The Info List - Conquest Of Constantinople

--- Advertisement ---

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Decisive Ottoman victory Fall of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire


* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
* Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
* Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
* Papal States
Papal States
* Ottoman defectors

* Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire


* CONSTANTINE XI † * Loukas Notaras * Theophilos Palaiologos † * Giovanni Giustiniani Longo (WIA ) * Orhan Çelebi :418-420

* MEHMED II * Zagan Pasha
Zagan Pasha
* Suleiman Baltoghlu



* 7,000–10,000 :85 :755 :343 :755 :46 -12,000, many of whom were civilians * 600 Ottoman defectors


* 26 ships :45


LAND FORCES: 50,000–80,000 :101 :49 :52 :618

100,000 :755–160,000 –200,000

* 70 cannons :139–14014 large and 56 small caliber ) :179


* 70 ships, :4420 galleys * 90 – 126 ships


* 4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians) :37-8 * 30,000 enslaved or deported

Unknown but heavy

* ^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty * ^ The Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
mainly donated ships and a few soldiers, it was not official however, and was done by several Cardinals. * ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because their Doge was on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship. They also did not want the Ottomans to interfere with their trade in the Black Sea and Mediterranean. The Venetians' efforts mainly included giving Constantine XI ships and a total of 800 soldiers in February 1453. The Venetians also promised that a larger fleet would arrive to save Constantine, this fleet would be full of ammunition, fresh soldiers and supplies. This fleet arrived too late. * ^ The Genoese captain Giovanni Giustiniani Longo was wounded in battle, but managed to escape, he died during the early days of June 1453. * ^ By nationality, there were 5,000 Greeks
and 2,000 foreigners, mostly of Genoese and Venetian origin. * ^ Figures according to recent estimates and Ottoman archival data. The Ottoman Empire, for demographic reasons, would not have been able to put more than 80,000 men into the field at the time. :215 * ^ Figures according to contemporaneous Western/Christian estimates :215

* v * t * e

Byzantine–Ottoman wars

* Bapheus * Dimbos * Catalan campaign * Prusa * Pelekanon * Nicaea
* Nicomedia * 1st Gallipoli
* 2nd Gallipoli
* Adrianople * 1st Thessalonica * Philadelphia * 1st Constantinople
* 2nd Constantinople
* 2nd Thessalonica * 3rd Constantinople * Trebizond

The FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE (Greek : Ἃλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; Turkish : İstanbul'un Fethi CONQUEST OF ISTANBUL) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by the then 21-year-old Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
, the seventh sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, who defeated an army commanded by Byzantine
Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos
Constantine XI Palaiologos
. The conquest of Constantinople
followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453.

The capture of Constantinople
(and two other Byzantine
splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, a continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
dating to 27 BC, an imperial state lasting for nearly 1,500 years. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
also dealt a massive blow to Christendom
, as the Muslim Ottoman armies thereafter were left unchecked to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from Edirne
to Constantinople.

It was also a watershed moment in military history. Since ancient times, cities had used ramparts and city walls to protect themselves from invaders, and Constantinople's substantial fortifications had been a model followed by cities throughout the Mediterranean region and Europe. The Ottomans ultimately prevailed due to the use of gunpowder (which powered formidable cannons).

The conquest of the city of Constantinople
and the end of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was a key event in the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
which also marks, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.


* 1 State of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

* 2 Preparations

* 2.1 Strength

* 2.1.1 Ottoman dispositions and strategies * 2.1.2 Byzantine
dispositions and strategies

* 3 Siege

* 3.1 Final assault * 3.2 Plundering phase

* 4 Aftermath

* 4.1 Third Rome
Third Rome
* 4.2 Impact on the Churches

* 5 Cultural references

* 5.1 Legends * 5.2 Cultural impact * 5.3 Impact on the Renaissance
* 5.4 Megali idea * 5.5 Renaming of the city * 5.6 In historical fiction

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links


had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
. In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204. :304 The crusaders established an unstable Latin state in and around Constantinople
while the remaining empire splintered into a number of Byzantine
successor states, notably Nicaea
, Epirus and Trebizond . They fought as allies against the Latin establishments, but also fought among themselves for the Byzantine

The Nicaeans eventually reconquered Constantinople
from the Latins in 1261. Thereafter there was little peace for the much-weakened empire as it fended off successive attacks by the Latins, the Serbians , the Bulgarians , and, most importantly, the Ottoman Turks . The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed almost half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The city was severely depopulated due to the general economic and territorial decline of the empire, and by 1453 consisted of a series of walled villages separated by vast fields encircled by the fifth-century Theodosian walls .

By 1450 the empire was exhausted and had shrunk to a few square miles outside the city of Constantinople
itself, the Princes\' Islands in the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, and the Peloponnese
with its cultural center at Mystras
. The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
, an independent successor state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, also survived on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea


When Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
succeeded his father in 1451, it was widely believed that the young ruler, then 19 years old, would prove incapable—and that he would pose no great threat to Christian possessions in the Balkans
and the Aegean. :60 This optimism was reinforced by friendly assurances made by Mehmed to envoys sent to his new court. :373 But Mehmed's actions spoke far louder than his mild words. Beginning early in 1452, he built a second Ottoman fortress on the Bosphorus
, on the European side several miles north of Constantinople, set directly across the strait from the similar fortress, Anadolu Hisarı , which his great-grandfather Bayezid I
Bayezid I
had previously built on the Asian side. This pair of fortresses gave the Turks complete control of sea traffic on the Bosphorus; :373 specifically, it prevented help from the north, the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast, from reaching Constantinople. (The new fortress was also known as Boğazkesen, which held the dual meanings 'strait-blocker' or 'throat-cutter', emphasizing its strategic position.) In October 1452, Mehmed ordered Turakhan Beg to lead a large force into the Peloponnese
and remain there to keep Thomas and Demetrios from assisting their brother Constantine XI Palaiologos during the impending siege of Constantinople.

Emperor Constantine XI swiftly understood Mehmed's true intentions and turned to Western Europe
Western Europe
for help; but now the price of centuries of war and enmity between the eastern and western churches had to be paid. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope
in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church . Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon , and indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors (Latin, Palaeologan) had since been received into the Latin church . Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had also recently negotiated union with Pope
Eugene IV , with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union. These events, however, stimulated a propaganda initiative by anti-unionist Orthodox partisans in Constantinople; the population, as well as the laity and leadership of the Byzantine
Church, became bitterly divided. Latent ethnic hatred between Greeks
and Italians, stemming from the events of the Massacre of the Latins in 1182 by the Greeks
and the sack of Constantinople
in 1204 by the Latins, played a significant role. Finally, the attempted Union failed, greatly annoying Pope
Nicholas V and the hierarchy of the Roman church. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the first half of the 15th century. Thessaloniki
was captured by the Ottomans in 1430. A few islands in the Aegean and the Propontis
remained under Byzantine
rule until 1453 (not shown on the map).

