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(i) (i) (i)

Nazism
Nazism
and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities, and people before, during and after World War II . While the attempt of the regime to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology was eventually stopped by the Allies , Nazi aggression nevertheless led to the deaths of many tens of millions of people, including several million Jews, and the ruin of several states.

CONTENTS

* 1 Jewish people

* 2 Poland
Poland

* 2.1 See also

* 3 Central Europe
Central Europe

* 4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* 4.1 Belarus
Belarus
* 4.2 Ukraine
Ukraine
* 4.3 See also

* 5 Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
* 6 Western Europe * 7 Greece

* 8 Germany

* 8.1 See also

* 9 World politics * 10 International law * 11 Racism * 12 Military * 13 References * 14 Footnotes

JEWISH PEOPLE

Of the world's 15 million Jews
Jews
in 1939, more than a third were killed in the Holocaust . Of the three million Jews
Jews
in Poland
Poland
, the heartland of European Jewish culture
Jewish culture
, fewer than 350,000 survived. Most of the remaining Jews
Jews
in Eastern and Central Europe
Central Europe
were destitute refugees who were unable or unwilling to return to countries that became Soviet puppet states , or countries they felt had betrayed them to the Nazis.

POLAND

During World War II
World War II
85% of buildings in Warsaw
Warsaw
were destroyed by German troops .

The Nazis intended to destroy the Polish nation completely. In 1941, the Nazi leadership decided that Poland
Poland
was to be fully cleared of ethnic Poles
Poles
within 10 to 20 years and settled by German colonists. From the beginning of the occupation, Germany's policy was to plunder and exploit Polish territory, turning it into a giant concentration camp for Poles
Poles
who were to be eventually exterminated as "Untermenschen ". The policy of plunder and exploitation inflicted material losses to Polish industry, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural landmarks, with the cost of the destruction by Germans alone estimated at approximately €525 billion or $640 billion. The remaining industry was largely destroyed or transported to Russia by Soviet occupation forces following the war.

The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in 1947 reported 6,028,000 war victims out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles
Poles
and Jews
Jews
alone. For political reasons, the report excluded the losses to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the losses among Polish citizens of Ukrainian and Belarusian origin.

Poland's eastern border was significantly moved westwards to the Curzon Line
Curzon Line
. The resulting territorial loss of 188,000 km² (formerly populated by 5.3 million ethnic Poles
Poles
) was to be compensated by the addition of 111,000 km² of former German territory east of the Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
(formerly populated by 11.4 million ethnic Germans ). Kidnapping of Polish children by Germany also took place, in which children who were believed to hold German blood were taken away; 20,000–200,000 Polish children were taken away from their parents. Out of the abducted only 10–15% returned home. Polish elites were decimated and over half of the Polish intelligentsia were murdered. Some professions lost 20–50% of their members, for example 58% of Polish lawyers, 38% of medical doctors and 28% of university workers were exterminated by the Nazis. The Polish capital Warsaw
Warsaw
was razed by German forces and most of its old and newly acquired cities lay in ruins (e.g. Wrocław
Wrocław
) or lost to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(e.g. Lwów ). In addition Poland
Poland
became a Soviet satellite state , remaining under a Soviet-controlled communist government until 1989. Russian troops did not withdraw from Poland
Poland
until 1993.

SEE ALSO

* Expulsion of Poles
Poles
by Germany * Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
* German AB-Aktion in Poland
Poland
* Holocaust in Poland
Poland
* Operation Tannenberg
Operation Tannenberg
* Chronicles of Terror

CENTRAL EUROPE

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As a consequence of the war and especially Soviet occupation, Central European countries found themselves under the "Soviet sphere of influence" (as agreed upon at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
). Immediately following the war, Soviet style totalitarian regimes were established in all of these countries and any forms of liberal democracy that existed before the war were erased. For the countries of Central Europe installation of Stalinist dictatorships meant the decline of their economies and more significantly, a loss of national sovereignty and unique global identity until the collapse of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in 1989 (see also "the Velvet Revolution").

SOVIET UNION

More than 26 million Soviet citizens had been killed as a result of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, including 10,651,000 soldiers who died in battle against Hitler's armies or died in POW
POW
camps . Millions of civilians also died from starvation, exposure, atrocities, and massacres , and a huge area of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the suburbs of Moscow and the Volga River
Volga River
to the western border had been destroyed, depopulated, and reduced to rubble. The mass death and destruction there badly damaged the Soviet economy, society, and national psyche. The death toll included c.a. 1.5 million Soviet Jews killed by the German invaders. The mass destruction and mass murder was one of the reasons why the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
installed satellite states in Central Europe; as the government hoped to use the countries as a buffer zone against any new invasions from the West. This helped break down the wartime alliance between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Western Allies, setting the stage for the Cold War
Cold War
, which lasted until 1989, two years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. Soviet culture in the 1950s was defined by results of the Great Patriotic War.

