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Konstanz
Konstanz
(pronounced [ˈkɔnstants], locally [ˈkɔnʃtants]; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance
Lake Constance
in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland. The city houses the University of Konstanz
Konstanz
and was for more than 1200 years residence of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz.

Contents

1 Location 2 Subdivisions 3 History 4 Image gallery 5 Climate 6 Main sights 7 International relations 8 Transport 9 World Heritage Site 10 Notable people

10.1 Early times to 1800 10.2 From 1801-1900 10.3 From 1901 to modern times

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Location[edit]

The Imperia at the Lake Constance
Lake Constance
harbour of Konstanz
Konstanz
is the city's famous landmark

Konstanz
Konstanz
is situated on Lake Constance
Lake Constance
(Bodensee in German). The Rhine river, which starts in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance and leaves it, considerably larger, by flowing under a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. North of the river lies the larger part of the city with residential areas, industrial estates, and the University of Konstanz; while south of the river is the old town, which houses the administrative centre and shopping facilities in addition to the Hochschule or the University of Applied Sciences. Car ferries provide access across Lake Constance
Lake Constance
to Meersburg, and the Katamaran provides a shuttle service for pedestrians to Friedrichshafen. At the old town's southern border lies the Swiss town of Kreuzlingen. Subdivisions[edit] Konstanz
Konstanz
is subdivided into 15 wards or districts (Stadtteile). The island of Mainau
Mainau
belonged to the ward of Litzelstetten, a separate municipality until its incorporation into Konstanz
Konstanz
on December 1, 1971.

Wards of Konstanz

History[edit]

Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall.

Konstanz
Konstanz
Marktstätte, the main square in the old town.

See also: Bishopric of Constance The first traces of civilization in Konstanz
Konstanz
date back to the late Stone Age. During the reign of Augustus, the Celts
Celts
living south of the Danube were conquered by the Romans. Around 40 AD, the first Romans settled on the site. This small town on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
was probably first called Drusomagus and belonged to the Roman province
Roman province
of Raetia. Its later name, originally Constantia, comes either from the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fought the Alemanni
Alemanni
in the region and built a strong fortress around 300 AD, or from his grandson Constantius II, who visited the region in 354. The remains of the late Roman fortress Constantia were discovered in 2003. Around 585 the first bishop took up residence in Konstanz
Konstanz
and this marked the beginning of the city's importance as a spiritual centre. By the late Middle Ages, about one quarter of Konstanz's 6,000 inhabitants were exempt from taxation on account of clerical rights. Trade thrived during the Middle Ages. Konstanz
Konstanz
owned the only bridge in the region, which crossed the Rhine, making it a strategic location in the Duchy of Swabia. Its linen production had made an international name for the city and it was prosperous. In 1192, Konstanz
Konstanz
gained the status of Imperial City so it was henceforth subject only to the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
took place, during which, on 6 July 1415, John Hus
John Hus
(Czech religious thinker, philosopher and reformer), who was seen as a threat to Christianity
Christianity
by the Roman Catholic Church, was burned at the stake. It was here that the Papal Schism was ended and Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
was elected during the only conclave ever held north of the Alps. Ulrich von Richental's illustrated chronicle of the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
testifies to all the major happenings during the Council as well as showing the everyday life of medieval Konstanz. The Konzilgebäude where the conclave was held can still be seen standing by the harbour. Close by stands the Imperia, a statue that was erected in 1993 to satirically commemorate the Council. In 1460, the Swiss Confederacy conquered Thurgau, Konstanz's natural hinterland. Konstanz
Konstanz
then made an attempt to get admitted to the Swiss Confederacy, but the forest cantons voted against its entry, fearing over-bearing city states; Konstanz
Konstanz
then joined the Swabian League instead. In the Swabian War
Swabian War
of 1499, Konstanz
Konstanz
lost its last privileges over Thurgau
Thurgau
to the Confederation. The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
took hold in Konstanz
Konstanz
in the 1520s, headed by Ambrosius Blarer. Soon the city declared itself officially Protestant, pictures were removed from the churches, and the bishop temporarily moved to Meersburg, a small town across the lake. The city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, and then the Augsburg Confession. However, in 1548 Emperor Charles V imposed the Imperial Ban on Konstanz
Konstanz
and it had to surrender to Habsburg Austria
Austria
which had suddenly attacked. Thus Konstanz
Konstanz
lost its status as an imperial city. The new Habsburg rulers were eager to re-Catholicise the town and in 1604 a Jesuit College was opened. Its accompanying theatre, built in 1610, is the oldest theatre in Germany
Germany
still performing regularly. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
in 1806. In 1821, the Bishopric of Constance
Bishopric of Constance
was dissolved and became part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg. Konstanz
Konstanz
became part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 during the unification of Germany. After World War I
World War I
it was included within the Republic of Baden.

