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Conrad (25 March 1252 – 29 October 1268), called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin
Conradin
(German: Konradin, Italian: Corradino), was the Duke of Swabia
Duke of Swabia
(1254–1268, as Conrad IV), King of Jerusalem
King of Jerusalem
(1254–1268, as Conrad III), and King of Sicily
Sicily
(1254–1258, de jure until 1268, as Conrad II).

Contents

1 Early childhood 2 Political and military career 3 Legacy 4 In fiction 5 Ancestors 6 References

Early childhood[edit] Conradin
Conradin
was born in Wolfstein, Bavaria, to Conrad IV of Germany
Conrad IV of Germany
and Elisabeth of Wittelsbach. He is sometimes known as Conrad V of Germany. Though he never succeeded his father in Germany, he was recognized as king of the Germans, Sicily, and Jerusalem by German supporters of the Hohenstaufens in 1254. Having lost his father in 1254, he grew up at the court of his uncle and guardian, Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria.[1] His guardians were able to hold Swabia
Swabia
for him. Jerusalem was held by a relative from the royal house of Cyprus
Cyprus
as regent. In Sicily, his father's half-brother Manfred continued as regent, but began to develop plans to usurp the kingship. Little is known of his appearance and character except that he was "beautiful as Absalom, and spoke good Latin".[1] Although his father had entrusted him to the guardianship of the church, Pope Innocent IV pursued Conradin
Conradin
with the same relentless hatred he had against his grandfather Frederick II, and attempted to bestow the kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
on a foreign prince. Innocent's successor, Pope Alexander IV, continuing this policy, offered the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
lands in Germany to King Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
and forbade Conradin's election as king of the Romans.[1] Political and military career[edit] Having assumed the title of King of Jerusalem
King of Jerusalem
and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the Duchy of Swabia
Swabia
in 1262, and remained for some time in his duchy.[1] Conradin's first invitation to Italy
Italy
came from the Guelphs of Florence: they asked him to take arms against Manfred, who had been crowned king of Sicily
Sicily
in 1258 on a false rumor of Conradin's death. Louis refused this invitation on his nephew's behalf. In 1266 the count Charles I of Anjou, called by the new pope Clement IV, defeated and killed Manfred at Benevento, taking possession of southern Italy: envoys from the Ghibelline
Ghibelline
cities went then to Bavaria and urged Conradin
Conradin
to come and free Italy. Count Guido de Montefeltro representing Henry of Castile, Senator of Rome, offered him the support of the eternal city. Pledging his lands, Conradin crossed the Alps
Alps
and issued a manifesto at Verona setting forth his claim on Sicily.[1] Notwithstanding the defection of his uncle Louis and of other companions who returned to Germany, the threats of Clement IV, and a lack of funds, his cause seemed to prosper.[1] Proclaiming him King of Sicily, his partisans, among them Prince Henry of Castile, both in the north and south of Italy
Italy
took up arms; Rome
Rome
received his envoy with enthusiasm; and the young king himself received welcomes at Pavia, Pisa
Pisa
and Siena. In September 1267 a Spanish fleet under Prince Frederick of Castile, and a number of knights from Pisa, and Spanish knights soldiering from Tunis, disembarked in the Sicilian city of Sciacca, and most of the island rebelled against the Angevin rule. Only Palermo
Palermo
and Messina
Messina
remained loyal to Charles. The revolt spread to Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia. In November of the same year the Church excommunicated him; but his fleet won a victory over that of Charles; and in July 1268, Conradin
Conradin
himself entered with immense enthusiasm in Rome.

Execution of Conradin, last Staufer king of Sicily, following the battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268, Giovanni Villani: Nuova Cronica, 14th century

Having strengthened his forces, he marched towards Lucera
Lucera
to join the Saracen[1] troops settled there since the time of his grandfather. On 23 August 1268 his multi-national army of Italian, Spanish, Roman, Arab
Arab
and German troops encountered that of Charles at Tagliacozzo, in a hilly area of central Italy. The eagerness of Conradin's Spanish knights under Infante Henry of Castile in the most successful first charge, and the error of obtaining plunder in the enemy's camp after that momentary victorious assault gave the final victory to the reinforced French. Escaping from the field of battle, Conradin
Conradin
reached Rome, but acting on advice to leave the city he proceeded to Astura in an attempt to sail for Sicily: but here he was arrested and handed over to Charles, who imprisoned him in the Castel dell'Ovo
Castel dell'Ovo
in Naples, together with the inseparable Frederick of Baden. He was tried as a traitor, and on 29 October 1268 he and Frederick were beheaded. Legacy[edit]