Close to 60% of the European war dead were from the Soviet Union. Russian historian Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totaling 26.5 million war related deaths. Military losses of 10.6 million include 7.6 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Civilian deaths totaled 15.9 million which included 1.5 million from military actions. 7.1 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 1.8 million deported to Germany for forced labor ; and 5.5 million famine and disease deaths. Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946–47 are not included here. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in 1939–40.

To the north, the Germans reached Leningrad
Leningrad
( Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
) in August 1941. The city was surrounded on 8 September, beginning a 900-day siege during which about 1.2 million citizens perished.

Of the 5.7 million Soviet prisoners of war captured by the Germans, more than 3.5 million had died while in German captivity by the end of the war. On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference , the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the USSR. The interpretation of this Agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Soviets regardless of their wishes. Millions of Soviet POWs and forced laborers transported to Germany are believed to have been treated as traitors, cowards and deserters on their return to the USSR(see Order No. 270 ) . Statistical data from Soviet archives, that became available after Perestroika, attest that the overall increase of the Gulag population was minimal during 1945–46 and only 272,867 of repatriated Soviet POWs and civilians (out of 4,199,488) were imprisoned .

BELARUS

Belarus
Belarus
lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite and 90% of the country’s Jewish population. Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus
Belarus
territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August 1941. The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some 380,000 young people for slave labour , and killing hundreds of thousands of other civilians. At least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed by the Nazis and some or all their inhabitants killed (out of 9,200 settlements that were burned or otherwise destroyed in Belarus
Belarus
during World War II). More than 600 villages like Khatyn
Khatyn
were burned with their entire population. More than 209 cities and towns (out of 270 total) were destroyed. Himmler had pronounced a plan according to which 3/4 of Belarusian population was designated for "eradication" and 1/4 of racially cleaner population (blue eyes, light hair) would be allowed to serve Germans as slaves ( Ostarbeiter
Ostarbeiter
).

Some recent estimates raise the number of Belarusians
Belarusians
who perished in War to "3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but about 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus)." This compares to 15% of Poland's post war borders and 19% of Ukrainian population in post war border and comparing to 2% of Czechoslovakian population that perished in post war borders.

UKRAINE

Estimates on population losses in Ukraine
Ukraine
range from 7 million to 11 million. More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed.

SEE ALSO

* Forced settlements in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
* Hunger Plan
Hunger Plan
* Occupation of Belarus
Belarus
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Operation Keelhaul * World War II
World War II
casualties

YUGOSLAVIA

Due to their strong opposition to Nazism, Serbs
Serbs
were considered enemies of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. Alongside Jews
Jews
, Serbs
Serbs
were killed and expelled in wartime Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
.

It is estimated that 1,700,000 people were killed during World War II in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from 1941 to 1945. Very high losses were among Serbs
Serbs
who lived in Bosnia and Croatia
Croatia
, as well as Jewish and Romani minorities, with losses also high among all other non-collaborating populations. In the summer of 1941, the Serbian uprising came at the time of the German invasion of the USSR. The Nazi response was the execution of 100 Serbian civilians for every killed soldier and 50 Serbian civilians for every wounded soldier. The Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
fought both a guerrilla campaign against the Axis occupiers and a civil war against the Chetniks
Chetniks
. The Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
was established as a Nazi puppet-state, ruled by the fascist militia known as the Ustaše
Ustaše
. During this time the Independent State of Croatia created extermination camps for anti-fascists, communists, Serbs, Muslims, Gypsies and Jews, one of the most infamous being the Jasenovac concentration camp
Jasenovac concentration camp
. A large number of men, women and children, mostly Serbs, were murdered in these camps. In 1945, the Federal People\'s Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was created as a totalitarian one party state .

WESTERN EUROPE

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Britain and France
France
were on the side of the victors, but they were exhausted and bankrupted by the war, and Britain never recovered its status as a superpower. With Germany and Japan in ruins as well, the world was left with two dominant powers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Economic and political reality in Western Europe would soon force the dismantling of the European colonial empires , especially in Africa and Asia.

One of the most important political consequences of the Nazi experience in Western Europe was the establishment of new, political alliances which eventually became the European Union and an international military alliance of European countries known as NATO to counterbalance the Soviets' Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact and until communist rule in Eastern Europe ended in the late 1980s.