Memorial to the murdered Jews of Konstanz

On 22 October 1940, 110 of the last Jewish residents were deported to Gurs internment camp
Gurs internment camp
in France. Most of those who were still alive in August 1942 were murdered in either Sobibór or Auschwitz. Because it almost lies within Switzerland, directly adjacent to the Swiss border, Konstanz
Konstanz
was not bombed by the Allied Forces during World War II. The city left all its lights on at night, and thus fooled the bombers into thinking it was actually part of Switzerland. After the war, Konstanz
Konstanz
was included first in South Baden
South Baden
and then in the new state of Baden-Württemberg. The Altstadt (Old Town), which is large considering the small size of modern Konstanz, has many old buildings and twisting alleys. The city skyline is dominated by the majestic "Münster" Cathedral ("Münster Unserer Lieben Frau"), several other churches and three towers left over from the city wall, one of which marks the place of the former medieval bridge over the Rhine. The University of Konstanz
Konstanz
was established close to the town in 1966. It houses an excellent library with approximately two million books, all freely accessible 24 hours a day, as well as a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten der Universität Konstanz). Especially since 2007, the university, being one of the nine German universities most successful in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, has gained considerable reputation as a so-called "elite university". Konstanz
Konstanz
was the birthplace of Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, constructor of the famous Zeppelin
Zeppelin
airships.

Swiss shoppers returning to their home country from Konstanz
Konstanz
on weekends

In the late 2010s, Konstanz
Konstanz
has become a popular destination for Einkaufstourism, or cross-border shopping by Swiss due to lower prices on basic items in Germany, a favorable exchange rate between the Swiss franc and the euro, and a generous German VAT refund for non-European Union residents. Retail chains such as H&M and dm have built large new stores near the town's central square to cater to this trade, and some Konstanz
Konstanz
residents feel the city is losing its historic character in the process; many of them avoid the area on Saturdays. This has led to friction with officials from Kreuzlingen
Kreuzlingen
as their city has seen no economic benefit from this trade, and they have been requesting that their national government bring up the issue of the VAT refund with Germany.[2]

Image gallery[edit]

The late Roman fortress Constantia at the Münsterplatz.

The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz.

The plaque on the house where Jan Hus stayed in 1414.

Konstanz
Konstanz
Cathedral

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2014)

 Italy 1,627

 Turkey 1,132

 Croatia 568

 Romania 565

 Serbia & Montenegro 500

 Austria 381

Climate[edit] Its location by a lake in south-west Germany
Germany
gives Konstanz
Konstanz
an oceanic climate (Cfb) with warm, humid summers and cold winters.

