The Info List - Conservation Status

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The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use.


1 International systems

1.1 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species 1.2 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora

2 Multi-country systems 3 National systems 4 Consumer guides 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

International systems[edit] IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species[edit] The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
is the best known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Species
are classified by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
into nine groups set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.[1][2] Also included are species that have gone extinct since 500 AD.[citation needed] When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term "threatened" is a grouping of three categories: critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable.

Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining Extinct in the wild
Extinct in the wild
(EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range Critically endangered
Critically endangered
(CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild Near threatened
Near threatened
(NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future Least concern
Least concern
(LC) – Lowest risk; does not qualify for a higher risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. Data deficient
Data deficient
(DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction Not evaluated
Not evaluated
(NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora[edit] The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Many countries require CITES
permits when importing plants and animals listed on CITES. Multi-country systems[edit] In the European Union
European Union
(EU), the Birds and Habitats Directives are the legal instruments that evaluate the conservation status within the EU of species and habitats. NatureServe conservation status focuses on Latin America, United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. It has been developed by scientists from NatureServe, The Nature Conservancy, and the network of natural heritage programs and data centers. It is increasingly integrated with the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
system. Its categories for species include: presumed extinct (GX), possibly extinct (GH), critically imperiled (G1), imperiled (G2), vulnerable (G3), apparently secure (G4), and secure (G5).[3] The system also allows ambiguous or uncertain ranks including inexact numeric ranks (e.g. G2?), and range ranks (e.g. G2G3) for when the exact rank is uncertain. NatureServe adds a qualifier for captive or cultivated only (C), which has a similar meaning to the IUCN Red List extinct in the wild (EW) status. The Red Data Book of the Russian Federation
Red Data Book of the Russian Federation
is used within the Russian Federation, and also accepted in parts of Africa. National systems[edit] In Australia, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) describes lists of threatened species, ecological communities and threatening processes. The categories resemble those of the 1994 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
Categories & Criteria (version 2.3). Prior to the EPBC Act, a simpler classification system was used by the Endangered Species
Protection Act 1992. Some state and territory governments also have their own systems for conservation status.[citation needed] In Belgium, the Flemish Research Institute for Nature and Forest publishes an online set of more than 150 nature indicators in Dutch.[4] In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is a group of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada.[5] Under the Species
at Risk Act (SARA), it is up to the federal government, which is politically accountable, to legally protect species assessed by COSEWIC. In China, the State, provinces and some counties have determined their key protected wildlife species. There is the China red data book. In Finland, a large number of species are protected under the Nature Conservation Act, and through the EU Habitats Directive and EU Birds Directive.[6] In Germany, the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation publishes "red lists of endangered species". India has the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972, Amended 2003
Wild Life Protection Act, 1972, Amended 2003
and the Biological Diversity Act, 2002. In Japan, the Ministry of Environment publishes a Threatened Wildlife of Japan Red Data Book.[7] In the Netherlands, the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality publishes a list of threatened species, and conservation is enforced by the Nature Conservation Act 1998. Species
are also protected through the Wild Birds and Habitats Directives. In New Zealand, the Department of Conservation publishes the New Zealand Threat Classification System lists. As of January 2008[update] threatened species or subspecies are assigned one of seven categories: Nationally Critical, Nationally Endangered, Nationally Vulnerable, Declining, Recovering, Relict, or Naturally Uncommon.[8] While the classification looks only at a national level, many species are unique to New Zealand, and species which are secure overseas are noted as such. In Russia, the Red Book of Russian Federation came out in 2001, it contains categories defining preservation status for different species. In it there are 8 taxa of amphibians, 21 taxa of reptiles, 128 taxa of birds, and 74 taxa of mammals, in total 231. There are also more than 30 regional red books, for example the red book of the Altaic region which came out in 1994. In South Africa, The South African National Biodiversity Institute, established under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004,[9] is responsible for drawing up lists of affected species, and monitoring compliance with CITES
decisions. It is envisaged that previously diverse Red lists would be more easily kept current, both technically and financially. In Thailand, the Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act of BE 2535 defines fifteen reserved animal species and two classes of protected species, of which hunting, breeding, possession, and trade are prohibited or restricted by law. The National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is responsible for the regulation of these activities. In Ukraine, the Ministry of Environment Protection maintains list of endangered species (divided into seven categories from "0" - extinct to "VI" - rehabilitated) and publishes it in the Red Book of Ukraine. In the United States of America, the Endangered Species
Act created the Endangered Species
List. Consumer guides[edit] Main article: Sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification Some consumer guides for seafood, such as Seafood
Watch, divide fish and other sea creatures into three categories, analogous to conservation status categories:

Red ("say no" or "avoid") Yellow or orange ("think twice", "good alternatives" or "some concerns") Green ("best seafood choices")[10]

The categories do not simply reflect the imperilment of individual species, but also consider the environmental impacts of how and where they are fished, such as through bycatch or ocean bottom trawlers. Often groups of species are assessed rather than individual species (e.g. squid, prawns). The Marine Conservation Society
Marine Conservation Society
has five levels of ratings for seafood species, as displayed on their FishOnline website.[11] See also[edit]

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
of Wild Animals Lazarus taxon List of endangered species in North America Listing priority number Lists of extinct animals Lists of organisms by population Living Planet Index Red List Index Regional Red List Reintroduction List of organisms by populations


^ Categories and Criteria The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Retrieved 18 September 2015. ^ IUCN. (2012) IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1 Archived 2016-01-28 at the Wayback Machine. Second edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ISBN 9782831714356. ^ "InfoNatura: About the Data: Conservation Status". NatureServe.org. 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Research Institute for Nature and Forest". Inbo.be. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Cosewic". Government of Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Retrieved 2013-07-22. . ^ "Protecting species". Ymparisto.fi. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Threatened Species". Biodic.go.jp. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ Townsend, Andrew J.; de Lange, Peter J.; Duffy, Clinton A.J.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Molloy, Janice; Norton, David A. (January 2008). New Zealand Threat Classification System manual (PDF). Wellington, New Zealand: Science & Technical Publishing Department of Conservation. ISBN 9780478143645. Retrieved 2 February 2018.  ^ "Welcome to the official South African government online site! - South African Government" (PDF). Info.gov.za. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ " Seafood
Recommendations: Our Seafood
Ratings". Seafoodwatch.org. Retrieved 19 June 2014.  ^ "Fish ratings". FishOnline. Marine Conservation Society. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Search the IUCN Red List IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria Version 3.1 "Wildlife Conservation - Initiatives - WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 12 November 2017. 

v t e

Threatened species

Template:  Threatened species
Threatened species
by region

IUCN Red List



Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW)


Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU)

Lower risk

Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Lower Risk (LR) Conservation Dependent
Conservation Dependent

Not fully assessed

Data Deficient (DD) Not Evaluated (NE)



Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient

WP categories

Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient


Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

By taxa

Endangered arthropods / spiders Threatened Banksia / rays / sharks / Fungi / Chromista The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates The world's 100 most threatened species


Biodiversity action plan Biodiversity threats Conservation biology CITES ARKive Bird conservation Conservation status Conservation-reliant species Ecoregion conservation status Habitat destruction Latent extinction risk Rare species Vulnerability and susceptibility

1 Pre-2001 categories and subcategories shown in italics.

v t e

Conservation of species

Conservation biology

Conservation behavior Conservation dependent species Conservation ethic Conservation genetics Conservation status Ex-situ conservation Extinction
threshold In-situ conservation Latent extinction risk Marine conservation Species
translocation Threatened species

Conservation areas

Conservation designation Conservation development Conservation district Conservation easement Ecoregion conservation status Environmental protection Gap analysis Habitat conservation High conservation value area Landscape-scale conservation Marine protected area National conservation area Open space reserve Riparian buffer Roadless area conservation Roadside conservation Site-based conservation Special
Area of Conservation


Assisted natural regeneration Ecosystem restoration Island restoration Reforestation



By taxa

Amphibians and reptiles Birds

burrowing owls raptors


bumblebees butterflies

Land mammals

bats bats 2 bears cheetahs cheetahs 2 gorillas painted dogs slow lorises small cats tigers tigers 2 wolves


Antarctic seals cetaceans cetaceans 2 manatees migratory sharks salmon sea otters sea turtles sturgeons


forests fungi orchids

By country

Australia Belize Brazil Hong Kong Iceland India


Ireland Italy New Zealand Papua New Guinea Uganda United Kingdom United States


Biodiversity Conservation agriculture Conservation finance Conservation grazing Conservation management system Conservation movement Conservation officer Conservation organisations Conservation photography Conservation psychology Conservation refugee Conspicuous conservation De-extinction Myth of superabundance NatureServe conservation status Planetary boundaries

Index of conservation articles List of conservation issues Category

Environment portal Ecology portal Sustainable development portal Extinct and endangered species por