The Communists emerged from the war sharing the vast prestige of the victorious Soviet armed forces, and for a while it looked as though they might take power in France, Italy and Greece. The West quickly acted to prevent this from happening, hence the Cold War
Cold War
.

GREECE

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In Greece the German occupation (April 1941 – October 1944) destroyed the economy through war reparations , plundering of the country's resources and hyper-inflation. In addition, the Germans left most of the country's infrastructure in ruins as they withdrew in 1944. As a result of an Allied blockade and German indifference to local needs, the first winter of the occupation was marked by widespread famine in the main urban centres, with as many as 300,000 civilians dead from starvation . Although these levels of starvation were not repeated in the following years, malnourishment was common throughout the occupation. In addition, thousands more were executed by German forces as reprisals for partisan activities. As part of the Holocaust , Greece's Jewish community was almost wiped out, especially the large Sephardi
Sephardi
community of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, which had earned the city the sobriquet "Mother of Israel" and had first settled there in the early 16th century at the invitation of the then-ruling Ottoman Empire . In total, at least 81% (ca. 60,000) of Greece's total pre-war Jewish population perished.

The bitterest and longest-lasting legacy of the German occupation was the social upheaval it wrought. The old political elites were sidelined, and the Resistance against the Axis brought to the fore the leftist National Liberation Front (EAM), arguably the country's first true mass-movement, where the Communists played a central role. In an effort to oppose its growing influence, the Germans encouraged the pre-war conservative establishment to confront it, and allowed the creation of armed units . As elsewhere in Eastern Europe, in the last year of the occupation, conditions in Greece often approximated a civil war between EAM and everyone else. The rift would become permanent in December 1944, when EAM and the British-backed government clashed in Athens, and again in a fully fledged civil war from 1946–1949 .

GERMANY

More than 7 million Germans, including almost 2 million civilians, died during World War II
World War II
(see World War II
World War II
casualties ). After the end of the war in Europe additional casualties were incurred during the Allied occupation and also during the population expulsions that followed.

After the war, the German people were often viewed with contempt because they were blamed by other Europeans for Nazi crimes. Germans visiting abroad, particularly in the 1950s and 1960s, attracted insults from locals, and from foreigners who may have lost their families or friends in the atrocities. Today in Europe and worldwide (particularly in countries that fought against the Axis), Germans may be scorned by elderly people who were alive to experience the atrocities committed by Nazi Germans during World War II. This resulted in a feeling of controversy for many Germans, causing numerous discussions and rows among scholars and politicians in Post-War West Germany
West Germany
(for example, the " Historikerstreit " in the 1980s) and after Reunification . Here, the discussion was mainly about the role that the unified Germany should play in the world and in Europe. Bernard Schlink's novel The Reader concerns how post-war Germans dealt with the issue.

Following World War II, the Allies embarked on a program of denazification , but as the Cold War
Cold War
intensified these efforts were curtailed in the west.

Germany itself and the German economy were devastated, with great parts of most major cities destroyed by the bombings of the Allied forces, sovereignty taken away by the Allies and the territory filled with millions of refugees from the former eastern provinces which the Allies had decided were to be annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Poland, moving the eastern German border westwards to the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
and effectively reducing Germany in size by roughly 25% (see also Potsdam Conference ). The remaining parts of Germany were divided among the Allies and occupied by British (the north-west), French (the south-west), American (the south) and Soviet (the east) troops. Postwar occupation zones in Germany

The expulsions of Germans from the lost areas in the east (see also Former eastern territories of Germany
Former eastern territories of Germany
), the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
, and elsewhere in eastern Europe went on for several years. The number of Germans expelees totaled roughly 15,000,000. Estimates of number of deaths in connection with expulsion range from under 500,000 to 3 million.

After a short time the Allies broke over ideological problems (Communism versus Capitalism), and thus both sides established their own spheres of influence, creating a previously non-existent division in Germany between East and West (although the division largely followed the borders of states which had existed in Germany before Bismarck 's unification less than 100 years before).

A constitution for East Germany
East Germany
was drafted on 30 May 1949. Wilhelm Pieck , a leader of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
(SED) party (which was created by a forced merger of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD) in the Soviet sector), was elected first President of the German Democratic Republic .

West Germany
West Germany
, (officially: Federal Republic of Germany, FRG – this is still the official name of the unified Germany today) received (de facto) semi-sovereignty in 1949, as well as a constitution, called the Grundgesetz
Grundgesetz
(Basic Law). The document was not called a Constitution officially, as at this point, it was still hoped that the two German states would be reunited in the near future.

The first free elections in West Germany
West Germany
were held in 1949, which were won by the Christian Democratic Party of Germany (CDU ) (conservatives) by a slight margin. Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
, a member of the CDU, was the first Bundeskanzler (Chancellor) of West Germany.