Climate data for Konstanz, Germany
Germany
for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3.2 (37.8) 5.1 (41.2) 10.4 (50.7) 17.0 (62.6) 21.9 (71.4) 24.9 (76.8) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9) 21.9 (71.4) 17.3 (63.1) 7.6 (45.7) 4.1 (39.4) 14.34 (57.81)

Average low °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −2.0 (28.4) 1.0 (33.8) 3.8 (38.8) 8.2 (46.8) 11.5 (52.7) 13.5 (56.3) 13.3 (55.9) 10.1 (50.2) 6.4 (43.5) 1.7 (35.1) −0.9 (30.4) 5.4 (41.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.0 (1.732) 45.0 (1.772) 54.7 (2.154) 61.5 (2.421) 89.2 (3.512) 98.3 (3.87) 97.4 (3.835) 89.3 (3.516) 76.7 (3.02) 62.7 (2.469) 60.0 (2.362) 66.1 (2.602) 844.78 (33.2591)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.2 81.9 135.3 176.9 209.9 225.3 249.2 225.6 160.1 98.8 53.8 40.6 1,707.66

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[3]

Main sights[edit]

Archaeological Museum Imperia, a 9 m-tall sculpture Jan Hus Museum Konstanz
Konstanz
Cathedral Konzil edifice, dating to the 15th century Niederburg (Lower Castle) Petershausen Abbey Remains of a Roman fortress, near the Cathedral Schnetztor, fortified gate of the former city walls

Konstanz
Konstanz
was also home to a large synagogue, destroyed by the Nazi government in 1938. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Konstanz
Konstanz
is twinned with:

Fontainebleau, France, since 1960 Richmond-upon-Thames, United Kingdom, since 1983 Tábor, Czech Republic, since 1984 Lodi, Italy, since 1986 Suzhou, PR China, since 2007 Wycliffestead Lutterworth, United Kingdom, since 2015

Transport[edit] Konstanz
Konstanz
station is served by the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Railway running west to Singen
Singen
with connections to all parts of Germany, and the Etzwilen– Konstanz
Konstanz
line running south into Switzerland, connecting to major routes at Weinfelden. Services are provided by the Deutsche Bahn AG and also the Swiss Thurbo
Thurbo
company and its German subsidiary. The nearest airport is at Friedrichshafen, which can be reached by a fast ferry service on the lake, which also connects Konstanz
Konstanz
to other lakeside towns. The airport mainly hosts domestic flights, but flights to Austria
Austria
and Turkey
Turkey
are available. The nearest international airports are in Stuttgart, in Basel, and Zürich, which has a direct train from Konstanz. Bus services within the city are provided by Stadtwerke Konstanz
Konstanz
GmbH. Additionally Konstanz
Konstanz
and Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
have been connected by the two (since 2008, three) catamarans Constance and Fridolin since 2005. World Heritage Site[edit] It is home to one or more prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements that are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[4] Notable people[edit] Early times to 1800[edit]

Ulrich Zasius
Ulrich Zasius
(1461–1536) German jurist. Ernst Vögelin
Ernst Vögelin
(1529–1589) 16th-century German pioneer book printer Johannes Matthaeus Wacker von Wackenfels (1550–1619) active diplomat, scholar and author, with an avid interest in history and philosophy. A follower of Neostoicism Tobias Pock
Tobias Pock
(or Poch, Bock or Pockh) (1609-1683) Austrian Baroque painter of Swabian descent, a pioneer of sacral art. He was born in Konstanz, where his father worked as a master at the Cathedral Guillaume Henri Dufour
Guillaume Henri Dufour
(1787–1875) Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer. Anna Marie Ellenrieder
Marie Ellenrieder
(1791–1863) German painter

From 1801-1900[edit]

Josef Albert Amann
Josef Albert Amann
(junior) (1866–1919), gynecologist Heinrich Ernst Kromer (1866–1948), painter, sculptor, writer Konrad Beyerle (1872–1933), jurist, historian and politician Conrad Grober
Conrad Grober
(1872–1948), priest and archbishop, teacher and pastor in Konstanz Wilhelm von Scholz (1874–1969), writer and dramatist Walter Julius Viktor Schoeller (1880–1965), chemist, chief representative and head of research at Schering AG, friend of Otto Hahn and Wilhelm Traube Friedrich Flick
Friedrich Flick
(1883–1972), entrepreneur Jacob Picard, origin. Jacob Pickard , pseud. J. P. cheeks (1883–1967), writer Michaela von Neipperg (1885–1957), Countess and Benedictine nun, religious superior at the Municipal Women's Clinic Konstanz Siegfried Adolf Handloser (1885–1954) Doctor, Prof. Dr. med., Generaloberstabsarzt of the German Armed Forces Medical Services, one of the accused in the Doctors' Trial in Nuremberg, after the main Nuremberg Trials. Melanie Risch (1887–1944), victim of Nazism Anne Winterer
Anne Winterer
(1894–1938) German photographer known for her industrial and cultural work.

