| alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse
), Tsarigrad (Slavic
), Qustantiniya (Arabic
), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πόλις ("the City"), Konstantiniyye (Ottoman Turkish
), İstanbul (Turkish
| image = Byzantine Constantinople-en.png
| alt =
| caption = Map of Constantinople, corresponding to the modern-day Fatih
district of İstanbul
| map_type =
| map_alt =
| map_size = 270
| coordinates =
| location = Fatih, Istanbul
| region = Marmara Region
| type = Imperial city
| part_of =
| length =
| width =
| area = enclosed within Constantinian Walls
enclosed within Theodosian Walls
| height =
| builder = Constantine the Great
| material =
| built = 11 May 330
| abandoned =
| epochs = Late antiquity
to Late Middle Ages
| cultures =
| depende =
| occupants =
Constantinople ( Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολη; ota|قسطنطينيه|Ḳosṭanṭīnīye) was the capital city
of the Roman Empire
(330–395), the Byzantine Empire
(395–1204 and 1261–1453), the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire
(1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire
In 324, the ancient city of Byzantium
was renamed “New Rome” and declared the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great
, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330.
From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia
, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church
, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
, the sacred Imperial Palace
where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower
, the Hippodrome
, the Golden Gate
of the Land Walls, and opulent aristocratic palaces. The University of Constantinople
was founded in the fifth century and contained artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library
which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria
and had 100,000 volumes. The city was the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
and guardian of Christendom
's holiest relics such as the Crown of thorns
and the True Cross
Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The Theodosian Walls
consisted of a double wall lying about to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front. This formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity
. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, and it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the 'seven hills' of Rome. Because it was located between the Golden Horn
and the Sea of Marmara
the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, and this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes, and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the Mediterranean and the Black Sea). Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years.
In 1204, however, the armies of the Fourth Crusade
took and devastated the city, and its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin rule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos
liberated the city, and after the restoration under the Palaiologos
dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire
in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea
in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans
, led by Sultan Mehmed II
, on 29 May 1453,
[Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 28]
whereafter it replaced Edirne
(Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.
[Rosenberg, Matt. "Largest cities through history." About.com.]
According to Pliny the Elder
in his ''Natural History
'', the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was ''Lygos'', a settlement likely of Thracian
origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC. The site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara
'' ( grc|Βυζάντιον, ''Byzántion'') in around 657 BC,
across from the town of Chalcedon
on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of ''Byzantion
'', more commonly known by the later Latin ''Byzantium'', are not entirely clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyria
[Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). "The Names of Constantinople". ''Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association'' (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 78: 347–67. . .]
The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. The later Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men, Byzas and Antes, though this was more likely just a play on the word Byzantion
The city was briefly renamed ''Augusta Antonina'' in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus
(193–211), who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender
in the civil war
and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (who succeeded him as Emperor), popularly known as Caracalla
[Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" The names of Istanbul" In: 'Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi', ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.]
The name appears to have been quickly forgotten and abandoned, and the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty
Names of Constantinople
Byzantium took on the name of ''Kōnstantinoupolis'' ("city of Constantine", ''Constantinople'') after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I
, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire
to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital officially as ''Nova Roma
'' () 'New Rome'. During this time, the city was also called 'Second Rome', 'Eastern Rome', and ''Roma Constantinopolitana''.
As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, and its wealth, population, and influence grew, the city also came to have a multitude of nicknames.
As the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as ''Basileuousa'' (Queen of Cities) and ''Megalopolis'' (the Great City) and was, in colloquial speech, commonly referred to as just ''Polis'' () 'the City' by Constantinopolitans and provincial Byzantines alike.
In the language of other peoples, Constantinople was referred to just as reverently. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe (Varangians
) used the Old Norse name ''Miklagarðr'' (from ''mikill'' 'big' and ''garðr'' 'city'), and later ''Miklagard'' and ''Miklagarth''.
In Arabic, the city was sometimes called ''Rūmiyyat al-Kubra'' (Great City of the Romans) and in Persian as ''Takht-e Rum'' (Throne of the Romans).
In East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia
, Constantinople has been referred to as ''Tsargrad
'' (''Царьград'') or ''Carigrad'', 'City of the Caesar (Emperor)', from the Slavonic words ''tsar'' ('Caesar' or 'King') and ''grad'' ('city'). This was presumably a calque
on a Greek phrase such as (''Vasileos Polis''), 'the city of the emperor ing
Modern names of the city
The modern Turkish name for the city, ''İstanbul
'', derives from the Greek
phrase ''eis tin polin'' (), meaning "(in)to the city".