Both German states introduced, in 1948, their own money, colloquially called West-Mark and Ost-Mark (Western Mark and Eastern Mark).

Foreign troops still remain in Germany today, for example Ramstein Air Base , but the majority of troops left following the end of the Cold War
Cold War
(By 1994 for Soviet troops, mandated under the terms of the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany
Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany
and in the mid-1990s for Western forces). The Bush Administration in the United States in 2004 stated intentions to withdraw most of the remaining American troops out of Germany in the coming years. During the years 1950–2000 more than 10,000,000 U.S. military personnel were stationed in Germany.

The West German economy was by the mid 1950s rebuilt thanks to the abandonment in mid-1947 of some of the last vestiges of the Morgenthau Plan and to fewer war reparations imposed on West Germany
West Germany
(see also Wirtschaftswunder
Wirtschaftswunder
). After lobbying by the Joint Chiefs of Staff , and Generals Clay and Marshall , the Truman administration realized that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base on which it previously had been dependent. In July 1947, President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
rescinded on "national security grounds" the punitive JCS 1067
JCS 1067
, which had directed the U.S. forces of occupation in Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany." It was replaced by JCS 1779, which instead stressed that "n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany."

The dismantling of factories in the western zones, for further transport to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as reparations, was in time halted as frictions grew between East and West. Limits were placed on permitted levels of German production in order to prevent resurgence of German militarism, part of which included severely restricting German steel production and affected the rest of the German economy very negatively (see " The industrial plans for Germany "). Dismantling of factories by France
France
and Great Britain as reparations and for the purpose of lowering German war and economic potential under the "level of industry plans" took place (halted in 1951), but to nowhere near the scale of the dismantling and transport to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
of factories in the eastern zone of occupation. The Eastern Block did not accept the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
, denouncing it as American economic imperialism , and thus it ( East Germany
East Germany
included) recovered much more slowly than their Western counterparts. German political and economic control of its main remaining centers of industry was reduced, the Ruhr area
Ruhr area
was under international control. The Ruhr Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the Federal Republic of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany
. (see also the International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR)). In the end, the beginning of the Cold War led to increased German control of the area, although permanently limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into a multinational community in 1951 (see European Coal and Steel Community ). The neighboring Saar area , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, handed over by the U. S. to French economic administration as a protectorate in 1947 and did not politically return to Germany until January 1957, with economic reintegration occurring a few years later. (see also the Monnet Plan
Monnet Plan
). Upper Silesia
Silesia
, Germany's second largest center of mining and industry, had been handed over to Poland at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
, and its population expelled.

The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, and used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. Beginning immediately after the German surrender and continuing for the next two years the U.S. pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany. John Gimbel comes to the conclusion, in his book "Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany", that the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U.S. and the UK amounted to close to $10 billion . During the more than two years that this policy was in place, no industrial research in Germany could take place, as any results would have been automatically available to overseas competitors who were encouraged by the occupation authorities to access all records and facilities. Meanwhile, thousands of the best German researchers were being put to work in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and in the U.S. (see also Operation Paperclip )

For several years following the surrender German nutritional levels were very low, resulting in very high mortality rates. Throughout all of 1945 the U.S. forces of occupation ensured that no international aid reached ethnic Germans. It was directed that all relief went to non-German displaced persons , liberated Allied POWs , and concentration camp inmates. During 1945 it was estimated that the average German civilian in the US and UK occupation zones received 1200 calories a day. Meanwhile, non-German displaced persons were receiving 2300 calories through emergency food imports and Red Cross help. In early October 1945 the UK government privately acknowledged in a cabinet meeting that German civilian adult death rates had risen to 4 times the pre-war levels and death rates amongst the German children had risen by 10 times the pre-war levels. The German Red Cross was dissolved, and the International Red Cross and the few other allowed international relief agencies were kept from helping Germans through strict controls on supplies and travel. The few agencies permitted to help Germans, such as the indigenous Caritasverband, were not allowed to use imported supplies. When the Vatican attempted to transmit food supplies from Chile to German infants the US State Department forbade it. The German food situation reached its worst during the very cold winter of 1946–1947 when German calorie intake ranged from 1,000–1,500 calories per day, a situation made worse by severe lack of fuel for heating. Meanwhile, the Allies were well fed, average adult calorie intake was; U.S. 3200–3300; UK 2900; U.S. Army 4000. German infant mortality rate was twice that of other nations in Western Europe until the close of 1948.

