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Coordinates : 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7

STATE OF CONNECTICUT

Flag Seal

Nickname(s) :

* The Constitution State (official) * The Nutmeg State * The Provisions State * The Land of Steady Habits

Motto(s) :

* Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet
( Latin
Latin
) * He who transplanted still sustains

State song(s) : " Yankee Doodle "

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE None

DEMONYM

* Connecticuter * Connecticutian * Nutmegger

CAPITAL Hartford
Hartford

LARGEST CITY Bridgeport

LARGEST METRO Greater Hartford
Greater Hartford

AREA Ranked 48th

• TOTAL 5,567 sq mi (14,357 km2)

• WIDTH 110 miles (177 km)

• LENGTH 70 miles (113 km)

• % WATER 12.6

• LATITUDE 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N

• LONGITUDE 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W

POPULATION Ranked 29th

• TOTAL 3,576,452 (2016 est.)

• DENSITY 739/sq mi (285/km2) Ranked 4th

• MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $72,889 (2nd)

ELEVATION

• HIGHEST POINT Massachusetts
Massachusetts
border on south slope of Mount Frissell 2,379 ft (725 m)

• MEAN 500 ft (150 m)

• LOWEST POINT Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
Sea level

BEFORE STATEHOOD Connecticut Colony
Connecticut Colony

ADMISSION TO UNION January 9, 1788 (5th)

GOVERNOR Dannel P. Malloy (D )

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR Nancy Wyman (D )

LEGISLATURE General Assembly

• UPPER HOUSE Senate

• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives

U.S. SENATORS Richard Blumenthal (D ) Christopher S. Murphy (D )

U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION 5 Democrats (list )

TIME ZONE Eastern : UTC −5 /−4

ISO 3166 US-CT

ABBREVIATIONS CT , Conn.

WEBSITE www.ct.gov

CONNECTICUT STATE SYMBOLS

The Flag of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut

The Seal of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut

LIVING INSIGNIA

BIRD American robin

FISH American shad
American shad

FLOWER Mountain laurel

INSECT Praying mantis

TREE White oak

INANIMATE INSIGNIA

GEMSTONE Garnet
Garnet

MOTTO Qui Transtulit Sustinet
Qui Transtulit Sustinet
(He Who Transplanted Still Sustains.)

SONG " Yankee Doodle "

STATE ROUTE MARKER

STATE QUARTER

Released in 1999

Lists of United States state symbols

CONNECTICUT (/kəˈnɛtɪkət/ ( listen )) is the southernmost state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States
United States
. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut
Connecticut
features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(0.962), and median household income in the United States
United States
. Connecticut
Connecticut
is bordered by Rhode Island
Rhode Island
to the east, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island
Island
Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford
Hartford
and its most populous city is Bridgeport . Although Connecticut
Connecticut
is technically part of New England, it is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area . The state is named for the Connecticut River , a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river".

Connecticut
Connecticut
is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous , and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States . It is known as the "Constitution State ", the " Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States . Much of southern and western Connecticut
Connecticut
(along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the New York metropolitan area ; three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the New York City
New York City
combined statistical area , which is widely referred to as the Tri-State area . Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire , New Haven
New Haven
County , which is also located within the Tri-State area.

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch . They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford
Hartford
at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut
Connecticut
rivers called Huys de Goede Hoop . Initially, half of Connecticut
Connecticut
was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland , which included much of the land between the Connecticut
Connecticut
and Delaware
Delaware
rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony and founded what became the Connecticut Colony
Connecticut Colony
; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony
New Haven Colony
. The Connecticut and New Haven
New Haven
Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders , considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter , making Connecticut a crown colony . This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
American Revolution
.