This name was used in Turkish
alongside ''Kostantiniyye'', the more formal adaptation of the original ''Constantinople'', during the period of Ottoman
rule, while western languages mostly continued to refer to the city as Constantinople until the early 20th century. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed
from Arabic script to Latin script. After that, as part of the 1920s Turkification
movement, Turkey started to urge other countries to use Turkish names for Turkish cities
, instead of other transliterations to Latin script that had been used in Ottoman times.
[Stanford and Ezel Shaw (1977): History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol II, p. 386; Robinson (1965), The First Turkish Republic, p. 298]
In time the city came to be known as Istanbul and its variations in most world languages.
The name "Constantinople" is still used by members of the Eastern Orthodox Church
in the title of one of their most important leaders, the Orthodox patriarch
based in the city, referred to as "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch." In Greece today, the city is still called ''Konstantinoúpoli(s)'' () or simply just "the City" ().
Foundation of Byzantium
Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I
(272–337) in 324
on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium
, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion
, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara
. This is the first major settlement that would develop on the site of later Constantinople, but the first known settlements was that of ''Lygos'', referred to in Pliny's Natural Histories. Apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement. The site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium () in around 657 BC,
across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
Hesychius of Miletus
wrote that some "claim that people from Megara, who derived their descent from Nisos, sailed to this place under their leader Byzas, and invent the fable that his name was attached to the city." Some versions of the founding myth say Byzas was the son of a local nymph
, while others say he was conceived by one of Zeus' daughters and Poseidon
. Hesychius also gives alternate versions of the city's founding legend, which he attributed to old poets and writers:
It is said that the first Argives, after having received this prophecy from Pythia,
Blessed are those who will inhabit that holy city,
a narrow strip of the Thracian shore at the mouth of the Pontos,
where two pups drink of the gray sea,
where fish and stag graze on the same pasture,
set up their dwellings at the place where the rivers Kydaros and Barbyses have their estuaries, one flowing from the north, the other from the west, and merging with the sea at the altar of the nymph called Semestre"
The city maintained independence as a city-state until it was annexed by Darius I
in 512 BC into the Persian Empire
, who saw the site as the optimal location to construct a pontoon bridge
crossing into Europe as Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus strait. Persian rule lasted until 478 BC when as part of the Greek counterattack to the Second Persian invasion of Greece
, a Greek army led by the Spartan general Pausanias
captured the city which remained an independent, yet subordinate, city under the Athenians, and later to the Spartans after 411 BC. A farsighted treaty with the emergent power of Rome in which stipulated tribute in exchange for independent status allowed it to enter Roman rule unscathed. This treaty would pay dividends retrospectively as Byzantium would maintain this independent status, and prosper under peace and stability in the Pax Romana
, for nearly three centuries until the late 2nd century AD.
Byzantium was never a major influential city-state like that of Athens
, but the city enjoyed relative peace and steady growth as a prosperous trading city lent by its remarkable position. The site lay astride the land route from Europe
and the seaway
from the Black Sea
to the Mediterranean
, and had in the Golden Horn
an excellent and spacious harbour. Already then, in Greek and early Roman times, Byzantium was famous for its strategic geographic position that made it difficult to besiege and capture, and its position at the crossroads of the Asiatic-European trade route over land and as the gateway between the Mediterranean and Black Seas made it too valuable a settlement to abandon, as Emperor Septimius Severus
later realized when he razed the city to the ground for supporting Pescennius Niger
. It was a move greatly criticized by the contemporary consul and historian Cassius Dio
who said that Severus had destroyed "a strong Roman outpost and a base of operations against the barbarians from Pontus and Asia". He would later rebuild Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed ''Augusta Antonina'', fortifying it with a new city wall in his name, the Severan Wall.
324–337: The refoundation as Constantinople
Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Having restored the unity of the Empire, and, being in the course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church
, he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the imperial courts, and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube
or the Euphrates
frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire.
Constantinople was built over six years, and consecrated on 11 May 330.
Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis. Yet, at first, Constantine's new Rome did not have all the dignities of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul
, rather than an urban prefect
. It had no praetors
, or quaestors
. Although it did have senators, they held the title ''clarus'', not ''clarissimus
'', like those of Rome. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts, or other public works. The new programme of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors, and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. In similar fashion, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana
and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens. At the time, the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.
Constantine laid out a new square at the centre of old Byzantium, naming it the Augustaeum
. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace
of the Emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke
, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne
. Nearby was the vast Hippodrome
for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus
. At the western entrance to the Augustaeum was the Milion
, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Roman Empire.
From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese
, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium
or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine
where there was a second Senate-house and a high column
with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of Helios
, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking toward the rising sun. From there, the Mese passed on and through the Forum Tauri
and then the Forum Bovis
, and finally up the Seventh Hill (or Xerolophus) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall
. After the construction of the Theodosian Walls
in the early 5th century, it was extended to the new Golden Gate
, reaching a total length of seven Roman mile
s. After the construction of the Theodosian Walls, Constantinople consisted of an area approximately the size of Old Rome within the Aurelian walls, or some 1,400 ha.