As agreed by the Allies at the Yalta conference
Yalta conference
Germans were used as forced labor as part of the reparations to be extracted to the countries ruined by Nazi aggression. By 1947 it is estimated that 4,000,000 Germans (both civilians and POWs) were being used as forced labor by the U.S., France, the UK and the Soviet Union. German prisoners were for example forced to clear minefields in France
France
and the low countries. By December 1945 it was estimated by French authorities that 2,000 German prisoners were being killed or maimed each month in accidents. In Norway the last available casualty record, from 29 August 1945, shows that by that time a total of 275 German soldiers died while clearing mines, while 392 had been maimed. Death rates for the German civilians doing forced labor in the Soviet Union ranged between 19% and 39%, depending on category. (see also Forced labor
Forced labor
of Germans in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
).

Norman Naimark writes in "The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949." that although the exact number of women and girls who were raped by members of the Red Army
Red Army
in the months preceding and years following the capitulation will never be known, their numbers are likely in the hundreds of thousands, quite possibly as high as the 2,000,000 victims estimate made by Barbara Johr, in "Befreier und Befreite". Many of these victims were raped repeatedly. Naimark states that not only had each victim to carry the trauma with her for the rest of her days, it inflicted a massive collective trauma on the East German nation (the German Democratic Republic ). Naimark concludes "The social psychology of women and men in the soviet zone of occupation was marked by the crime of rape from the first days of occupation, through the founding of the GDR in the fall of 1949, until - one could argue - the present."

The post-war hostility shown to the German people is exemplified in the fate of the War children
War children
, sired by German soldiers with women from the local population in nations such as Norway where the children and their mothers after the war had to endure many years of abuse. In the case of Denmark the hostility felt towards all things German also showed itself in the treatment of German refugees during the years 1945 to 1949. During 1945 alone 7000 German children under the age of 5 died as a result of being denied sufficient food and denied medical attention by Danish doctors who were afraid that rendering aid to the children of the former enemy would be seen as an unpatriotic act. Many children died of easily treatable ailments. As a consequence "more German refugees died in Danish camps, "than Danes did during the entire war.""

During the Cold War, it was difficult for West Germans to visit East German relatives and friends and impossible vice versa. For East Germans, especially after the building of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
on 13 August 1961 and until Hungary opened up its border to the West in the late 1980s, thus allowing hundreds of thousands of vacationing East Germans to flee into Western Europe, it was only possible to get to West Germany by illegally fleeing across heavily fortified and guarded border areas .

44 years after the end of World War II, the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
fell on 9 November 1989. The East and West parts of Germany were reunited on 3 October 1990.

Economic and social divisions between East and West Germany
West Germany
continue to play a major role in politics and society in Germany at present. It is likely the contrast between the generally well-off and economically diverse West and the weaker, heavy-industry reliant East will continue at least into the foreseeable future.

SEE ALSO

* Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
* Cold War
Cold War
* German reunification
German reunification

* Germany

* East Germany
East Germany
* West Germany
West Germany

* History of Germany since 1945
History of Germany since 1945
* Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
* Ostpolitik
Ostpolitik

WORLD POLITICS

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The war led to the discrediting and dissolution of the League of Nations and led to the founding of the United Nations
United Nations
on 24 October 1945. Like its predecessor, the UN was established to help prevent other world wars and contain or stop smaller conflicts. The principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations
United Nations
are a testament to the world's attitudes at the fall of the Third Reich.

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Nuremberg Trials. Defendants in the dock. The main target of the prosecution was Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
(at the left edge on the first row of benches), considered to be the most important surviving official in the Third Reich after Hitler's death.

The effect the Nazis had on present-day international law should not be underestimated. The United Nations
United Nations
Genocide
Genocide
Convention , a series of laws that made genocide a crime, was approved in December 1948, three years after the Nazi defeat. That same month, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights also became a part of international law. The Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
, followed by other Nazi war crimes
Nazi war crimes
trials, also created an unwritten rule stating that government officials who "follow orders" from leaders in committing crimes against humanity cannot use such a motive to excuse their crimes. It also had an effect through the Fourth Geneva Convention
Fourth Geneva Convention
(Art 33) in making collective punishments a war crime.

RACISM

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After the world viewed the Nazi death camps, many Western peoples began to outwardly oppose ideas of racial superiority. Liberal anti-racism became a staple of many Western governments. Whereas racism is still present, openly racist publications were looked down upon. The move towards tolerance of different cultures in Western societies has continued to the present day. Since the collapse of Nazi Germany, Western populations have been wary of racial political parties and have actively discouraged white ethnocentrism , fearing the return of a catastrophe similar to the purges carried out by Nazis in Germany. On the other hand, it can be argued that the conception of multiculturalism as one of the pillars of contemporary Western society has gained importance because of the same reaction. The actions of the Nazis caused an increase in Anti-German sentiment
Anti-German sentiment
.

