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The Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, are a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide in all the ecozones except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, about 70 of which are found in North America. The majority of conopids are black and yellow, or black and white, and often strikingly resemble wasps, bees, or flies of the family Syrphidae, themselves notable bee mimics. A conopid is most frequently found at flowers, feeding on nectar with its proboscis, which is often long.

Conopidae morphology

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 Species lists 4 Identification 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. Rather thinly pilose or nearly bare, elongate or stout flies of small to large size (3–20 mm, usually 5–15 mm). They are often lustrous with a black and yellow colour pattern or with reddish brown markings. The head is broad and the frons is broad in both sexes. Ocelli may be present or absent (Conopinae). Ocellar bristles are small or absent. Interfrontal bristles and vibrissae are absent. The antennae have three segments, the third bearing a dorsal bare arista or terminal style. Above the antennae is an inflatable ptilinum. The oral opening is large and the proboscis is long and slender and often geniculate. The base of the abdomen is often constricted and the genitalia of both sexes are conspicuous. In the females the genitalia are often large or greatly elongated. The wing is usually clear, in some cases with dark markings often along the costa. The costa is continuous and the subcostal vein is complete. The anal cell is closed and the first basal cell is always very long, the second moderately long. The apical cell is closed or much narrowed. Tibiae are with (Myopinae) or without dorsal preapical bristle. Sample genera: Conops, Dalmannia, Physocephala, Stylogaster, Myopa, and Physoconops. Biology[edit] The larvae of all conopids are internal parasites, most of aculeate (stinging) Hymenoptera. Adult females aggressively intercept their hosts in flight to deposit eggs. Accordingly, in the species Bombus terrestris, it has been shown that vulnerable foraging bees are likely the most susceptible to parasitism by conopids.[1] The female's abdomen is modified to form what amounts to a "can opener" to pry open the segments of the host's abdomen as the egg is inserted. The subfamily Stylogastrinae, including the genus Stylogaster, is somewhat different, in that the egg itself is shaped somewhat like a harpoon, with a rigid barbed tip, and the egg is forcibly jabbed into the host. Some species of Stylogaster are obligate associates of army ants, using the ants' raiding columns to flush out their prey. Certain members of the genus Physocephala have minor economic importance as parasites of honey bees. More research is needed to determine the life histories of most conopids. Species lists[edit]

Nearctic West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Japan World list

Identification[edit]

Krober. 1925. Conopidae.In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region , 4, 4: 1-41

Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).

Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique Zirnjna. L.V. Family Conopidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Further reading[edit]

Kröber, O. (1939). "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Conopiden". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 11 (4): 38 1.  Camras, S. (1962). "The Conopidae of Madagascar (Diptera)". Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. E. Tananarive. 8: 18 1.  Smith, K. G. V. (1966). "The larva of Thecophora occidensis, with comments upon the biology of Conopidae (Diptera)". Journal of Zoology. 149 (3): 263–276. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1966.tb04048.x. . Keys larvae and pupae to genus (worldwide). Very full world bibliography of biology and immature stages. K. G. V. Smith, 1989 An introduction to the immature stages of British Flies. Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae.Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 10 Part 14. pdf download manual (two parts Main text and figures index)

References[edit]

^ Konig, C. and P. Schmid-Hempel (1995). "Foraging and immunocompetence in workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 260: 225–227. doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0084. 

External links[edit] Data related to Conopidae at Wikispecies

Thick-headed Fly - Physoconops sp. diagnostic photographs, natural history Image Gallery Family description and images Wing venation "Conopidae: Thick-Headed Flies". Atlas of Living Australia. 

Media related to Conopidae at Wikimedia Commons

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae (thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q591730 BugGuide: 92 EoL: 477 EPPO: 1CNPSF Fauna Europaea: 10904 Fossilworks: 139197 GBIF: 7298 ITIS: 1

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