337–529: Constantinople during the Barbarian Invasions and the fall of the West
The importance of Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. From the death of Constantine in 337 to the accession of Theodosius I, emperors had been resident only in the years 337–338, 347–351, 358–361, 368–369. Its status as a capital was recognized by the appointment of the first known Urban Prefect of the City Honoratus, who held office from 11 December 359 until 361. The urban prefects had concurrent jurisdiction over three provinces each in the adjacent dioceses of Thrace (in which the city was located), Pontus and Asia comparable to the 100-mile extraordinary jurisdiction of the prefect of Rome. The emperor Valens
, who hated the city and spent only one year there, nevertheless built the Palace of Hebdomon
on the shore of the Propontis
near the Golden Gate
, probably for use when reviewing troops. All the emperors up to Zeno
were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. Theodosius I
founded the Church of John the Baptist
to house the skull of the saint (today preserved at the Topkapı Palace
), put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of Taurus, and turned the ruined temple of Aphrodite
into a coach house for the Praetorian Prefect
built a new forum named after himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine.
After the shock of the Battle of Adrianople
in 378, in which the emperor Valens
with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by the Visigoths
within a few days' march, the city looked to its defences, and in 413–414 Theodosius II
built the 18-metre (60-foot)-tall triple-wall fortifications
, which were not to be breached until the coming of gunpowder. Theodosius also founded a University
near the Forum of Taurus, on 27 February 425.
, a prince of the Huns
, appeared on the Danube about this time and advanced into Thrace, but he was deserted by many of his followers, who joined with the Romans in driving their king back north of the river. Subsequent to this, new walls were built to defend the city and the fleet on the Danube improved.
After the barbarian
s overran the Western Roman Empire, Constantinople became the indisputable capital city of the Roman Empire. Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. They remained in their palace in the Great City and sent generals to command their armies. The wealth of the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia flowed into Constantinople.
527–565: Constantinople in the Age of Justinian
was commissioned by Emperor Justinian I
after the previous one was destroyed in the Nika riots
of 532. It was converted into a mosque in 1453 when the Ottoman Empire commenced and was a museum from 1935 to 2020.]]
The emperor Justinian I
(527–565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Before their departure, the ship of the commander Belisarius
was anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. After the victory, in 534, the Temple treasure of Jerusalem
, looted by the Romans in AD 70
and taken to Carthage
by the Vandals
after their sack of Rome in 455, was brought to Constantinople and deposited for a time, perhaps in the Church of St Polyeuctus
, before being returned to Jerusalem
in either the Church of the Resurrection
or the New Church.
Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. In Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place of political significance. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. In the time of Justinian, public order in Constantinople became a critical political issue.
Throughout the late Roman and early Byzantine periods, Christianity was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute between the orthodox
and the monophysites
became the cause of serious disorder, expressed through allegiance to the chariot-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens. The partisans of the Blues and the Greens were said to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street violence. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion of 532, known as the "Nika" riots
(from the battle-cry of "Conquer!" of those involved).
Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed the Theodosian basilica of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), the city's cathedral, which lay to the north of the Augustaeum and had itself replaced the Constantinian basilica founded by Constantius II to replace the first Byzantine cathedral, Hagia Irene
(Holy Peace). Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles
and Isidore of Miletus
to replace it with a new and incomparable Hagia Sophia
. This was the great cathedral of the city, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who was later reported to have exclaimed, "O Solomon
, I have outdone thee!" Hagia Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000 pounds of gold to build.
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles
and Hagia Irene built by Constantine with new churches under the same dedication. The Justinianic Church of the Holy Apostles was designed in the form of an equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the Emperors from Constantine himself until the 11th century. When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II
the Conqueror. Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within of the sea front, in order to protect the view.
During Justinian I's reign, the city's population reached about 500,000 people. However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of the Plague of Justinian
between 541–542 AD. It killed perhaps 40% of the city's inhabitants.
Survival, 565–717: Constantinople during the Byzantine Dark Ages
In the early 7th century, the Avars
and later the Bulgars
overwhelmed much of the Balkans
, threatening Constantinople with attack from the west. Simultaneously, the Persia
s overwhelmed the Prefecture of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia
, son of the exarch
of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne. He found the military situation so dire that he is said to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. The citizens lost their right to free grain in 618 when Heraclius realised that the city could no longer be supplied from Egypt as a result of the Persian wars: the population fell substantially as a result.