MILITARY

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German military doctrine under the Nazi regime, characterized (with some controversy) as Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
, called for air strikes that softened an intended victim for attack by motorized, mechanized, and airborne forces on the schwerpunkt (focal point), followed by encirclement by motorized forces, and exploitation of the gap by conventional infantry forces. Radio communication allowed for the close coordination necessary for such attacks, and allowed for coordination of the air force. The Nazis as much broke the rules of engagement which previously governed nations at war (such violations often deemed after the war as crimes against peace ) as they innovated techniques of war. Axis reverses beginning with Allied routs of overextended German forces in El Alamein and Stalingrad resulted from British and Soviet forces adopting Nazi field strategies, and as the United States became a participant in the war it adopted much the same techniques of aerial attack upon Nazi Germany, if with greater force than the Luftwaffe could ever inflict.

As Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
faced severe defeat after the Battle of Kursk
Battle of Kursk
and especially the cross-channel invasion it introduced cross-channel use of the V-1 flying bomb
V-1 flying bomb
and V-2
V-2
rocket, although too late and too ineffectively to turn the war to its advantage. The German military machine was developing jet aircraft as fighters and bombers and long-range missiles, but far too late (they were only in the design and test stages) to change the outcome of the war. The victorious Allies would incorporate the early innovations of jet technology and long-distance rocket-based missiles into their armed forces, but only after the end of World War II
World War II
after getting them beyond the developmental stages of design and testing.

REFERENCES

* Steven Bela Vardy and T. Hunt Tooley, eds. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe ISBN 0-88033-995-0 . subsection by Richard Dominic Wiggers, The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "History of the Holocaust – An Introduction". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 19 April 1943. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ Luke Harding in Moscow (5 June 2007). "Pipeline workers find mass grave of Jews
Jews
killed by Nazis". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ A B Volker R. Berghahn "Germans and Poles
Poles
1871–1945" in "Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences", Rodopi 1999 * ^ Poles
Poles
Vote to Seek War Reparations, Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
, 11 September 2004 * ^ Concise statistical year-book of Poland
Poland
, Polish Ministry of Information. London June 1941 P.9 & 10 * ^ The Expulsion of Germans from Poland, Revisited, H-Net Review * ^ A. Dirk Moses, Genocide
Genocide
and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History, Google Print, p.260 * ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide
Genocide
in the Second Republic, 1918–1947, Google Print, p.22 * ^ "Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead". BBC News. 9 May 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ Zvi Gitelman, History, Memory and Politics: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Soviet Union * ^ Soviet deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a note – World War II * ^ "Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II". Historynet.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ The United States and Forced Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 1944–47 by Mark Elliott Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 2 (Jun., 1973), pp. 253–275 * ^ "Forced Repatriation to the Soviet Union: The Secret Betrayal". Hillsdale.edu. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ "The warlords: Joseph Stalin". Channel4.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ Remembrance (Zeithain Memorial Grove) Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Getty, Rittersporn, Zemskov. "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "Репатриация перемещённых советских граждан // Виктор Земсков". Scepsis.ru. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ " Khatyn
Khatyn
WWII Memorial in Belarus". Belarusguide.com. 22 March 1943. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ "Partisan Resistance in Belarus
Belarus
during World War II". Belarusguide.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
:: World War II
World War II
and its aftermath". Britannica.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. * ^ Stephen A. Hart. "Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941 - 1945". BBC. Retrieved 5 March 2013. * ^ Tim Kane, PhD., Global U.S. Troop Deployment, 1950–2003, Heritage Foundation
Heritage Foundation
27 October 2004 * ^ A B Ray Salvatore Jennings "The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine . May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49 pg.15 * ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time Magazine
Time Magazine
28 July 1947. * ^ Amos Yoder, "The Ruhr Authority and the German Problem", The Review of Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Jul., 1955), pp. 345–358 * ^ C. Lester Walker "Secrets By The Thousands", Harper\'s Magazine . October 1946 * ^ Norman M. Naimark The Russians in Germany pg. 206. (Naimark refers to Gimbels book) * ^ The $10 billion compares to the U.S. annual GDP of $258 billion in 1948. * ^ The $10 billion compares to the total Marshall plan expenditure (1948–1952) of $13 billion, of which Germany received $1.4 billion (partly as loans). * ^ A B C D E F G H I J Steven Bela Vardy and T. Hunt Tooley, eds. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe ISBN 0-88033-995-0 . subsection by Richard Dominic Wiggers, "The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II" * ^ S. P. MacKenzie "The Treatment of Prisoners of War in World War II" The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 66, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), pp. 487–520. * ^ Jonas Tjersland, Tyske soldater brukt som mineryddere, VG Nett , 8 April 2006 * ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-78405-7 pp. 132,133 * ^ Children were starved in war aftermath, Copenhagen Post , 15 April 2005 * ^ Manfred Ertel, Denmark\'s Myths Shattered: A Legacy of Dead German Children, Spiegel Online , 16 May 2005 * ^ Andrew Osborn, Documentary forces Danes to confront past, The Observer , 9 February 2003 * ^ Danish Study Says German Children Abused, Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
, 10 April 2005 * ^ "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, New York, 9 December 1948". Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012. * ^ "International Humanitarian Law - Fourth 1949 Geneva Convention". Retrieved 7 December 2012.