In the summer of 1452, when Rumelı Hisari was completed and the threat had become imminent, Constantine wrote to the Pope, promising to implement the Union, which was declared valid by a half-hearted imperial court on 12 December 1452. :373 Although he was eager for an advantage, Pope
Nicholas V did not have the influence the Byzantines thought he had over the Western kings and princes, some of whom were wary of increasing Papal control, and these had not the wherewithal to contribute to the effort, especially in light of the weakened state of France and England from the Hundred Years\' War , Spain being in the final part of the Reconquista
, the internecine fighting in the German Principalities , and Hungary and Poland's defeat at the Battle of Varna of 1444. Although some troops did arrive from the mercantile city states in the north of Italy, the Western contribution was not adequate to counterbalance Ottoman strength. Some Western individuals, however, came to help defend the city on their own account. Cardinal Isidore, funded by the pope, arrived in 1452 with 200 archers One of these was an accomplished soldier from Genoa
, Giovanni Giustiniani , who arrived with 400 men from Genoa
and 300 men from Genoese Chios, in January 1453. :83-84 As a specialist in defending walled cities, he was immediately given the overall command of the defense of the land walls by the emperor. Around the same time, the captains of the Venetian ships that happened to be present in the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
offered their services to the Emperor, barring contrary orders from Venice
, and Pope
Nicholas undertook to send three ships laden with provisions, which set sail near the end of March. :81

In Venice, meanwhile, deliberations were taking place concerning the kind of assistance the Republic would lend to Constantinople. The Senate decided upon sending a fleet in February 1453, but there were delays, and when it finally set out late in April, it was already too late for it to be able to take part in the battle. :85 Further undermining Byzantine
morale, seven Italian ships with around 700 men slipped out of the capital at the moment when Giustiniani arrived, men who had sworn to defend the capital. At the same time, Constantine's attempts to appease the Sultan with gifts ended with the execution of the Emperor's ambassadors — even Byzantine
diplomacy could not save the city. :373 Restored Walls of Constantinople

Fearing a possible naval attack along the shores of the Golden Horn, Emperor Constantine XI ordered that a defensive chain be placed at the mouth of the harbour. This chain, which floated on logs, was strong enough to prevent any Turkish ship from entering the harbour. This device was one of two that gave the Byzantines some hope of extending the siege until the possible arrival of foreign help. :380 This strategy was enforced because in 1204 the armies of the Fourth Crusade successfully circumvented Constantinople's land defenses by breaching the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
Wall. Another strategy employed by the Byzantines was the repair and fortification of the Land Wall (Theodosian Walls). Emperor Constantine deemed it necessary to ensure that the Blachernae district's wall were the most fortified because that section of the wall protruded northwards. The land fortifications comprised a 60 ft (18 m) wide moat fronting inner and outer crenellated walls studded with towers every 45–55 metres.


Map of Constantinople
and the dispositions of the defenders and the besiegers

The army defending Constantinople
was relatively small, totaling about 7,000 men, 2,000 of whom were foreigners. At the onset of the siege, probably fewer than 50,000 people were living within the walls, including the refugees from the surrounding area. :32 Turkish commander Dorgano, who was in Constantinople
in the pay of the Emperor, was also guarding one of the quarters of the city on the seaward side with the Turks in his pay. These Turks kept loyal to the Emperor and perished in the ensuing battle. The defending army's Genoese corps were well trained and equipped, while the rest of the army consisted of small numbers of well-trained soldiers, armed civilians, sailors and volunteer forces from foreign communities, and finally monks . The garrison used a few small-calibre artillery bullets, which nonetheless proved ineffective. The rest of the city repaired walls, stood guard on observation posts, collected and distributed food provisions, and collected gold and silver objects from churches to melt down into coins to pay the foreign soldiers.

The Ottomans had a much larger force. Recent studies and Ottoman archival data state that there were about 50,000–80,000 Ottoman soldiers including between 5,000 and 10,000 Janissaries , an elite infantry corps, and thousands of Christian troops, notably 1,500 Serbian cavalry that the Serbian lord Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
was forced to supply as part of his obligation to the Ottoman sultan—just a few months before, he had supplied the money for the reconstruction of the walls of Constantinople. Contemporaneous Western witnesses of the siege, who tend to exaggerate the military power of the Sultan, provide disparate and higher numbers ranging from 160,000 to 200,000 and to 300,000 ( Niccolò Barbaro : 160,000; the Florentine merchant Jacopo Tedaldi and the Great Logothete George Sphrantzes : 200,000; the Cardinal Isidore of Kiev and the Archbishop of Mytilene
Leonardo di Chio: 300,000). At this time cannons were being made.

Ottoman Dispositions And Strategies

The Dardanelles Gun
Dardanelles Gun
, cast in 1464 and based on the Orban bombard that was used by the Ottoman besiegers of Constantinople
in 1453 (British Royal Armouries
Royal Armouries

Mehmed built a fleet to besiege the city from the sea (partially manned by Greek sailors from Gallipoli
). Contemporary estimates of the strength of the Ottoman fleet span between about 100 ships (Tedaldi), 145 (Barbaro), 160 (Ubertino Pusculo), 200–250 (Isidore of Kiev, , Leonardo di Chio ) to 430 (Sphrantzes). A more realistic modern estimate predicts a fleet strength of 126 ships comprising 6 large galleys , 10 ordinary galleys, 15 smaller galleys, 75 large rowing boats, and 20 horse-transports. :44

Before the siege of Constantinople, it was known that the Ottomans had the ability to cast medium-sized cannons , but the range of some pieces they were able to field far surpassed the defenders' expectations. Instrumental to this Ottoman advancement in arms production was a somewhat mysterious figure by the name of Orban (Urban), a Hungarian (though some suggest he was German). :374 One cannon designed by Orban was named "Basilica" and was 27 feet (8.2 m) long, and able to hurl a 600 lb (272 kg) stone ball over a mile (1.6 km). Modern painting of Mehmed and the Ottoman Army approaching Constantinople
with a giant bombard, by Fausto Zonaro
Fausto Zonaro

The master founder initially tried to sell his services to the Byzantines, who were unable to secure the funds needed to hire him. Orban then left Constantinople
and approached Mehmed II, claiming that his weapon could blast 'the walls of Babylon
itself'. Given abundant funds and materials, the Hungarian engineer built the gun within three months at Edirne
, from which it was dragged by sixty oxen to Constantinople. In the meantime, Orban also produced other cannons for the Turkish siege forces. :77-8

Orban's cannon had several drawbacks: it took three hours to reload; cannonballs were in very short supply; and the cannon is said to have collapsed under its own recoil after six weeks (this is disputed, however, given that it was only reported in the letter of Archbishop Leonardo di Chio and in the later and often unreliable Russian chronicle of Nestor Iskander ). Having previously established a large foundry about 150 miles (240 km) away, Mehmed now had to undergo the painstaking process of transporting his massive artillery pieces. Orban's giant cannon was said to have been accompanied by a crew of 60 oxen and over 400 men. :374

In preparation for the final assault, Mehmed had an artillery train of seventy large pieces dragged from his headquarters at Edirne, in addition to the bombards cast on the spot.

