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Constanța (Romanian pronunciation: [konˈstant͡sa] (About this sound listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the Dobruja region. Its capital city is also named Constanța.

Demographics

In 2011, it had a population of 684,082 and the population density was 96/km². The degree of urbanization is much higher (about 75%) than the Romanian average. In recent years the population trend is:

Year County population[2][3]
1948 311,062
1956 Increase 369,940
1966 Increase 465,752
1977 Increase 608,817
1992 Increase 748,044
2002 Decrease 715,151
2011 Decrease 684,082

The majority of the population are Romanians. There are important communities of Turks and Tatars, remnants of the time of Ottoman rule. Currently the region is the centre of the Muslim minority in Romania. A great number of Aromanians have migrated to Dobruja in the last century, and they consider themselves a cultural minority rather than an ethnic minority. There are also Romani.

Ethnicity 1880[4] 2002[5] 2011[2]
All 64,902 715,151 630,679
Romanian 14,884 (23%) 652,777 (91%) 567,779 (90%)
Turkish 14,947 (23%) 24,246 (3.4%) 21,014 (3.3%)
Tatar 22,854 (35%) 23,230 (3.2%) 19,720 (3.1%)
Bulgarian 7,919 (12%) 74 (0.01%) N/A
Greek 2,607 (4%) 590 (0.08%) N/A
Roma/Gypsy <100 (<0.1%) 6,023 (0.84%) 8,401 (1.33%)

Geography

Economy

The predominant industries in the county are:

  • Chemicals and petrochemicals
  • Food and beverages
  • Textiles
  • Shipbuilding
  • Construction materials
  • Mechanical components
  • Paper

Agriculture is an important part in the county's economy, with Constanța being the county with the largest irrigation systems in the country (more than 4,300 km² before 1989, now greatly reduced), cereals being the most important products. Also, the county is famous for its wines from the Murfatlar region.

At Cernavodă there is a nuclear power plant with two reactors, each of the CANDU type of Canadian design. The plant covers over 15% of the country's power demand.

The Port of Constanța is the largest port in Romania and one of the most important on the Black Sea. It is linked with the Danube by the Danube-Black Sea Canal – the widest and deepest navigable channel in Europe, although it is not used to its full potential.

Tourism

The Romanian Riviera along the coast of the Black Sea is the preferred destination for the summer holidays in Romania. The resorts are, from North to South:

Also worth visiting are:

Politics

The current president of Constanța County Council is Horia Țuțuianu (Social Democratic Party).[1]

The Constanța County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 37 counselors, with the following party composition:[6]

    Party Seats Current County Council
  Social Democratic Party 16                                
  National Liberal Party 15                                
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats 3                                
  People's Movement Party 3                                

Administrative divisions

Constanța County has 3 municipalities, 9 towns and 58 communes:

Historical county

Județul Constanța
County (Județ)
Coat of arms of Județul Constanța
Coat of arms
Romania 1930 county Constanta.png
Country Flag of Romania.svg Romania
Historic region Dobruja
Capital city (Reședință de județ) Constanța
Established 1879
Ceased to exist Administrative reform of 1950
Area
 • Total 6,916 km2 (2,670 sq mi)
Population (1930)
 • Total 249,914
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Following the 1926 administrative reform, the borders of the historical county are identical to the ones of the current Constanța County, with the exception of the Ostrov and Lipnița communes, which were then administered by the Durostor County, the Baia commune, now part of Tulcea County, and the villages of Tereskondu, Pârâul Caprei, Fundeni, Pădureni, Saldu Alde and Enigea-Haidar, now in Bulgaria.

Geography

The county neighboured the Black Sea to the east, the counties of Tulcea and Brăila to the north, Ialomița to the west, Durostor to the south-west and Caliacra to the south.

Administration

The county consisted of seven districts (plăși):

After 1938

After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Ialomița, Durostor and Caliacra to form Ținutul Mării. It was re-established in 1940 after the fall of Carol II's regime. Ten years later, it was abolished by the Communist regime.

References

  1. ^ a b "Administraţia locală a Constanţei, din nou la start. Primul mandat, după 16 ani, fără Mazăre şi Constantinescu" (in Romanian). Adevărul. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013. [permanent dead link]
  3. ^ National Institute of Statistics, "Populația la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 și 2002"
  4. ^ Robert Stănciugel and Liliana Monica Bălașa, Dobrogea în Secolele VII-XIX. Evoluție istorică, Bucharest, 2005; pg. 202
  5. ^ 2002 official census results Archived 16 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "Mandate de CJ pe judete si competitori" (in Romanian). Biroul Electoral Central. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 

External links