While the city withstood a siege
by the Sassanids and Avars in 626, Heraclius campaigned deep into Persian territory and briefly restored the ''status quo'' in 628, when the Persians surrendered all their conquests. However, further sieges followed the Arab conquests
, first from 674 to 678
and then in 717 to 718
. The Theodosian Walls
kept the city impregnable from the land, while a newly discovered incendiary substance known as Greek Fire
allowed the Byzantine navy
to destroy the Arab fleets and keep the city supplied. In the second siege, the second ruler of Bulgaria
, Khan Tervel
, rendered decisive help. He was called ''Saviour of Europe''.
717–1025: Constantinople during the Macedonian Renaissance
In the 730s Leo III
carried out extensive repairs of the Theodosian walls, which had been damaged by frequent and violent attacks; this work was financed by a special tax on all the subjects of the Empire.
Theodora, widow of the Emperor Theophilus
(died 842), acted as regent during the minority of her son Michael III
, who was said to have been introduced to dissolute habits by her brother Bardas. When Michael assumed power in 856, he became known for excessive drunkenness, appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the religious processions of the clergy. He removed Theodora from the Great Palace to the Carian Palace and later to the monastery of Gastria
, but, after the death of Bardas, she was released to live in the palace of St Mamas; she also had a rural residence at the Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867.
In 860, an attack
was made on the city by a new principality set up a few years earlier at Kyiv
by Askold and Dir
, two Varangian
chiefs: Two hundred small vessels passed through the Bosporus and plundered the monasteries and other properties on the suburban Prince's Islands
, the admiral of the Byzantine fleet, alerted the emperor Michael, who promptly put the invaders to flight; but the suddenness and savagery of the onslaught made a deep impression on the citizens.
In 980, the emperor Basil II
received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir
of Kyiv: 6,000 Varangian
warriors, which Basil formed into a new bodyguard known as the Varangian Guard
. They were known for their ferocity, honour, and loyalty. It is said that, in 1038, they were dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian Theme
when one of their number attempted to violate a countrywoman, but in the struggle she seized his sword and killed him; instead of taking revenge, however, his comrades applauded her conduct, compensated her with all his possessions, and exposed his body without burial as if he had committed suicide. However, following the death of an Emperor, they became known also for plunder in the Imperial palaces. Later in the 11th Century the Varangian Guard became dominated by Anglo-Saxons
who preferred this way of life to subjugation by the new Norman kings of England
The ''Book of the Eparch
'', which dates to the 10th century, gives a detailed picture of the city's commercial life and its organization at that time. The corporations in which the tradesmen of Constantinople were organised were supervised by the Eparch, who regulated such matters as production, prices, import, and export. Each guild had its own monopoly, and tradesmen might not belong to more than one. It is an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how little these arrangements had changed since the office, then known by the Latin version of its title, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban prefecture of Rome.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, Constantinople had a population of between 500,000 and 800,000.
Iconoclast controversy in Constantinople
In the 8th and 9th centuries, the iconoclast
movement caused serious political unrest throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III
issued a decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of a statue of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act that was fiercely resisted by the citizens. Constantine V
convoked a church council in 754
, which condemned the worship of images, after which many treasures were broken, burned, or painted over with depictions of trees, birds or animals: One source refers to the church of the Holy Virgin
as having been transformed into a "fruit store and aviary". Following the death of her son Leo IV
in 780, the empress Irene
restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea
The iconoclast controversy returned in the early 9th century, only to be resolved once more in 843 during the regency of Empress Theodora
, who restored the icons. These controversies contributed to the deterioration of relations between the Western
and the Eastern
1025–1081: Constantinople after Basil II
In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the Battle of Manzikert
in Armenia in 1071. The Emperor Romanus
Diogenes was captured. The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan
, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus accepted them. On his release, however, Romanus found that enemies had placed their own candidate on the throne in his absence; he surrendered to them and suffered death by torture, and the new ruler, Michael VII
Ducas, refused to honour the treaty. In response, the Turks began to move into Anatolia in 1073. The collapse of the old defensive system meant that they met no opposition, and the empire's resources were distracted and squandered in a series of civil wars. Thousands of Turkoman
tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier and moved into Anatolia. By 1080, a huge area had been lost to the Empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of Constantinople.
1081–1185: Constantinople under the Comneni
Under the Comnenian dynasty (1081–1185), Byzantium staged a remarkable recovery. In 1090–91, the nomadic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army. In response to a call for aid from Alexius, the First Crusade assembled at Constantinople in 1096, but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for Jerusalem on its own account. John II built the monastery of the Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds.