Mehmed planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople
from an attack from the West, the only part of the city not surrounded by water. His army encamped outside the city on the Monday after Easter
, 2 April 1453.

The bulk of the Ottoman army were encamped south of the Golden Horn. The regular European troops, stretched out along the entire length of the walls, were commanded by Karadja Pasha. The regular troops from Anatolia
under Ishak Pasha were stationed south of the Lycus down to the Sea of Marmara. Mehmed himself erected his red-and-gold tent near the Mesoteichion, where the guns and the elite regiments, the Janissaries, were positioned. The Bashi-bazouks were spread out behind the front lines. Other troops under Zagan Pasha
Zagan Pasha
were employed north of the Golden Horn. Communication was maintained by a road that had been constructed over the marshy head of the Horn. :94-5

Dispositions And Strategies

Painting of the Fall of Constantinople, by Theophilos Hatzimihail

The city had about 20 km of walls (land walls : 5.5 km; sea walls along the Golden Horn: 7 km; sea walls along the Sea of Marmara: 7.5 km), one of the strongest sets of fortified walls in existence. The walls had recently been repaired (under John VIII ) and were in fairly good shape, giving the defenders sufficient reason to believe that they could hold out until help from the West arrived. :39In addition, the defenders were relatively well-equipped with a fleet of 26 ships: 5 from Genoa
, 5 from Venice
, 3 from Venetian Crete
, 1 from Ancona
, 1 from Aragon
, 1 from France, and about 10 Byzantine. :45

On 5 April, the Sultan himself arrived with his last troops, and the defenders took up their positions. As their numbers were insufficient to occupy the walls in their entirety, it had been decided that only the outer walls would be manned. Constantine and his Greek troops guarded the Mesoteichion, the middle section of the land walls, where they were crossed by the river Lycus. This section was considered the weakest spot in the walls and an attack was feared here most. Giustiniani was stationed to the north of the emperor, at the Charisian Gate (Myriandrion); later during the siege, he was shifted to the Mesoteichion to join Constantine, leaving the Myriandrion to the charge of the Bocchiardi brothers. Minotto and his Venetians were stationed in the Blachernae
palace, together with Teodoro Caristo, the Langasco brothers, and Archbishop Leonardo of Chios. :92

To the left of the emperor, further south, were the commanders Cataneo, with Genoese troops, and Theophilus Palaeologus, who guarded the Pegae Gate with Greek soldiers. The section of the land walls from the Pegae Gate to the Golden Gate (itself guarded by a certain Genoese called Manuel) was defended by the Venetian Filippo Contarini, while Demetrius Cantacuzenus had taken position on the southernmost part of the Theodosian wall. :92

The sea walls were manned more sparsely, with Jacobo Contarini at Stoudion , a makeshift defense force of Greek monks to his left hand, and prince Orhan at the Harbour of Eleutherius. Pere Julià was stationed at the Great Palace with Genoese and Catalan troops; Cardinal Isidore of Kiev guarded the tip of the peninsula near the boom. The sea walls at the southern shore of the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
were defended by Venetian and Genoese sailors under Gabriele Trevisano . :93

Two tactical reserves were kept behind in the city, one in the Petra district just behind the land walls and one near the Church of the Holy Apostles , under the command of Loukas Notaras and Nicephorus Palaeologus, respectively. The Venetian Alviso Diedo commanded the ships in the harbor. :94

Although the Byzantines also had cannons, they were much smaller than those of the Ottomans and the recoil tended to damage their own walls.

According to David Nicolle , despite many odds, the idea that Constantinople
was inevitably doomed is wrong, and the overall situation was not as one-sided as a simple glance at a map might suggest. :40It has also been claimed that Constantinople
was "the best-defended city in Europe" at that time.


At the beginning of the siege, Mehmed sent out some of his best troops to reduce the remaining Byzantine
strongholds outside the city of Constantinople. The fortress of Therapia on the Bosphorus
and a smaller castle at the village of Studius near the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
were taken within a few days. The Princes\' Islands in the Sea of Marmara were taken by Admiral Baltoghlu 's fleet. :96-7 Mehmed's massive cannon fired on the walls for weeks, but due to its imprecision and extremely slow rate of reloading the Byzantines were able to repair most of the damage after each shot, limiting the cannon's effect. :376 The Ottoman Turks transport their fleet overland into the Golden Horn .

Meanwhile, despite some probing attacks, the Ottoman fleet under Suleiman Baltoghlu could not enter the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
due to the chain the Byzantines had previously stretched across the entrance. Although one of the fleet's main tasks was to prevent any ships from outside from entering the Golden Horn, on 20 April a small flotilla of four Christian ships managed to slip in after some heavy fighting, an event which strengthened the morale of the defenders and caused embarrassment to the Sultan. :376 Baltoghlu's life was spared after his subordinates testified to his bravery during the conflict.

Mehmed ordered the construction of a road of greased logs across Galata
on the north side of the Golden Horn, and dragged his ships over the hill, directly into the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
on 22 April, bypassing the chain barrier. :376 This seriously threatened the flow of supplies from Genoese ships from the — nominally neutral — colony of Pera , and demoralized the Byzantine
defenders. On the night of 28 April, an attempt was made to destroy the Ottoman ships already in the Golden Horn using fire ships , but the Ottomans had been warned in advance and forced the Christians to retreat with heavy losses. Forty Italians escaped their sinking ships and swam to the northern shore. On orders of Mehmed, they were impaled on stakes, in sight of the city's defenders on the sea walls across the Golden Horn. In retaliation, the defenders brought their Ottoman prisoners, 260 in all, to the walls, where they were executed, one by one, before the eyes of the Ottomans. :108 With the failure of their attack on the Ottoman vessels, the defenders were forced to disperse part of their forces to defend the sea walls along the Golden Horn.

The Ottoman army had made several frontal assaults on the land wall, but were always repelled with heavy losses. Venetian surgeon Niccolò Barbaro , describing in his diary one of such frequent land attacks especially by the Janissaries, wrote:

“ They found the Turks coming right up under the walls and seeking battle, particularly the Janissaries ... and when one or two of them were killed, at once more Turks came and took away the dead ones ... without caring how near they came to the city walls. Our men shot at them with guns and crossbows, aiming at the Turk who was carrying away his dead countryman, and both of them would fall to the ground dead, and then there came other Turks and took them away, none fearing death, but being willing to let ten of themselves be killed rather than suffer the shame of leaving a single Turkish corpse by the walls.