Memorial by Thorvaldsen

With Conradin's death at 16, the legitimate Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
line became extinct. His remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, lie in the church of the monastery of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul; and here in 1847 Maximilian, crown prince of Bavaria, erected a marble statue by Bertel Thorvaldsen to his memory. In the 14th-century Codex Manesse, a collection of medieval German lyrics, preserved at Heidelberg, there appear two songs written by Conradin, and his fate has formed the subject of several dramas.[1] His hereditary Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
passed to the heirs of his great-great-grandmother Isabella I of Jerusalem, among whom a succession dispute arose. The senior heir in primogeniture was Hugh of Brienne, a second cousin of Conradin's father, but another second cousin Hugh III of Cyprus already held the office of regent and managed to keep the kingdom as Hugh I of Jerusalem. Conradin's grandmother's first cousin Mary of Antioch also staked her claim on basis of proximity of blood, which she later sold to Conradin's executioner Charles of Anjou. The general heiress of his Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
and the Duchy of Swabia was his aunt Margaret, half-sister of his father Conrad IV (the youngest but only surviving child of Frederick II and his third wife, Isabella of England) and married with Albert, Landgrave of Thuringia since 1255. Their son Frederick claimed Sicily
Sicily
and Swabia
Swabia
on her right. However, these claims met with little favor. Swabia, pawned by Conradin
Conradin
before his last expedition, was disintegrating as a territorial unit. He went unrecognized in Outremer, and Charles of Anjou
Anjou
was deeply entrenched in power in Southern Italy. Margrave Frederick proposed an invasion of Italy
Italy
in 1269, and attracted some support from the Lombard Ghibellines, but his plans were never carried out, and he played no further part in Italian affairs. Finally, Sicily
Sicily
passed to Charles of Anjou, but the Sicilian Vespers in 1282 resulted in dual claims on the Kingdom; the Aragonese heirs of Manfred retaining the island of Sicily
Sicily
and the Angevin party retaining the southern part of Italy, popularly called the Kingdom of Naples. In fiction[edit] The novel Põlev lipp (The Burning Banner) by Karl Ristikivi (1961; in Estonian) depicts Conradin's Italian campaign. A translation into the French by Jean Pascal Ollivry, entitled L'étendard en flammes, was published in Paris in 2005.[2] Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Conradin

16. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

8. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

17. Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy

4. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

18. Roger II of Sicily

9. Constance, Queen of Sicily

19. Beatrice of Rethel

2. Conrad IV of Germany

20. Érard II, Count of Brienne

10. John of Brienne

21. Agnès of Montfaucon

5. Isabella II of Jerusalem

22. Conrad of Montferrat

11. Maria of Montferrat

23. Isabella I of Jerusalem

1. Conradin

24. Otto I, Duke of Bavaria

12. Louis I, Duke of Bavaria

25. Agnes of Loon

6. Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria

26. Frederick, Duke of Bohemia

13. Ludmilla of Bohemia

27. Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia

3. Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany

28. Henry the Lion

14. Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine

29. Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony

7. Agnes of the Palatinate

30. Conrad, Count Palatine of the Rhine

15. Agnes of Hohenstaufen

31. Irmengard of Henneberg

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Conradin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 968–969.  ^ Karl Ristikivi. L'étendard en flammes. Traduit de l'estonien par Jean Pascal Ollivry. Paris: Alvik, 2005.

F. W. Schirrmacher, Die letzten Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
(Göttingen, 1871) K. Hampe, Geschichte Konradins von Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
(Berlin, 1893) del Giudice, Il Giudizio e la condanna di Corradino (Naples, 1876) G. Cattaneo, Federico II di Svevia (Rome, 1992) E. Miller, Konradin von Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
(Berlin, 1897)

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "Conradin". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. 

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Conradin House of Hohenstaufen Born: 25 March 1252 Died: 29 October 1268

Regnal titles

Preceded by Conrad IV of Germany King of Sicily 1254–1268 (1258) Succeeded by Manfred

King of Jerusalem 1254–1268 Succeeded by Hugh I

Duke of Swabia 1254–1268 Duchy disintegrated

v t e

Monarchs of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Godfrey* Baldwin I Baldwin II Melisende with Fulk and Baldwin III Amalric Baldwin IV Baldwin V Sibylla with Guy Isabella I with Conrad I, Henry I and Aimery Mary with John Isabella II Conrad II Conrad III Hugh I John II Henry II

* Did not take the title "King" but "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre" Crusades portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267023244 LCCN: no94021619 ISNI: 0000 0000 6675 6629 GND: 118565141 SELIBR: 406445 SUDOC: 118171992 BNF: cb145784947 (data) BN

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