With the restoration of firm central government, the empire became fabulously wealthy. The population was rising (estimates for Constantinople in the 12th century vary from some 100,000 to 500,000), and towns and cities across the realm flourished. Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. This was reflected in Constantinople by the construction of the Blachernae palace, the creation of brilliant new works of art, and general prosperity at this time: an increase in trade, made possible by the growth of the Italian city-states, may have helped the growth of the economy. It is certain that the Venetians and others were active traders in Constantinople, making a living out of shipping goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West, while also trading extensively with Byzantium and Egypt. The Venetians had factories on the north side of the Golden Horn, and large numbers of westerners were present in the city throughout the 12th century. Toward the end of Manuel I Komnenos's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000–80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people.
[J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 144.] In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews. [J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 155.] In 1182, most Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople were massacred.
In artistic terms, the 12th century was a very productive period. There was a revival in the mosaic art, for example: Mosaics became more realistic and vivid, with an increased emphasis on depicting three-dimensional forms. There was an increased demand for art, with more people having access to the necessary wealth to commission and pay for such work. According to N.H. Baynes (''Byzantium, An Introduction to East Roman Civilization''):
1185–1261: Constantinople during the Imperial Exile
thumb|The ,_[[Empire_of_Nicaea">Latin_Empire,_[[Empire_of_Nicaea,_[[Empire_of_Trebizond.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Empire_of_Nicaea.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Latin Empire, [[Empire of Nicaea">Latin Empire, [[Empire of Nicaea, [[Empire of Trebizond">Empire_of_Nicaea.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Latin Empire, [[Empire of Nicaea">Latin Empire, [[Empire of Nicaea, [[Empire of Trebizond, and the [[Despotate of Epirus]]. The borders are very uncertain.]]
On 25 July 1197, Constantinople was struck by a [[Constantine stilbes#Works|severe fire]] which burned the Latin Quarter and the area around the Gate of the Droungarios ( tr|Odun Kapısı) on the Golden Horn.
Nevertheless, the destruction wrought by the 1197 fire paled in comparison with that brought by the Crusaders. In the course of a plot between Philip of Swabia, Boniface of Montferrat and the Doge of Venice, the Fourth Crusade was, despite papal excommunication, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the claims of Alexius, son of the deposed emperor Isaac. The reigning emperor Alexius III had made no preparation. The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the defensive chain protecting the Golden Horn, and entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled. But the new Alexius IV found the Treasury inadequate, and was unable to make good the rewards he had promised to his western allies. Tension between the citizens and the Latin soldiers increased. In January 1204, the ''protovestiarius'' Alexius Murzuphlus provoked a riot, it is presumed, to intimidate Alexius IV, but whose only result was the destruction of the great statue of Athena Promachos, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum facing west.
In February 1204, the people rose again: Alexius IV was imprisoned and executed, and Murzuphlus took the purple as Alexius V. He made some attempt to repair the walls and organise the citizenry, but there had been no opportunity to bring in troops from the provinces and the guards were demoralised by the revolution. An attack by the Crusaders on 6 April failed, but a second from the Golden Horn on 12 April succeeded, and the invaders poured in. Alexius V fled. The Senate met in Hagia Sophia and offered the crown to Theodore Lascaris, who had married into the Angelid family, but it was too late. He came out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. Then the two of them slipped away with many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. By the next day the Doge and the leading Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the city was given over to pillage for three days.
Sir Steven Runciman, historian of the Crusades, wrote that the sack of Constantinople is "unparalleled in history".
For the next half-century, Constantinople was the seat of the Latin Empire. Under the rulers of the Latin Empire, the city declined, both in population and the condition of its buildings. Alice-Mary Talbot cites an estimated population for Constantinople of 400,000 inhabitants; after the destruction wrought by the Crusaders on the city, about one third were homeless, and numerous courtiers, nobility, and higher clergy, followed various leading personages into exile. "As a result Constantinople became seriously depopulated," Talbot concludes.
The Latins took over at least 20 churches and 13 monasteries, most prominently the Hagia Sophia, which became the cathedral of the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. It is to these that E.H. Swift attributed the construction of a series of flying buttresses to shore up the walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by earthquake tremors. However, this act of maintenance is an exception: for the most part, the Latin occupiers were too few to maintain all of the buildings, either secular and sacred, and many became targets for vandalism or dismantling. Bronze and lead were removed from the roofs of abandoned buildings and melted down and sold to provide money to the chronically under-funded Empire for defense and to support the court; Deno John Geanokoplos writes that "it may well be that a division is suggested here: Latin laymen stripped secular buildings, ecclesiastics, the churches." Buildings were not the only targets of officials looking to raise funds for the impoverished Latin Empire: the monumental sculptures which adorned the Hippodrome and fora of the city were pulled down and melted for coinage. "Among the masterpieces destroyed, writes Talbot, "were a Herakles attributed to the fourth-century B.C. sculptor Lysippos, and monumental figures of Hera, Paris, and Helen." [Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 248]
The Nicaean emperor John III Vatatzes reportedly saved several churches from being dismantled for their valuable building materials; by sending money to the Latins "to buy them off" (''exonesamenos''), he prevented the destruction of several churches. According to Talbot, these included the churches of Blachernae, Rouphinianai, and St. Michael at Anaplous. He also granted funds for the restoration of the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been seriously damaged in an earthquake.