Siege of Constantinople
as depicted between 1453 and 1475.

After these inconclusive frontal offensives, the Ottomans sought to break through the walls by constructing underground tunnels in an effort to mine them from mid-May to 25 May. Many of the sappers were miners of Serbian origin sent from Novo Brdo
Novo Brdo
by the Serbian despot . They were placed under the command of Zagan Pasha
Zagan Pasha
. However, an engineer named Johannes Grant , a German who came together with the Genoese contingent, had counter-mines dug, allowing Byzantine
troops to enter the mines and kill the workers. The Byzantines intercepted the first Serbian tunnel on the night of 16 May. Subsequent tunnels were interrupted on 21, 23, and 25 May, and destroyed with Greek fire and vigorous combat. On 23 May, the Byzantines captured and tortured two Turkish officers, who revealed the location of all the Turkish tunnels, which were then destroyed.

On 21 May, Mehmed sent an ambassador to Constantinople
and offered to lift the siege if they gave him the city. He promised he would allow the Emperor and any other inhabitant to leave with their possessions. Moreover, he would recognize the Emperor as governor of the Peloponese. Lastly, he guaranteed the safety of the population that would remain in the city. Constantine XI agreed to pay higher tributes to the sultan and recognized the status of all the conquered castles and lands in the hands of the Turks as Ottoman possession.

“ Giving you though the city depends neither on me nor on anyone else among its inhabitants; as we have all decided to die with our own free will and we shall not consider our lives. ”

Around this time, Mehmed had a final council with his senior officers. Here he encountered some resistance; one of his Viziers, the veteran Halil Pasha , who had always disapproved of Mehmed's plans to conquer the city, now admonished him to abandon the siege in the face of recent adversity. Zagan Pasha
Zagan Pasha
argued against Halil Pasha, and insisted on an immediate attack. Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, expecting that the weakened Byzantine
defense by the prolonged siege would now be worn out before he ran out of troops and started preparations for a final all-out offensive.


Painting by the Greek folk painter Theophilos Hatzimihail showing the battle inside the city, Constantine is visible on a white horse

Preparations for the final assault were started in the evening of 26 May and continued to the next day. :378 For 36 hours after the war council decision to attack, the Ottomans extensively mobilized their manpower in order to prepare for the general offensive. :378 Prayer and resting would be then granted to the soldiers on the 28th, and then the final assault would be launched. On the Byzantine
side, a small Venetian fleet of 12 ships, after having searched the Aegean, reached the Capital on May 27 and reported to the Emperor that no large Venetian relief fleet was on its way. :377 On May 28, as the Ottoman army prepared for the final assault, large-scale religious processions were held in the city. In the evening a last solemn ceremony was held in the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
, in which the Emperor and representatives of both the Latin and Greek church partook, together with nobility from both sides. :651-2

Shortly after midnight on May 29 the all-out offensive began. The Christian troops of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
attacked first, followed by the successive waves of the irregular azaps , who were poorly trained and equipped, and Anatolians who focused on a section of the Blachernae walls in the northwest part of the city, which had been damaged by the cannon. This section of the walls had been built earlier, in the eleventh century, and was much weaker. The Anatolians managed to breach this section of walls and entered the city but were just as quickly pushed back by the defenders. Finally, as the battle was continuing, the last wave, consisting of elite Janissaries, attacked the city walls. The Genoese general in charge of the land troops, Giovanni Giustiniani , was grievously wounded during the attack, and his evacuation from the ramparts caused a panic in the ranks of the defenders. Sultan Mehmed II's entry into Constantinople, painting by Fausto Zonaro
Fausto Zonaro

With Giustiniani's Genoese troops retreating into the city and towards the harbor, Constantine and his men, now left to their own devices, kept fighting and managed to successfully hold off the Janissaries for a while, but eventually they could not stop them from entering the city. The defenders were also being overwhelmed at several points in Constantine's section. When Turkish flags were seen flying above a small postern gate, the Kerkoporta, which was left open, panic ensued, and the defense collapsed, as Janissary soldiers, led by Ulubatlı Hasan pressed forward. Many Greek soldiers ran back home to protect their families, the Venetians ran over to their ships, and a few of the Genoese got over to Galata. The rest committed suicide by jumping off the city walls or surrendered. The Greek houses nearest to the walls were the first to suffer from the Ottomans. It is said that Constantine, throwing aside his purple regalia, led the final charge against the incoming Ottomans, perishing in the ensuing battle in the streets just like his soldiers. On the other hand, Nicolò Barbaro, a Venetian eyewitness to the siege, wrote in his diary that it was said that Constantine hanged himself at the moment when the Turks broke in at the San Romano gate, although his ultimate fate remains unknown.

After the initial assault, the Ottoman Army fanned out along the main thoroughfare of the city, the Mese, past the great forums, and past the Church of the Holy Apostles
Church of the Holy Apostles
, which Mehmed II
Mehmed II
wanted to provide a seat for his newly appointed patriarch which would help him better control his Christian subjects. Mehmed II
Mehmed II
had sent an advance guard to protect key buildings such as the Church of the Holy Apostles
Church of the Holy Apostles

A small few lucky civilians managed to escape. When the Venetians retreated over to their ships, the Ottomans had already taken the walls of the Golden Horn, luckily for them, the Ottomans were not interested in killing them but more in the loot they could get from raiding the city's houses, so they decided to attack the city and not them. The Venetian captain ordered his men to break open the gate of the Golden Horn, after they did, they left with ships filled with Venetian soldiers and refugees. Shortly after they left a few Genoese ships and even the Emperor's ships followed them out of the Golden Horn. This was done in perfect timing because shortly after they had left, the Ottoman navy had control over the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
by midday. The Army converged upon the Augusteum , the vast square that fronted the great church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
whose bronze gates were barred by a huge throng of civilians inside the building, hoping for divine protection. After the doors were breached, the troops separated the congregation according to what price they might bring in the slave markets.

Ottoman casualties are unknown but they are believed by most historians to be very heavy due to several unsuccessful Ottoman attacks made during the siege and final assault. Barbaro described blood flowing in the city "like rainwater in the gutters after a sudden storm", and bodies of the Turks and Christians floating in the sea "like melons along a canal".


Mehmed II
Mehmed II
had promised to his soldiers three days to plunder the city, to which they were entitled. :145 Soldiers fought over the possession of some of the spoils of war . :283 According to the Venetian surgeon Nicolò Barbaro "all through the day the Turks made a great slaughter of Christians through the city". According to Philip Mansel, widespread persecution of the city's civilian inhabitants took place, resulting in thousands of murders and rapes and 30,000 civilians being enslaved or forcibly deported.