From 1901 to modern times[edit]

Werner Berger
Werner Berger
(1901–1964), SS-Oberscharführer and member of commando 99 in Buchenwald concentration camp Gerda Bormann (1909–1946), spouse of NSDAP-politician Martin Bormann, private secretary of Adolf Hitler, Julius Federer (1911–1984), jurist François Stahly
François Stahly
(1911–2006), French sculptor Karl Schiess (1914–1999), jurist, politician (CDU), minister and lawyer Egon Mayer
Egon Mayer
(1917–1944), fighter ace in the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
during World War II. Hermann Viellieber (1917–1993), politician (CDU), Member of Landtag Werner Maihofer
Werner Maihofer
(1918–2009), politician (FDP) and university teacher, Member of Bundestag, minister of the interior (1974–1978) Hans Maria Wingler (1920–1984), art historian and founder of Bauhaus-Archive Rosemarie Banholzer (born 1925), dialect author Berthold Keller (1927–2012), trade unionist Martin Gotthard Schneider (1930-2017) theologian, church musician, Landeskantor, songwriter and academic teacher. Theo Sommer
Theo Sommer
(born 1930), newspaper editor. He has been at Die Zeit since 1958, rising to Editor-in-Chief and Publisher. Martin Elsässer (born 1933), diplomat Rolf Böhme (born 1934), Staatssekretär (1978–1982), Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of (1982–2002) Freiburg Uli Trepte (1941-2009), German musician best known for his collaborations with Krautrock
Krautrock
bands in the early 1970s. Hermann Vogler (born 1944), Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Ravensburg Hans-Peter Repnik (born 1947), politician (CDU), Member of Bundestag, secretary of state (1989–1994), Friedhelm Repnik (born 1949), Social minister of Baden-Württemberg 1998-2004 Horst Frank (born 1949), jurist, Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Konstanz
Konstanz
1996-2012 Peter Berger (born 1949), rower, competed 1968 Summer Olympics
1968 Summer Olympics
and in the 1972 Summer Olympics Ian Ashley Murdock (1973–2015), American software engineer, founder of the Debian
Debian
project Larissa Vassilian (born 1976), German journalist of German-Armenian descent, podcasts as Annik Rubens

See also[edit]

Alexander-von-Humboldt-Gymnasium Cathedral of Konstanz Hochschule Konstanz
Konstanz
(University of Applied Sciences) University of Konstanz

References[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Gagnon, Milan (March 6, 2017). "The Swiss Invasion". Slate. Retrieved March 6, 2017.  ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".  ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps". whc.unesco.org. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Konstanz.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Konstanz.

 "Constance". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911.  Official website (in German) Konstanz: history and images University of Konstanz Pictures Konstanz Online journal about Constance University of Applied Sciences Photos of the Carnival (~Shrovetide, ~Mardi Grass) in Constance Südkurier Local newspaper for Konstanz

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Konstanz

Aach Allensbach Bodman-Ludwigshafen Büsingen am Hochrhein Eigeltingen Engen Gaienhofen Gailingen Gottmadingen Hilzingen Hohenfels Konstanz Moos Mühlhausen-Ehingen Mühlingen Öhningen Orsingen-Nenzingen Radolfzell Reichenau Rielasingen-Worblingen Singen Steißlingen Stockach Tengen Volkertshausen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236686730 LCCN: n79090081 GND: 4032215-4 BNF: cb11934137

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