The Byzantine nobility scattered, many going to Nicaea, where Theodore Lascaris set up an imperial court, or to Epirus, where Theodore Angelus did the same; others fled to Trebizond, where one of the Comneni had already with Georgian support established an independent seat of empire. Nicaea and Epirus both vied for the imperial title, and tried to recover Constantinople. In 1261, Constantinople was captured from its last Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by the forces of the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
1261–1453: Palaiologan Era and the Fall of Constantinople
Although Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII Palaiologos, the Empire had lost many of its key economic resources, and struggled to survive. The palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main Imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus going into decline. When Michael VIII captured the city, its population was 35,000 people, but, by the end of his reign, he had succeeded in increasing the population to about 70,000 people.
[T. Madden, ''Crusades: The Illustrated History'', 113.] The Emperor achieved this by summoning former residents who had fled the city when the crusaders captured it, and by relocating Greeks from the recently reconquered Peloponnese to the capital. Military defeats, civil wars, earthquakes and natural disasters were joined by the Black Death, which in 1347 spread to Constantinople exacerbated the people's sense that they were doomed by God. In 1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured the city, it contained approximately 50,000 people.
Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. The conquest of Constantinople followed a seven-week siege which had begun on 6 April 1453.
1453–1922: Ottoman Kostantiniyye
The Christian Orthodox city of Constantinople was now under Ottoman control. When Mehmed II finally entered Constantinople through the Gate of Charisius (today known as Edirnekapı or Adrianople Gate), he immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia, where after the doors were axed down, the thousands of citizens hiding within the sanctuary were raped and enslaved, often with slavers fighting each other to the death over particularly beautiful and valuable slave girls.
[Ibrahim, Raymond. ''Sword and Scimitar''. Da Capo Press, New York, . p. 244.] Moreover, symbols of Christianity were everywhere vandalized or destroyed, including the crucifix of Hagia Sophia which was paraded through the sultan's camps. [Ibrahim, Raymond. ''Sword and Scimitar''. Da Capo Press, New York, . p. 245.] Afterwards he ordered his soldiers to stop hacking at the city's valuable marbles and 'be satisfied with the booty and captives; as for all the buildings, they belonged to him'. [Mansel, Philip. ''Constantinople: City of the World's Desire''. Penguin History Travel, . p. 1.] He ordered that an imam meet him there in order to chant the adhan thus transforming the Orthodox cathedral into a Muslim mosque, solidifying Islamic rule in Constantinople.
Mehmed's main concern with Constantinople had to do with solidifying control over the city and rebuilding its defenses. After 45,000 captives were marched from the city, building projects were commenced immediately after the conquest, which included the repair of the walls, construction of the citadel, and building a new palace. [Inalcik, Halil. "The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249. p. 236] Mehmed issued orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and Jews should resettle the city, with Christans and Jews required to pay ''jizya'' and muslims pay Zakat; he demanded that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September. From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and deported people were sent to the city: these people were called "Sürgün" in Turkish ( gr|σουργούνιδες). Two centuries later, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi gave a list of groups introduced into the city with their respective origins. Even today, many quarters of Istanbul, such as Aksaray, Çarşamba, bear the names of the places of origin of their inhabitants. However, many people escaped again from the city, and there were several outbreaks of plague, so that in 1459 Mehmed allowed the deported Greeks to come back to the city.
Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek-speaking empire for over a thousand years. At its peak, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, in particular the Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom. According to Russian 14th-century traveler Stephen of Novgorod: "As for Hagia Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it."
It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass-destruction in western Europe and north Africa: On the city's fall, thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world. The cumulative influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its existence, is incalculable. In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years.
Women in literature
Constantinople was home to the first known Western Armenian journal published and edited by a woman (Elpis Kesaratsian). Entering circulation in 1862, ''Kit'arr'' or ''Guitar'' stayed in print for only seven months. Female writers who openly expressed their desires were viewed as immodest, but this changed slowly as journals began to publish more "women's sections". In the 1880s, Matteos Mamurian invited Srpouhi Dussap to submit essays for ''Arevelian Mamal''. According to Zaruhi Galemkearian's autobiography, she was told to write about women's place in the family and home after she published two volumes of poetry in the 1890s. By 1900, several Armenian journals had started to include works by female contributors including the Constantinople-based ''Tsaghik''.