The looting was extremely thorough in certain parts of the city. Weeks later on 2 June, the Sultan would find the city largely deserted and half in ruins; churches had been desecrated and stripped, houses were no longer habitable and stores and shops were emptied. He is famously reported to have been moved to tears by this, speaking "What a city we have given over to plunder and destruction." :152


On the third day of the conquest, Mehmed II
Mehmed II
ordered all looting to stop and issued a proclamation that all Christians who had avoided capture or who had been ransomed could return to their homes without further molestation, although many had no homes to return to, and many more had been taken captive and not ransomed. :150-51 Byzantine historian George Sphrantzes , an eyewitness to the fall of Constantinople, described the Sultan's actions:

“ On the third day after the fall of our city, the Sultan celebrated his victory with a great, joyful triumph. He issued a proclamation: the citizens of all ages who had managed to escape detection were to leave their hiding places throughout the city and come out into the open, as they were to remain free and no question would be asked. He further declared the restoration of houses and property to those who had abandoned our city before the siege, if they returned home, they would be treated according to their rank and religion, as if nothing had changed. ”

The Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
was converted into a mosque, but the Greek Orthodox Church was allowed to remain intact and Gennadius Scholarius was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople
. This was once thought to be the origin of the Ottoman millet system , however, it is now considered a myth and no such system existed in the fifteenth century. Following the city's conquest, the Church of the Holy Wisdom (the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
) was converted into a mosque .

After the sack, many feared other European Christian kingdoms would suffer the same fate as Constantinople. Two possible responses emerged amongst the humanists and churchmen of that era: Crusade
or dialogue. Pope
Pius II strongly advocated for another Crusade, while Nicholas of Cusa supported engaging in a dialogue with the Ottomans.

The Morean (Peloponnesian) fortress of Mystras, where Constantine's brothers Thomas and Demetrius ruled, constantly in conflict with each other and knowing that Mehmed would eventually invade them as well, held out until 1460. Long before the fall of Constantinople, Demetrius had fought for the throne with Thomas, Constantine, and their other brothers John and Theodore . :446Thomas escaped to Rome when the Ottomans invaded Morea
while Demetrius expected to rule a puppet state, but instead was imprisoned and remained there for the rest of his life. In Rome, Thomas and his family received some monetary support from the Pope
and other Western rulers as Byzantine
emperor in exile, until 1503. In 1461 the independent Byzantine
state in Trebizond fell to Mehmed. :446

Constantine XI had died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople
not fallen he likely would have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother, who were taken into the palace service of Mehmed after the fall of Constantinople. The oldest boy, renamed to Murad, became a personal favorite of Mehmed and served as Beylerbey (Governor-General) of Rumeli (the Balkans). The younger son, renamed Mesih Pasha , became Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and Sancak Beg (Governor) of the Province of Gallipoli. He eventually served twice as Grand Vizier under Mehmed's son, Bayezid II
Bayezid II

With the capture of Constantinople, Mehmed II
Mehmed II
had acquired the "natural" capital of its kingdom, albeit one in decline due to years of war. The loss of the city was a crippling blow to Christendom, and it exposed the Christian west to a vigorous and aggressive foe in the east. The Christian re-conquest of Constantinople
remained a goal in Western Europe
Western Europe
for many years after its fall to the House of Osman
House of Osman
. Rumors of Constantine XI's survival and subsequent rescue by an angel led many to hope that the city would one day return to Christian hands. Pope
Nicholas V called for an immediate counter-attack in the form of a crusade. When no European monarch was willing to lead the crusade, the Pope
himself decided to go, but his early death stopped this plan. As Western Europe
Western Europe
entered the 16th century, the age of Crusading began to come to an end.

For some time Greek scholars had gone to Italian city-states
Italian city-states
, a cultural exchange begun in 1396 by Coluccio Salutati , chancellor of Florence, who had invited Manuel Chrysoloras
Manuel Chrysoloras
, a Byzantine
scholar to lecture at the University of Florence
University of Florence
. After the conquest many Greeks, such as John Argyropoulos and Constantine Lascaris
Constantine Lascaris
, fled the city and found refuge in the Latin West, bringing with them knowledge and documents from the Greco-Roman tradition to Italy and other regions that further propelled the Renaissance
. Those Greeks
who stayed behind in Constantinople
mostly lived in the Phanar and Galata districts of the city. The Phanariotes
, as they were called, provided many capable advisers to the Ottoman rulers.


Main article: Third Rome
Third Rome
Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
the Conqueror, by Gentile Bellini
Gentile Bellini

is a term used by modern historians to refer to the later Roman Empire. In its time, the Empire ruled from Constantinople
(or "New Rome" as Constantine had officially named it) was considered simply "the Roman Empire." The fall of Constantinople
led competing factions to lay claim to being the inheritors of the Imperial mantle. Russian claims to Byzantine
heritage clashed with those of the Ottoman Empire's own claim. In Mehmed's view, he was the successor to the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
, declaring himself Kayser-i Rum, literally "Caesar of Rome ", that is, of the Roman Empire, though he was remembered as "the Conqueror". He founded a political system that survived until 1922 with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey

Stefan Dušan , Tsar of Serbia
, and Ivan Alexander
Ivan Alexander
, Tsar of Bulgaria
both made similar claims, regarding themselves as legitimate heirs to the Roman Empire. Other potential claimants, such as the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
have disintegrated into history.


In 17th century Russia, the Fall of Constantinople
had a role in the fierce theological and political controversy between adherents and opponents of the reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
, carried out by Patriarch Nikon
Patriarch Nikon
and intended to bring the Russian Church closer to the norms and practices of other Orthodox churches. Avvakum
and other of the " Old Believers
Old Believers
" saw these reforms as a corruption of the Russian Church, which they considered to be the "true" Church of God. As the other Churches were more closely related to Constantinople
in their liturgies, Avvakum
argued that Constantinople
fell to the Turks because of these heretical beliefs and practices.



There are many legends in Greece surrounding the Fall of Constantinople. It was said that the partial lunar eclipse that occurred on 22 May 1453 represented a fulfillment of a prophecy of the city's demise. Four days later, the whole city was blotted out by a thick fog , a condition unknown in that part of the world in May. When the fog lifted that evening, a strange light was seen playing about the dome of the Hagia Sophia, which some interpreted as the Holy Spirit departing from the city. "This evidently indicated the departure of the Divine Presence, and its leaving the City in total abandonment and desertion, for the Divinity conceals itself in cloud and appears and again disappears." For others, there was still a distant hope that the lights were the campfires of the troops of John Hunyadi who had come to relieve the city.

