94
^ Harris, 2007, pp.24–25
^ Harris, 2007, p.45
^ Harris, 2007, pp.44–45
^ Cassius Dio, ix, p.195
^ Commemorative coins that were issued during the 330s already refer
to the city as Constantinopolis (see, e.g., Michael Grant, The climax
Rome (London 1968), p. 133), or "Constantine's City". According to
the Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, vol. 164 (Stuttgart
2005), column 442, there is no evidence for the tradition that
Constantine officially dubbed the city "New Rome" (Nova Roma). It is
possible that the Emperor called the city "Second Rome" (Greek:
Δευτέρα Ῥώμη, Deutéra Rhōmē) by official decree, as
reported by the 5th-century church historian Socrates of
Constantinople: See Names of Constantinople.
^ A description can be found in the Notitia urbis
^ Socrates II.13, cited by J B Bury, History of the Later Roman
Empire, p. 74.
^ J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, p. 75. et seqq.
^ Liber insularum Archipelagi, Bibliothèque nationale de France,
^ Margaret Barker, Times Literary Supplement 4 May 2007, p. 26.
^ Procopius' Secret History: see P Neville-Ure, Justinian and his Age,
Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest
of the city, and is now a museum.
^ Source for quote: Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum, ed T
Preger I 105 (see A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire,
1952, vol I, p. 188).
^ T. Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History, 114.
^ Justinian, Novellae 63 and 165.
^ Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades
Archived August 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., Dr. Kenneth W.
^ Past pandemics that ravaged Europe, BBC News, November 7, 2005.
^ Possibly from the largest city in the world with 500,000 inhabitants
to just 40,000–70,000: The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham,
Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0 (p. 260)
^ "Exposition, Dedicated to Khan Tervel". Programata.
^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 251.
^ George Finlay, History of the Byzantine Empire, Dent, London, 1906,
^ Finlay, 1906, pp. 174–5.
^ Finlay, 1906, p. 379.
^ Enoksen, Lars Magnar. (1998). Runor : historia, tydning,
tolkning. Historiska Media, Falun. ISBN 91-88930-32-7 p. 135.
^ J M Hussey, The Byzantine World, Hutchinson, London, 1967, p. 92.
^ Vasiliev 1952, pp. 343–4.
Silk Road Seattle – Constantinople, Daniel C. Waugh.
^ The officer given the task was killed by the crowd, and in the end
the image was removed rather than destroyed: It was to be restored by
Irene and removed again by Leo V: Finlay 1906, p. 111.
^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 261.
^ "The Pechenegs". Archived from the original on 2005-08-29. Retrieved
2009-10-27. , Steven Lowe and Dmitriy V. Ryaboy.
^ There is an excellent source for these events: the writer and
historian Anna Comnena in her work The Alexiad.
^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 472.
^ J. Phillips, The
Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 144.
^ J. Phillips, The
Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 155.
^ The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 950–1250.
Cambridge University Press. 1986. pp. 506–508.
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^ Stilbes, Constantine; Johannes M. Diethart; Wolfram Hörandner
(2005). Constantinus Stilbes Poemata. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 16
line 184. ISBN 978-3-598-71235-7.
^ Diethart and Hörandner (2005). p. 24, line 387
^ Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Cambridge 1966 ,
vol 3, p.123.
^ Talbot, "The Restoration of
Constantinople under Michael VIII",
Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 47 (1993), p. 246
^ Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 247
^ Geanakoplos, Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West (Harvard
University Press, 1959), p. 124 n. 26
^ a b Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 248
^ Geanakoplos, Emperor Michael, p. 124
^ Hussey 1967, p. 70.
^ T. Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History, 113.
^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 217.
^ "The Black Death". Archived from the original on 2008-06-25.
Retrieved 2008-11-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
(link) , Channel 4 – History.
^ D. Nicolle,
Constantinople 1453: The end of Byzantium, 32.
^ a b Mansel, Philip. Constantinople: City of the World's Desire.
Penguin History Travel, ISBN 0-14-026246-6. Page 1.
^ Lewis, Bernard.
Istanbul and the Civilization if the Ottoman Empire.
1, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. p. 6
^ a b Inalcik, Halil. “The Policy of
Mehmed II toward the Greek
Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City.”
Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249. p. 236
^ Meyendorff 1996, pp. 29.
^ Ball (2016), pp 152–153; see also endnote #114.
^ a b Hirth (2000) , East Asian History Sourcebook. Retrieved 24
^ Yule (1915), 46–48; see also footnote #1 on p. 49.
^ Yule (1915), 46–49; see footnote #1 on p. 49 for discussion about
the Byzantine diplomat sent to
Damascus who was named in Chinese
^ "Game Informer 218 details (Assassin's Creed, Rayman Origins)".
Constantinople by Night by p. Boulle, J. Mosqueria-Asheim and L.
Soulban, Copyright 1997 White Wolf Publishing, Inc.
^ ISLAMIC RITUAL PREACHING (KHUTBAS) IN A CONTESTED ARENA: SHI‘IS
AND SUNNIS, FATIMIDS AND ABBASIDS PAUL E. WALKER. University of
Chicago. ANUARIO DE ESTUDIOS MEDIEVALES (2012)
^ "AZIZ (365-386/975-996), 15TH IMAM – Ismaili.NET – Heritage
^ "Μεγάλη διαδικτυακή εγκυκλοπαίδεια
της Κωνσταντινούπολης". Archived from the original
^ Borrut 2011, p. 235.
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