Even before Constantinople was founded, the markets of Byzantion were mentioned first by Xenophon and then by Theopompus who wrote that Byzantians "spent their time at the market and the harbour". In Justinian's age the ''Mese'' street running across the city from east to west was a daily market. Procopius claimed "more than 500 prostitutes" did business along the market street. Ibn Batutta who traveled to the city in 1325 wrote of the bazaars "Astanbul" in which the "majority of the artisans and salespeople in them are women".
The Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural models and styles to create its own unique type of architecture. The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. Particular examples include St Mark's Basilica in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. Also, alone in Europe until the 13th-century Italian florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the solidus of Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle Ages. Its city walls were much imitated (for example, see Caernarfon Castle) and its urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout the Middle Ages, keeping alive the art, skill and technical expertise of the Roman Empire. In the Ottoman period Islamic architecture and symbolism were used.
Great bathhouses were built in Byzantine centers such as Constantinople and Antioch.
Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, and made it a prime center of Christianity alongside Rome. This contributed to cultural and theological differences between Eastern and Western Christianity eventually leading to the Great Schism that divided Western Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy from 1054 onwards. Constantinople is also of great religious importance to Islam, as the conquest of Constantinople is one of the signs of the End time in Islam.
In 1909, in Constantinople there were 626 primary schools and 12 secondary schools. Of the primary schools 561 were of the lower grade and 65 were of the higher grade; of the latter, 34 were public and 31 were private. There was one secondary college and eleven secondary preparatory schools.
["Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year Ended June 30, 1912." Whole Number 525. Volume 1. Washington Government Printing Office, 1913. In: ''Congressional Edition'', Volume 6410. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1913. p]
In the past the Bulgarian newspapers in the late Ottoman period were ''Makedoniya'', ''Napredŭk'', and ''Pravo''.
[Strauss, Johann. "Twenty Years in the Ottoman capital: the memoirs of Dr. Hristo Tanev Stambolski of Kazanlik (1843–1932) from an Ottoman point of view." In: Herzog, Christoph and Richard Wittmann (editors). ''Istanbul – Kushta – Constantinople: Narratives of Identity in the Ottoman Capital, 1830–1930''. Routledge, 10 October 2018. , 9781351805223. p. 267.]
* Constantinople appears as a city of wondrous majesty, beauty, remoteness, and nostalgia in William Butler Yeats' 1928 poem "Sailing to Byzantium."
* Constantinople, as seen under the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II, makes several on-screen appearances in the 2001 TV miniseries ''Attila'' as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
* Finnish author Mika Waltari wrote one of his most-acclaimed historical novels, ''Johannes Angelos'' (published in English by name ''"The Dark Angel"'') on the fall of Constantinople.
* Robert Graves, author of ''I, Claudius,'' also wrote ''Count Belisarius,'' a historical novel about Belisarius. Graves set much of the novel in the Constantinople of Justinian I.
* Constantinople provides the setting of much of the action in Umberto Eco's 2000 novel ''Baudolino.''
* The name Constantinople was made easy to spell thanks to a novelty song, "C-O-N-S-T-A-N-T-I-N-O-P-L-E," written by Harry Carlton and performed by Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra, in the 1920s.
* Constantinople's change of name was the theme for a song made famous by The Four Lads and later covered by They Might Be Giants and many others, titled "Istanbul (Not Constantinople)."
* "Constantinople" was one of the "big words" the Father knows toward the end of Dr. Seuss's book, ''Hop on Pop.'' (The other was Timbuktu.)
* "Constantinople" was also the title of the opening edit of The Residents' EP ''Duck Stab!'', released in 1978.
* Queen's Roger Meddows Taylor included the track "Interlude in Constantinople" on Side 2 of his debut album Fun in Space.
* A Montreal-based folk/classical/fusion band calls itself "Constantinople."
* Constantinople under Justinian is the scene of the book ''A Flame in Byzantium'' () by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro, released in 1987.
* "Constantinople" is the title of a song by The Decemberists.
* Stephen Lawhead's novel ''Byzantium'' (1996) is set in 9th-century Constantinople.
* Folk Metal band Turisas makes multiple references to Constantinople in their song "Miklagard Overture," referring to it as "Konstantinopolis," "Tsargrad," and "Miklagard."
* Constantinople makes an appearance in the MMORPG game ''Silkroad'' as a major capital, along with a major Chinese capital.
* Constantinople makes an appearance in the "Rome Total War" expansion "Barbarian Invasion" belonging to the Eastern Roman Empire. It would reappear in the same role for the spiritual sequel, Total War: Attila.
* Constantinople also makes an appearance in "Medieval Total War." It is a starting province and city of the Byzantines.