Another legend holds that two priests saying divine liturgy over the crowd disappeared into the cathedral's walls as the first Turkish soldiers entered. According to the legend, the priests will appear again on the day that Constantinople
returns to Christian hands. :147 Another legend refers to the Marble King (Constantine XI), holding that an angel rescued the emperor when the Ottomans entered the city, turning him into marble and placing him in a cave under the earth near the Golden Gate, where he waits to be brought to life again (a variant of the sleeping hero legend).


Guillaume Dufay
Guillaume Dufay
composed several songs lamenting the fall of the Eastern church, and the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good
Philip the Good
, avowed to take up arms against the Turks. However, as the growing Ottoman power from this date on coincided with the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and subsequent Counter-Reformation
, the recapture of Constantinople became an ever-distant dream. Even France, once a fervent participant of the Crusades, became an ally of the Ottomans.

Nonetheless, depictions of Christian coalitions taking the city and of the late Emperor's resurrection by Leo the Wise persisted. :280


Main article: Greek scholars in the Renaissance
Greek scholars in the Renaissance

The migration waves of Byzantine
scholars and émigrés in the period following the sacking of Constantinople
and the fall of Constantinople in 1453 is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism
Renaissance humanism
and science . These émigrés were grammarians, humanists, poets, writers, printers, lecturers, musicians, astronomers, architects, academics, artists, scribes, philosophers, scientists, politicians and theologians. They brought to Western Europe
Western Europe
the far greater preserved and accumulated knowledge of their own (Greek) civilization.


Between 1919 and 1922, Greek politician Eleftherios Venizelos attempted to implement the Megali Idea
Megali Idea
(recapture of Constantinople from the Ottoman Empire) in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) since the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was severely weakened by its defeat in World War I and by the occupation of Constantinople
by the British and French. However, in the course of the war Venizelos lost the election of 1920 and went into exile and Greece was defeated in the war by Turkey.


Ottomans used the Arabic transliteration of the city's name "Kostantiniyye," (القسطنطينية), as can be seen in numerous Ottoman documents. Islambol ( اسلامبول, Full of Islam) or Islambul (find Islam) or Islam(b)ol (old Turkic : be Islam), both in Turkish Language, were folk-etymological adaptations of Istanbul created after the Ottoman conquest of 1453 to express the city's new role as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire. It is first attested shortly after the conquest, and its invention was ascribed by some contemporary writers to Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II

The name of Istanbul
is thought to be derived from the Greek phrase īs tīmbolī(n) (Greek : εἰς τὴν πόλιν, translit. eis tēn pólin, "to the City"), and it is claimed that it had already spread among the Turkish populace of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
before the conquest. However, Istanbul
only became the official name of the city in 1930 by the revised Turkish Postal Law as part of Atatürk
's reforms.


* Lew Wallace
Lew Wallace
, The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople
Fell. New York: Harper border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal * Military history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

* Fetih 1453 * " How many angels can dance on the head of a pin? ", question linked to the imagery of pointless debate while the city was falling. * Military of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Tursun Beg (Turkish historian) * Ulubatlı Hasan * Dolfin Dolfin , venetian , naval commander during the siege


* ^ While Mehmed II
Mehmed II
had been steadily making preparations for the siege of Constantinople, he had sent the old general Turakhan and the letter's two sons, Ahmed Beg and Omar Beg to invade the Morea
and to remain there all winter to prevent the despots Thomas and Demetrius from coming to assistance to their brother Constantine XI. :146 * ^ According to Phrantzes, whom Constantine had ordered to make a census, the Emperor was appalled when the number of native men capable of bearing arms turned out to be only 4,983. Leonardo di Chio gave a number of 6,000 Greeks. :85 * ^ The Spanish Cristóbal de Villalón claims there were ' 60,000 Turkish households, 40,000 Greek and Armenian, 10,000 Jewish. :85 * ^ Another expert who was employed by the Ottomans was Ciriaco de\' Pizzicolli , also known as Ciriaco of Ancona
, a traveler and collector of antiquities. * ^ These were the three Genoese ships sent by the Pope, joined by a large Imperial transport ship which had been sent on a foraging mission to Sicily previous to the siege and was on its way back to Constantinople. :100 * ^ Runciman speculates that he may have been Scottish :84 * ^ Original text: Τὸ δὲ τὴν πόλιν σοῖ δοῦναι οὔτ' ἐμὸν ἐστίν οὔτ' ἄλλου τῶν κατοικούντων ἐν ταύτῃ• κοινῇ γὰρ γνώμῃ πάντες αὐτοπροαιρέτως ἀποθανοῦμεν καὶ οὐ φεισόμεθα τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν. * ^ Sources hostile towards the Genoese (such as the Venetian Nicolò Barbaro), however, report that Longo was only lightly wounded or not wounded at all, but, overwhelmed by fear, simulated the wound to abandon the battlefield, determining the fall of the city. These charges of cowardice and treason were so widespread that the Republic of Genoa
had to deny them by sending diplomatic letters to the Chancelleries of England, France, the Duchy of Burgundy and others. :296-97 Giustiniani was carried to Chios
, where he succumbed to his wounds a few days later. * ^ Barbaro added the description of the emperor's heroic last moments to his diary based on information he received afterward. According to some Ottoman sources Constantine was killed in an accidental encounter with Turkish marines a little further to the south, presumably while making his way to the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
in order to escape by sea. * ^ It is possible that all these phenomena were local effects of the cataclysmic Kuwae volcanic eruption in the Pacific Ocean. The "fire" seen may have been an optical illusion due to the reflection of intensely red twilight glow by clouds of volcanic ash high in the atmosphere.


