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The Info List - Conservation Status



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The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use.

CONTENTS

* 1 International systems

* 1.1 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
* 1.2 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora

* 2 Multi-country systems * 3 National systems * 4 Consumer guides * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS

IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES

The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
is the best known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Species
Species
are classified by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
into nine groups set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.

Also included are species that have gone extinct since 500 AD. When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term "threatened " is a grouping of three categories: critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable.

* Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining * Extinct in the wild
Extinct in the wild
(EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range * Critically endangered
Critically endangered
(CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild * Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild * Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild * Near threatened
Near threatened
(NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future * Least concern
Least concern
(LC) – Lowest risk; does not qualify for a higher risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. * Data deficient
Data deficient
(DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction * Not evaluated
Not evaluated
(NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Many countries require CITES
CITES
permits when importing plants and animals listed on CITES.

MULTI-COUNTRY SYSTEMS

In the European Union
European Union
(EU), the Birds and Habitats Directives are the legal instruments that evaluate the conservation status within the EU of species and habitats.

NatureServe conservation status
NatureServe conservation status
focuses on Latin America
Latin America
, United States, Canada, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. It has been developed by scientists from NatureServe, The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy
, and the network of natural heritage programs and data centers. It is increasingly integrated with the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
system. Its categories for species include: _presumed extinct_ (GX), _possibly extinct_ (GH), _critically imperiled_ (G1), _imperiled_ (G2), _vulnerable_ (G3), _apparently secure_ (G4), and _secure_ (G5). The system also allows ambiguous or uncertain ranks including _inexact numeric ranks_ (e.g. G2?), and _range ranks_ (e.g. G2G3) for when the exact rank is uncertain. NatureServeadds a qualifier for _captive or cultivated only_ (C), which has a similar meaning to the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
_extinct in the wild_ (EW) status.

The Red Data Book of the Russian Federationis used within the Russian Federation, and also accepted in parts of Africa.

NATIONAL SYSTEMS

In Australia, the _Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 _ (EPBC Act) describes lists of threatened species, ecological communities and threatening processes. The categories resemble those of the 1994 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
Categories ">

In Belgium, the Flemish Research Institute for Nature and Forest publishes an online set of more than 150 nature indicators in Dutch.

In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is a group of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada. Under the Species
Species
at Risk Act (SARA), it is up to the federal government, which is politically accountable, to legally protect species assessed by COSEWIC.

In China, the State, provinces and some counties have determined their key protected wildlife species. There is the China red data book.

In Finland
Finland
, a large number of species are protected under the Nature Conservation Act, and through the EU Habitats Directiveand EU Birds Directive.

In Germany, the Federal Agency for Nature Conservationpublishes "red lists of endangered species".

India has the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972, Amended 2003and the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

In Japan, the Ministry of Environment publishes a Threatened Wildlife of Japan Red Data Book.

In the Netherlands
Netherlands
, the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality publishes a list of threatened species, and conservation is enforced by the Nature Conservation Act 1998. Species
Species
are also protected through the Wild Birds and Habitats Directives.

In New Zealand, the Department of Conservation publishes the New Zealand Threat Classification System lists. Under this system threatened species or subspecies are assigned one of seven categories: Nationally Critical, Nationally Endangered, Nationally Vulnerable, Serious Decline, Gradual Decline, Sparse, or Range Restricted. While the classification looks only at a national level, many species are unique to New Zealand, and species which are secure overseas are noted as such.

In Russia, the Red Book of Russian Federation came out in 2001, it contains categories defining preservation status for different species. In it there are 8 taxa of amphibians, 21 taxa of reptiles, 128 taxa of birds, and 74 taxa of mammals, in total 231. There are also more than 30 regional red books, for example the red book of the Altaic region which came out in 1994.

In South Africa
South Africa
, The South African National Biodiversity Institute, established under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004, is responsible for drawing up lists of affected species, and monitoring compliance with CITES
CITES
decisions. It is envisaged that previously diverse Red lists would be more easily kept current, both technically and financially.

In Thailand
Thailand
, the Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act of BE 2535 defines fifteen reserved animal species and two classes of protected species, of which hunting, breeding, possession, and trade are prohibited or restricted by law. The National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is responsible for the regulation of these activities.

In Ukraine
Ukraine
, the Ministry of Environment Protection maintains list of endangered species (divided into seven categories from "0" - extinct to "VI" - rehabilitated) and publishes it in the Red Book of Ukraine.

In the United States of America
United States of America
, the Endangered Species
Species
Act created the Endangered Species
Species
List .

CONSUMER GUIDES

Main article: Sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification
Sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification

Some consumer guides for seafood , such as Seafood
Seafood
Watch , divide fish and other sea creatures into three categories, analogous to conservation status categories:

* Red ("_say no_" or "_avoid_") * Yellow or orange ("_think twice_", "_good alternatives_" or "_some concerns_") * Green ("_best seafood choices_")

The categories do not simply reflect the imperilment of individual species, but also consider the environmental impacts of how and where they are fished, such as through bycatch or ocean bottom trawlers . Often groups of species are assessed rather than individual species (e.g. squid , prawns ).

The Marine Conservation Societyhas five levels of ratings for seafood species, as displayed on their _FishOnline_ website.

SEE ALSO

* Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
Species
of Wild Animals * Lazarus taxon * List of endangered species in North America
List of endangered species in North America
* Listing priority number * Lists of extinct animals
Lists of extinct animals
* Lists of organisms by population * Living Planet Index
Living Planet Index
* Red List Index * Regional Red List
Regional Red List
* Reintroduction
Reintroduction
* List of organisms by populations

REFERENCES

* ^ Categories and Criteria The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Retrieved 18 September 2015. * ^ IUCN. (2012) _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1_ Second edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ISBN 9782831714356 . * ^ "InfoNatura: About the Data: Conservation Status". _NatureServe.org_. 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2013-07-22. * ^ "Research Institute for Nature and Forest". _Inbo.be_. Retrieved 2013-07-22. * ^ "Cosewic". Government of Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Retrieved 2013-07-22. . * ^ "Protecting species". _Ymparisto.fi_. Retrieved 2013-07-22. * ^ "Threatened Species". _Biodic.go.jp_. Retrieved 2013-07-22. * ^ http://www.info.gov.za/gazette/acts/2004/a10-04.pdf * ^ " Seafood
Seafood
Recommendations: Our Seafood
Seafood
Ratings". Retrieved 19 June 2014. * ^ "Fish ratings". _FishOnline_. Marine Conservation Society. Retrieved March 28, 2013.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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