* v * t * e

Nazism
Nazism

ORGANIZATIONS

* National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) * Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
(HJ) * National Socialist Flyers Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps
(NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps
National Socialist Motor Corps
(NSKK) * League of German Girls
League of German Girls
(BDM) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Reich Labour Service
Reich Labour Service
(RAD) * Werwolf
Werwolf

HISTORY

* Early timeline * Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * Re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives
Night of the Long Knives
* Nuremberg Rally
Nuremberg Rally
* Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
* Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
* World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
* Denazification
Denazification
* Consequences

IDEOLOGY

* Architecture * Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
* Anti-democratic thought * Strasserism
Strasserism
* Hitler\'s political views * Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
(Hitler ) * Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg ) * National Socialist Program * New Order * Propaganda * Religious aspects * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

RACE

* Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* Eugenics * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
* Lebensborn
Lebensborn
* Master race
Master race
* Racial policy * Religion

ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Final Solution
Final Solution
* Human experimentation * Porajmos
Porajmos

Outside Germany

* Nazism
Nazism
in the United States

* American Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* German American Bund
German American Bund
* National Socialist Movement (United States)
National Socialist Movement (United States)

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party
Hungarian National Socialist Party
* Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
(Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
(UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile
National Socialist Movement of Chile
* National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nationalist Liberation Alliance
Nationalist Liberation Alliance
(Argentina) * Nazism
Nazism
in Brazil * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists

LISTS

* Books by or about Hitler * Ideologues * Leaders and officials * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members * Speeches given by Hitler * SS personnel

PEOPLE

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
* Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser
* Albert Speer
Albert Speer
* Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
* Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
* Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
* Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
* Josef Mengele
Josef Mengele
* Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Baldur von Schirach
Baldur von Schirach
* Artur Axmann
Artur Axmann
* Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
* Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart
* Gottfried Feder
Gottfried Feder
* Ernst Hanfstaengl
Ernst Hanfstaengl
* Julius Streicher
Julius Streicher
* Hermann Esser
Hermann Esser
* George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell

Related topics

* Esoteric Nazism
Nazism
* Far-right politics
Far-right politics
* German resistance * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Nazi salute
Nazi salute
* Neo- Nazism
Nazism
* Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism
* Stormfront * Swastika
Swastika
* Völkisch movement * Zweites Buch

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

World War II
World War II

* Asia and the Pacific

* China * South-East Asia * North and Central Pacific * South-West Pacific

* Europe

* Western * Eastern

* Mediterranean and Middle East

* North Africa * East Africa * Italy

* West Africa * Atlantic * North America * South America

* Casualties * Military engagements * Conferences * Commanders

PARTICIPANTS

Allies (leaders )

* Australia * Belgium * Brazil * Canada * China * Cuba * Czechoslovakia * Denmark * Ethiopia * France
France
* Free France
France
(from June 1940) * Greece * India * Italy (from September 1943) * Luxembourg * Mexico * Netherlands * New Zealand * Norway * Philippines (Commonwealth) * Poland
Poland
* South Africa * Southern Rhodesia * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* United Kingdom

* United States

* Puerto Rico

* Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders )

* Albania * Bulgaria * Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China
Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China
* Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
* Finland * Germany * Hungary * Free India * Iraq * Italy (until September 1943) * Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
* Japan * Manchukuo
Manchukuo
* Philippines (Second Republic) * Romania * Slovakia

* Thailand

* Vichy France
France

* Armed neutrality

RESISTANCE

* Albania * Austria * Belgium * Bulgaria * Czech lands * Denmark * Estonia * Ethiopia * France
France
* Germany * Greece * Hong Kong * Italy * Japan * Jewish * Korea * Latvia * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Malaya * Netherlands * Northeast China * Norway * Philippines

* Poland
Poland

* Anti-communist

* Romania * Thailand * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Slovakia * Western Ukraine
Ukraine
* Vietnam

* Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia

* Monarchists

TIMELINE

PRELUDE

* Africa * Asia * Europe

1939

* Poland
Poland
* Phoney War
Phoney War
* Winter War
Winter War
* Atlantic * Changsha * China

1940

* Weserübung * Netherlands * Belgium

* France
France

* Armistice of 22 June 1940
Armistice of 22 June 1940

* Britain * North Africa * West Africa * British Somaliland * North China * Baltic States * Moldova * Indochina * Greece * Compass

1941

* East Africa * Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
* Shanggao * Greece * Crete * Iraq * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Barbarossa) * Finland * Lithuania * Syria and Lebanon * Kiev * Iran * Leningrad
Leningrad
* Moscow * Sevastopol

* Pearl Harbor

* The outbreak of the Pacific War
Pacific War

* Hong Kong * Philippines * Changsha * Malaya * Borneo (1941–42)

1942

* Burma * Changsha * Java Sea * Coral Sea * Gazala * Dutch Harbor * Attu (occupation) * Kiska * Zhejiang-Jiangxi * Midway * Rzhev * Blue * Stalingrad * Singapore * Dieppe * El Alamein * Guadalcanal * Torch

1943

* Tunisia * Kursk * Smolensk * Solomon Islands * Attu * Sicily * Cottage * Lower Dnieper

* Italy

* Armistice of Cassibile
Armistice of Cassibile

* Gilbert and Marshall Islands * Burma * Northern Burma and Western Yunnan * Changde

1944

* Monte Cassino / Shingle * Narva * Korsun–Cherkassy * Tempest * Ichi-Go * Overlord * Neptune * Normandy * Mariana and Palau * Bagration * Western Ukraine
Ukraine
* Tannenberg Line * Warsaw
Warsaw
* Eastern Romania * Belgrade * Paris * Dragoon * Gothic Line
Gothic Line
* Market Garden * Estonia * Crossbow * Pointblank * Lapland * Hungary * Leyte

* Ardennes

* Bodenplatte

* Philippines (1944–1945) * Burma (1944–45)

1945

* Vistula–Oder * Iwo Jima * Western invasion of Germany * Okinawa * Italy (Spring 1945) * Borneo * Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
* Berlin * Czechoslovakia * Budapest * West Hunan * Guangxi * Surrender of Germany * Project Hula
Project Hula
* Manchuria * Manila * Borneo * Taipei

* Atomic bombings

* Debate

* Kuril Islands

* Shumshu

* Surrender of Japan
Surrender of Japan

* End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

ASPECTS

GENERAL

FAMINES

* Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943
* Chinese famine of 1942–43
Chinese famine of 1942–43
* Greek Famine
Famine
of 1941-1944 * Dutch famine of 1944–45
Dutch famine of 1944–45
* Vietnamese Famine
Famine
of 1945

* Air warfare of World War II
World War II
* Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
* Comparative military ranks * Cryptography * Diplomacy

* Home front

* United States * Australian * United Kingdom

* Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
* Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
* Military awards * Military equipment * Military production * Nazi plunder
Nazi plunder
* Opposition

* Technology

* Allied cooperation

* Total war * Strategic bombing * Puppet states * Women * Art and World War II
World War II

AFTERMATH

* Expulsion of Germans * Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
* Operation Osoaviakhim * Operation Keelhaul * Occupation of Germany * Territorial changes of Germany

* Soviet occupations

* Romania * Poland
Poland
* Hungary * Baltic States

* Occupation of Japan
Occupation of Japan
* First Indochina War
First Indochina War
* Indonesian National Revolution
Indonesian National Revolution
* Cold War
Cold War
* Decolonization
Decolonization
* Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
* Popular culture

WAR CRIMES

* Allied war crimes

* Soviet war crimes * British war crimes * United States war crimes

* German (Forced labour ) / Wehrmacht war crimes

* Holocaust * Aftermath * Response * Prosecution

* Italian war crimes
Italian war crimes

* Japanese war crimes
Japanese war crimes

* Unit 731
Unit 731
* Prosecution

* Croatian war crimes

* against the Serbs
Serbs
* against the Jews
Jews

Wartime sexual violence

* German military brothels * Camp brothels * Rape during the occupation of Japan
Rape during the occupation of Japan
* Sook Ching
Sook Ching
* Comfort women
Comfort women
* Rape of Nanking * Rape of Manila * Rape during the occupation of Germany
Rape during the occupation of Germany
* Rape during the liberation of France
France
* Rape during the liberation of Poland
Poland

PRISONERS

* Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the United States
German prisoners of war in the United States
* Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in World War II
World War II
* German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war * Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* Bibliography * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

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