A constituent state is a state entity
that constitutes a part
of a sovereign state
. A constituent state holds regional jurisdiction over a defined administrative territory, within a sovereign state. Government of a constituent state is a form of regional government
. Throughout history, and also in modern political practice, most constituent states are part of complex states, like federations
. Constituent states can have republican
forms of government. Those of republican form are usually called ''states'' or autonomous states
, ''republics'' or autonomous republics
, or cantons
. Those that have a monarchical form of government are often defined by traditional hierarchical rank of their ruler (usually a principality
, or an emirate
States existing in free association
with another sovereign state can be considered constituent states of a constitutional entity, depending on circumstances. For example, the Cook Islands
, New Zealand
constitute the three constituent countries of the Realm of New Zealand
, united under a single head of state
: the King or Queen of New Zealand
Constituent states united in a confederal union
under a confederal government are more specifically known as confederated states. Some of the most notable historical examples of constituent states within a confederation are the United States
under the Articles of Confederation
, the States of the German Confederation
and States of the Confederate States of America
. In modern political practice, notable examples are Cantons of Switzerland
or Entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Constituent states united in a federal union
under a federal government
are more specifically known as federated states. There are numerous historical examples for constituent states within various federations. In modern political practice, among the most notable examples are U.S. state
s and constituent entities of the Russian Federation
Other forms of constituent states
that are not federated or confederated but enjoy a greater degree of autonomy
or self-government than other territories within the same country can be considered constituent states of that country. This relationship is by some authors called a federacy
. Autonomous republics
Political status of breakaway states
The concept of a ''constituent state'' is also used in political processes and negotiations regarding the status of various breakaway states
. It is often proposed as a compromise solution or an alternative to formal recognition of a secessionist state
that has unilaterally declared independence
, and whose ''de jure
remains in dispute
The South Caucasus
region consists of a number of breakaway and autonomous republic
s in addition to the states of Armenia
recognised by the United Nations
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia
and South Ossetia
, which have effectively maintained independence since declaration, are considered constituent republics of Georgia by the majority of world governments. The Republic of Artsakh
, which is also independent in effect, is considered by the United Nations to be a constituent entity of Azerbaijan.
The country of Cyprus is divided between two independent political entities: the internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus
in the south, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
, which is recognised as a sovereign state only by Turkey
. Both entities are given the title of constituent state of Cyprus by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
, and the Annan Plan for reuniting Cyprus
consistently used the term constituent state to refer to each entity.
The Republic of Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence from the Republic of Serbia
in February 2008.
Some proposals have called a confederacy
between South Korea
and North Korea
as a measure of Korean reunification
, which both Koreas will remain their own political systems.
Proposal for Palestine
The term constituent state has also been used to label both states in proposals for federal solutions
to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
. It can also describe the region of Palestine
at present, which is divided between the governments of Israel
and the Palestinian Authority
Because of the ongoing war
, the Somali
country is now divided into a number of constituent states
with varying degrees of independence from the Transitional Federal Government
The breakaway republic of Somaliland
in the north, which maintains ''de facto'' independence over its territory, is still regarded by member states of the United Nations as a constituent state of Somalia
despite its declaration of independence
in 1991. The states of Puntland
in central and northeastern Somalia retain control over their own territories with little to no oversight from the federal government
, which is based in Mogadishu
in the south. The administrations in these states have stated that, unlike Somaliland, they do not seek outright independence
from Somalia, and are merely maintaining stability until such a time when the government can effectively implement a permanent constitution for the country.
In the south and in opposition to the central government are regions
administered by various Islamic insurgent groups
, most notably Hizbul Islam
, both of which seek to establish Sharia law
within the country.
Other administrative entities
Like Palau, the government of Myanmar
, or Burma, presently operates as a unitary state, with sovereignty confined within the central government
. Myanmar is divided into a number of regions, zones and states
with constitutionally defined levels of autonomy.
Both regions and states can be described as ethnically defined; while the Bamar
are the dominant ethnic group
within regions, the states are mostly dominated by various minority groups
, such as the Shan
), the Rakhine
) and the Karen
), among others.
In terms of politics, the use of the term "state" in this context is largely historical, with a number of these states having been united in various federal unions during the British
colonial period. At present, most states are afforded a greater degree of autonomy than other divisions. Political separatism
in many states is rampant, and territory controlled by the central government in these cases is limited. In these cases, jurisdiction within a state is mostly confined to its respective regional government.
In addition, various proposals have been made for instituting federalism
in Myanmar, which would allow these states to implement individual constitutions.The KIO Proposal
Kachin Independence Organization. Letter to the National Convention Commission, and National leaders of the Union. Accessed 2009-11-01.
Palau is divided into sixteen administrative divisions termed "states",
which were before 1984 called municipalities. The change in terminology reflects the fact that these divisions are afforded a larger degree of autonomy than before, with each state having its own constitution. As a unitary republic, however, the Government of Palau is centralised and these divisions exist solely to establish regional government; they are not united in a federal union.
The term "constituent state" is sometimes also used to refer to member states of an international organization.
Member states of the European Union are occasionally referred to as "constituent states" by pro-European politicians and activists within the European Union, especially those in favour of further internal integration and federalisation.
It is also used to refer to sovereign states in bilateral negotiations or agreements between two or more states.
* Federated state
Category:Constitutional state types