* Constantinople makes an appearance in the game "Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings" in the fifth scenario of the Barbarossa campaign and again in the third scenario of the Attila the Hun campaign in the expansion pack "Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion."
* Constantinople is the main setting of the game "Assassin's Creed: Revelations," the fourth major title in the best-selling "Assassin's Creed" series.
* Constantinople is also a setting of the Vampire: The Dark Ages role playing game by White Wolf.
* Constantinople is one of the territories featured in the Board Game Diplomacy. It is one of the default territories of Turkey.
* Constantinople appears in "Europa Universalis IV" and in "Crusader Kings II" as the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which is featured in both games.
* Constantinople appears as the capital of the Byzantine civilization in several installments of the video game series "Civilization".
*Constantinople is where Orlando, from Virginia Woolf's ''Orlando'', turns into a woman.
The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century. The 18-meter-tall walls built by Theodosius II were, in essence, impregnable to the barbarians coming from south of the Danube river, who found easier targets to the west rather than the richer provinces to the east in Asia. From the 5th century, the city was also protected by the Anastasian Wall, a 60-kilometer chain of walls across the Thracian peninsula. Many scholars argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested while Ancient Rome and the west collapsed.
Constantinople's fame was such that it was described even in contemporary Chinese histories, the ''Old'' and ''New Book of Tang'', which mentioned its massive walls and gates as well as a purported clepsydra mounted with a golden statue of a man.
[Hirth (2000) 885br>East Asian History Sourcebook] The Chinese histories even related how the city had been besieged in the 7th century by Muawiyah I and how he exacted tribute in a peace settlement.
Retrieved 24 September 2016.
People from Constantinople
* List of people from Constantinople
Secular buildings and monuments
** Column of Justinian
* Basilica Cistern
* Column of Marcian
* Bucoleon Palace
* Horses of Saint Mark
* Obelisk of Theodosius
* Serpent Column
* Walled Obelisk
* Palace of Lausus
* Cistern of Philoxenos
* Palace of the Porphyrogenitus
* Prison of Anemas
* Valens Aqueduct
Churches, monasteries and mosques
* Atik Mustafa Pasha Mosque
* Bodrum Mosque
* Chora Church
* Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus
* Church of the Holy Apostles
* Church of St. Polyeuctus
* Eski Imaret Mosque
* Fenari Isa Mosque
* Gül Mosque
* Hagia Irene
* Hirami Ahmet Pasha Mosque
* Kalenderhane Mosque
* Koca Mustafa Pasha Mosque
* Nea Ekklesia
* Pammakaristos Church
* Stoudios Monastery
* Toklu Dede Mosque
* Vefa Kilise Mosque
* Zeyrek Mosque
* Unnamed Mosque established during Byzantine times for visiting Muslim dignitaries.
* Ahmed Bican Yazıcıoğlu
* Byzantine calendar
* Byzantine silk
* Eparch of Constantinople (List of eparchs)
* Sieges of Constantinople
* Third Rome
* Timeline of Istanbul history
* Ball, Warwick (2016). ''Rome in the East: Transformation of an Empire'', 2nd edition. London & New York: Routledge, .
* Emerson, Charles. ''1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War'' (2013) compares Constantinople to 20 major world cities; pp 358–80.
* Ibrahim, Raymond (2018). ''Sword and Scimitar'', 1st edition. New York, .
* Korolija Fontana-Giusti, Gordana 'The Urban Language of Early Constantinople: The Changing Roles of the Arts and Architecture in the Formation of the New Capital and the New Consciousness' in ''Intercultural Transmission in the Medieval Mediterranean'', (2012), Stephanie L. Hathaway and David W. Kim (eds), London: Continuum, pp 164–202. .
* Yule, Henry (1915). Henri Cordier (ed.)
''Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I: Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between China and the Western Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route''
London: Hakluyt Society. Accessed 21 September 2016.
from ''History of the Later Roman Empire'', by J.B. Bury
History of Constantinople
from the "New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia."
Monuments of Byzantium
– Pantokrator Monastery of Constantinople
Constantinoupolis on the web
Select internet resources on the history and culture
from the Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture
* , documenting the monuments of Byzantine Constantinople
a project aimed at creating computer reconstructions of the Byzantine monuments located in Istanbul in 1200 AD.
Constantine and Constantinople
How and why Constantinople was founded
Hagia Sophia Mosaics
The Deesis and other Mosaics of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
Category:320s establishments in the Roman Empire
Category:1453 disestablishments in the Ottoman Empire
Category:15th-century disestablishments in the Byzantine Empire
Category:Capitals of former nations
Category:Constantine the Great
Category:Populated places along the Silk Road
Category:Populated places established in the 4th century
Category:Populated places disestablished in the 15th century
Category:Populated places of the Byzantine Empire
Category:Roman towns and cities in Turkey