* ^ Tekbaşina. "1453’de İstanbul\'u Fatih’e karşı savunan Osmanlı Şehzadesi kim?" . Milliyet blog (in Turkish). Retrieved 2016-02-13. * ^ A B Vasiliev, Alexander (1928). A History of the Byzantine Empire, Vol. II. II. Translated by Ragozin, S. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. * ^ A B C D E F Pertusi, Agostino, ed. (1976). La Caduta di Costantinopoli, I: Le testimonianze dei contemporanei scrittori greci e latini (in Italian). I. Verona: Fondazione Lorenzo Valla. * ^ A B C D E F Nicol, Donald M. (1993). The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Runciman, Steven (1965). The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 (Canto ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521398329 . * ^ A B C Severy, Merle (December 1983). " Byzantine
Empire". National Geographic. Vol. 164 no. 6. * ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABL-CLIO. * ^ Heath, Ian (1995). Byzantine
Armies AD 1118–1461 (Men-at-Arms). 287. Oxford: Osprey Publishers. ISBN 1855323478 . * ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine
Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. * ^ A B Kennedy Hickman. "Fall of Constantinople, 1453 – Byzantine-Ottoman Wars". About.com Education. Retrieved 2016-02-13. * ^ "İstanbul\'un fethinde 600 Türk askeri, Fatih\'e karşı savaştı" . Osmanlı Arauştırmalarlı (in Turkish). * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Nicolle, David (2000). Constantinople 1453: The End of Byzantium
(Campaign). 78. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-091-9 . * ^ A B Hatzopoulos, Dionysios. "Fall of Constantinople, 1453". Hellenic Electronic Center. * ^ Kaufmann, J. E.; Kaufmann, Hanna W. (2004). The Medieval Fortress: Castles, Forts, and Walled Cities of the Middle Agess. Boston, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81358-0 . * ^ Sehgal, Ikram ul-Majeed (2005). "Defence Journal" (8). * ^ Goffman, Daniel (2002). The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45908-7 . * ^ Patrick, James (2007). \' Renaissance
And Reformation. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-7650-4 . * ^ A B İnalcıkt, Halil (2001). Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Klasik Çağ (1300–1600) . Translated by Itzkouritz, Norman; Imber, Colin. London: Orion. * ^ A B C Sphrantzes, George . Οικτρός Γεώργιος ο Φραντζής ο και Πρωτοβεσιαρίτης Γρηγόριος τάχα μοναχός ταύτα έγραψεν υπέρ των καθ' αυτών και τινων μερικών γεγονότων εν τώ της αθλίας ζωής αυτε χρόνω (in Greek). * ^ Pears, Edwin (1903). The Destruction of the Greek Empire. London: Longman's, Green & Co. * ^ Lanning, Michael Lee (2005). The Battle 100: The Stories Behind History's Most Influential Battles. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1-4022-2475-3 . * ^ Friedman, Saul S. (2006). A history of the Middle East. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-5134-3 . * ^ Uyar, Mesut; Erickson, Edward J. (2009). A military history of the Ottomans: from Osman to Atatürk. Santa Barbara: Praeger. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0 . * ^ A B "Part II: Fall of Constantinople". The American Legion's Burnpit. * ^ Momigliano & Schiavone (1997), Introduction ("La Storia di Roma"), p. XXI * ^ "The fall of Constantinople". The Economist. 23 December 1999. Retrieved 7 June 2017. * ^ Frantzes, Georgios; Melisseidis (Melisseides), Ioannis (Ioannes) A.; Zavolea-Melissidi, Pulcheria (2004). Εάλω η ΠόλιςΤ•ο χρονικό της άλωσης της Κωνσταντινούπολης: Συνοπτική ιστορία των γεγονότων στην Κωνσταντινούπολη κατά την περίοδο 1440 - 1453 (in Greek) (5 ed.). Athens: Vergina Asimakopouli Bros. ISBN 9607171918 . * ^ Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquest of Constantinople
and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages ) * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Norwich, John Julius (1997). A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books. * ^ Madden, Thomas (2005). Crusades: The Illustrated History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. * ^ Haldon, John (2000). Byzantium
at War 600 – 1453. New York: Osprey. * ^ A B Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. New York: Oxford University Press. * ^ The Black Death at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 25 June 2008), Channel 4 – History. * ^ " Bosphorus
(i.e. Bosporus), View from Kuleli, Constantinople, Turkey". World Digital Library . 1890–1900. Retrieved 2013-10-20. * ^ Setton, Kenneth M. (1978). The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571): The Fifteenth Century. 2. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-87169-127-2 . * ^ Crowley, Roger (2013-02-12). 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople
and the Clash of Islam and the West. Hachette Books. ISBN 978-1-4013-0558-1 . * ^ Michael Spilling, ed., Battles That Changed History: Key Battles That Decided the Fate of Nations ( London, Amber Books Ltd. 2010) p.187. * ^ A B C D Nicolò Barbaro, Giornale dell'Assedio di Costantinopoli, 1453. The autograph copy is conserved in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. Barbaro's diary has been translated into English by John Melville-Jones (New York:Exposition Press, 1969) * ^ A B (in French) Concasty, M.-L., Les «Informations» de Jacques Tedaldi sur le siège et la prise de Constantinople * ^ A B C Rutheniae, Isidorus (6 July 1453). "Epistola reverendissimi patris domini Isidori cardinalis Ruteni scripta ad reverendissimum dominum Bisarionem episcopum Tusculanum ac cardinalem Nicenum Bononiaeque legatum " (Letter) (in Latin). Letter to Bisarion.

* ^ A B C D (in Latin) Leonardo di Chio, Letter to Pope
Nicholas V , dated 16 August 1453, edited by J.-P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca , 159, 923A–944B. * ^ Leonardo di Chio, Letter,927B: "three hundred thousand and more". * ^ Ubertino Pusculo, Constantinopolis, 1464 * ^ Leonardo di Chio, Letter, 930C. * ^ Davis, Paul (1999). 100 Decisive Battles. Oxford. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-514366-9 . * ^ Arnold (2001) p. 111 * ^ "The fall of Constantinople". The Economist. 23 December 1999. * ^ Crowley (2005), pp. 150–54 * ^ Marios Philippides and Walter K. Hanak, The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, (Ashgate Publishing, 2011), 520. * ^ From Jean Chartier, Chronicle of Charles VII, king of France, MS Bnf Français 2691, f. 246v * ^ Crowley, Roger. 1453: the holy war for Constantinople
and the clash of Islam and the West. New York: Hyperion, 2005. pp. 168–171. ISBN 1-4013-0850-3 . * ^ "29 Μαϊου 1453: Όταν «η Πόλις εάλω...." . "iefemerida.com" (in Greek). 29 May 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2017. * ^ Desimoni, C. (1874). Adamo di Montaldo. Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria (Proceedings of the Ligurian Society for Homeland History) (in Italian). X. Genoa. * ^ Smith, Michael Llewellyn, The Fall of Constantinople, History Makers magazine No. 5, Marshall Cavendish, Sidgwick & Jackson (London). * ^ Reinert, Stephen (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. New York: Oxford UP. * ^ Mansel, Philip (1995). Constantinople: City of the World's Desire. Hachette UK. p. 79. ISBN 0-7195-5076-9 . * ^ George Sphrantzes. The Fall of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes 1401–1477. Translated by Marios Philippides. University of Massachusetts Press , 1980. ISBN 978-0-87023-290-9 . * ^ Kritovoulos (or Kritoboulos). History of Mehmed the Conqueror. Translated by Charles T. Riggs. Greenwood Press Reprint, 1970. ISBN 978-0-8371-3119-1 . * ^ Braude, Benjamin (1982). "Foundation Myths of the Millet System". In Braude, Benjamin; Bernard Lewis. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. 1. New York: Holmes & Meier. pp. 69–90. ISBN 0841905193 . * ^ Masters, Bruce (2009). "Millet". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. pp. 383–4. * ^ Volf, Miroslav (2010). "Body counts: the dark side of Christian history". The Christian Century. 127 (Journal Article): 11–. ISSN 0009-5281 . * ^ A B Norwich, John Julius (1995). Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-41650-1 . * ^ Lowry, Heath W. (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. p. 115-116. * ^ N.G. Wilson, From Byzantium
to Italy. Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance, London, 1992. ISBN 0-7156-2418-0 * ^ "John Argyropoulos.". britannica.com. Retrieved 2 October 2009. . * ^ A B Byzantines in Renaissance
Italy * ^ "Saving the Third Rome. "Fall of the Empire", Byzantium
and Putin’s Russia". IWM. Retrieved 2016-02-13. * ^ Guillermier, Pierre; Serge Koutchmy (1999). Total Eclipses: Science, Observations, Myths, and Legends. Springer. p. 85. ISBN 1-85233-160-7 . Retrieved 27 February 2008. * ^ Kritovoulos, Michael. History of Mehmed the Conqueror. Translated by C. T. Riggs. Princetone, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954. Pg. 59. * ^ "#1543" (Press release). Pasadena, California: Public Information Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). 1993. Retrieved 5 June 2017. * ^ The Marble King (in Greek) Archived 13 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Greeks
in Italy Archived 7 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (1993–94). "İstanbul'un adları" . Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı. CS1 maint: Date format (link ) * ^ Robinson, Richard D. (1965). The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press * ^ Room, Adrian, (1993), Place Name changes 1900–1991, (Metuchen, N.J., & London:The Scarecrow Press, Inc.), ISBN 0-8108-2600-3 pp. 46, 86. * ^ "Timeline: Turkey". BBC News. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2010.


* Babinger, Franz (1992): Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
and His Time. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01078-1 * Crowley, Roger (2005): 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople
and the Clash of Islam and the West. Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0558-1 * Fletcher, Richard A. : The Cross and the Crescent (2005) Penguin Group ISBN 0-14-303481-2 * Harris, Jonathan (2007): Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. Hambledon/Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4 * Harris, Jonathan (2010): The End of Byzantium. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8

Melville Jones, John, Th Siege of Constantinople
1453: Seven Contemporary Accounts, Amsterdam 1972

* Momigliano, Arnaldo ; Schiavone, Aldo (1997). Storia di Roma, 1 (in Italian). Turin: Einaudi. ISBN 88-06-11396-8 . * Murr Nehme, Lina (2003). 1453: The Conquest of Constantinople. Aleph Et Taw. ISBN 2-86839-816-2 . * Pertusi, Agostino, ed. (1976). La Caduta di Costantinopoli, II: L'eco nel mondo (in Italian). II. Verona: Fondazione Lorenzo Valla.

Philippides, Marios and Walter K. Hanak, The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, Ashgate, Farnham and Burlington 2011.

* Smith, Michael Llewellyn, "The Fall of Constantinople", in History Makers magazine No. 5 (London, Marshall Cavendish, Sidgwick ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire



* Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* Dominate

(330–717) EARLY

* Constantinian dynasty * Valentinian dynasty * Theodosian dynasty * Leonid dynasty * Justinian dynasty * Heraclian dynasty * Twenty Years\' Anarchy

(717–1204) MIDDLE

* Isaurian dynasty * Nikephorian dynasty
Nikephorian dynasty
* Amorian dynasty * Macedonian dynasty * Doukas dynasty * Komnenos dynasty * Angelos dynasty

(1204–1453) LATE

* Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
* Latin Empire
Latin Empire
/ Nicaea
/ Epirus –Thessalonica / Morea
/ Trebizond / others * Palaiologos dynasty * Fall of Constantinople



* Emperors

* Basileus * Autokrator

* Senate * Imperial bureaucracy * Eparch


* Praetorian prefects * Magister officiorum
Magister officiorum
* Comes sacrarum largitionum
Comes sacrarum largitionum
* Comes rerum privatarum * Quaestor sacri palatii
Quaestor sacri palatii


* Logothetes tou dromou * Sakellarios * Logothetes tou genikou * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Chartoularios tou sakelliou * Chartoularios tou vestiariou * Epi tou eidikou * Protasekretis * Epi ton deeseon


* Megas logothetes * Mesazon



* Praetorian prefectures * Dioceses * Provinces * Quaestura exercitus * Exarchate of Ravenna * Exarchate of Africa


* Themata * Kleisourai * Bandon * Catepanates


* Kephale * Despotates


* Treaties * Diplomats



* Battle tactics * Military manuals * Wars * Battles * Revolts * Siege warfare * Generals * Mercenaries


* Late Roman army
Late Roman army

* East Roman army

* Foederati * Bucellarii * Scholae Palatinae * Excubitors


* Themata * Kleisourai * Tourma * Droungos * Bandon * Tagmata * Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
* Hetaireia * Akritai * Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard


* Komnenian army

* Pronoia * Vestiaritai

* Palaiologan army

* Allagion
* Paramonai

* Grand Domestic


* Karabisianoi

* Maritime themata

* Cibyrrhaeot * Aegean Sea * Samos

* Dromon
* Greek fire
Greek fire
* Droungarios of the Fleet * Megas doux
Megas doux
* Admirals * Naval battles



* Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
* Byzantine
Rite * Ecumenical councils * Saints * Patriarchate of Constantinople
* Arianism
* Monophysitism
* Paulicianism * Iconoclasm * Great Schism * Bogomilism * Hesychasm
* Mount Athos
Mount Athos

* Missionary activity

* Bulgaria
* Moravia * Serbs
* Kievan Rus\'

* Jews * Muslims


* Codex Theodosianus
Codex Theodosianus
* Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
* Ecloga
* Basilika
* Hexabiblos * Mutilation



* Secular

* Sacred

* Cross-in-square
* Domes


* Great Palace of Constantinople
* Blachernae
Palace * Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Hagia Irene * Chora Church * Pammakaristos Church
Pammakaristos Church
* City Walls


* Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
* Hagios Demetrios
Hagios Demetrios
* Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Panagia Chalkeon


* San Vitale * Sant\'Apollinare in Classe * Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo


* Daphni Monastery
Daphni Monastery
* Hosios Loukas
Hosios Loukas
* Nea Moni of Chios
* Saint Catherine\'s Monastery * Mystras


* Icons * Enamel * Glass * Mosaics * Painters * Macedonian period art * Komnenian renaissance


* Agriculture * Coinage * Mints

* Trade

* silk * Silk Road
Silk Road
* Varangians

* Dynatoi


* Novel

* Acritic songs
Acritic songs

* Digenes Akritas
Digenes Akritas

* Alexander romance
Alexander romance
* Historians


* Calendar * Cuisine * Dance * Dress * Flags and insignia * Hippodrome

* Music

* Octoechos

* People

* Byzantine