The Connecticut
Connecticut
River, Thames River
River
, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut
Connecticut
a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Climate * 1.2 Flora

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history

* 2.2 Colonial Connecticut
Connecticut

* 2.2.1 The American Revolution
American Revolution

* 2.3 19th century

* 2.3.1 Early national period and industrial revolution * 2.3.2 Civil War era * 2.3.3 Second industrial revolution

* 2.4 20th century

* 2.4.1 World War I * 2.4.2 Interwar period * 2.4.3 World War II
World War II
* 2.4.4 Post- World War II
World War II
economic expansion * 2.4.5 Late 20th century

* 2.5 Early 21st century

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Population * 3.2 Birth data * 3.3 Religion * 3.4 Largest cities and towns

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Taxation * 4.2 Real estate * 4.3 Industries

* 5 Transportation

* 5.1 Roads * 5.2 Rail * 5.3 Bus
Bus
* 5.4 Air * 5.5 Ferry

* 6 Law and government

* 6.1 Constitutional history * 6.2 Executive * 6.3 Legislative * 6.4 Judicial * 6.5 Local government

* 7 Politics

* 7.1 Registered voters * 7.2 Political office * 7.3 Republican areas * 7.4 Democratic areas * 7.5 Voting

* 8 Education

* 8.1 K–12 * 8.2 Private schools

* 8.3 Colleges and universities

* 8.3.1 Private * 8.3.2 Public universities * 8.3.3 Public community colleges

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Arts

* 9.2 Sports

* 9.2.1 Professional sports

* 9.2.1.1 Former major league teams

* 9.2.2 Current professional sports teams

* 9.2.2.1 Defunct professional teams

* 9.2.3 Amateur sports

* 9.2.3.1 College sports

* 10 Etymology and symbols * 11 Notable people * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geology of Connecticut and Geology of New England

* Landmarks and cities of Connecticut

*

Bridgeport *

New Haven
New Haven
*

Hartford
Hartford
*

Stamford *

New London *

Willimantic *

Gold Star Bridge
Gold Star Bridge
and Amtrak Thames River Bridge
Amtrak Thames River Bridge
*

Mount Frissell , the highest point in the state *

Lake
Lake
McDonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail
Tunxis Trail
Overlook Spur trail. *

The Connecticut River near Connecticut Route 82
Connecticut Route 82

Connecticut
Connecticut
is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, on the west by New York , on the north by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and on the east by Rhode Island
Rhode Island
. The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford
Hartford
, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport , New Haven
New Haven
, Stamford , Waterbury , Norwalk , Danbury , New Britain , Greenwich , and Bristol . Connecticut
Connecticut
is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro
Montenegro
. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. Map of Connecticut
Connecticut

The highest peak in Connecticut
Connecticut
is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell , whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet (6 m) above sea level.

Connecticut
Connecticut
has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking). The coast of Connecticut
Connecticut
sits on Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, which is an estuary . The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island). This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island
Island
Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island
Island
Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley . Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills , it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven
New Haven
along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes , beaches , and large scale maritime activities. Further information: List of Connecticut rivers
List of Connecticut rivers

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
center around a green , such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England
New England
towns, such as a white church , a colonial meeting house , a colonial tavern or inn , several colonial houses , and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick\'s residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half.

The southwestern border of Connecticut
Connecticut
where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County , containing the towns of Greenwich , Stamford , New Canaan , Darien , and parts of Norwalk and Wilton . This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York . Further information: Connecticut panhandle
Connecticut panhandle

Areas maintained by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include Appalachian National Scenic Trail , Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor , and Weir Farm National Historic Site .

* v * t * e

Rivers of Connecticut
Connecticut

CONNECTICUT RIVER WATERSHED

* Blackledge River * Coginchaug River * Connecticut River * Duck
Duck
River
River
* Eightmile River * Falls River
River
* Farmington River * Hockanum River
Hockanum River
* Hubbard River * Jeremy River * Lieutenant River * Mattabesset River
Mattabesset River
* Nepaug River
Nepaug River
* Pameacha Creek * Park River
River
* Pequabuck River
Pequabuck River
* Salmon River
River
* Scantic River

HOUSATONIC RIVER WATERSHED

* East Aspetuck River * Housatonic River * Konkapot River
Konkapot River
* Naugatuck River
Naugatuck River
* Pomperaug River * Rocky River
River
* Schenob Brook * Shepaug River
Shepaug River
* Still River
River
* Ten Mile River
River

HUDSON RIVER WATERSHED

* Titicus River

LONG ISLAND SOUND

* Ash Creek * Aspetuck River * Black Hall River * Byram River * Farm River
River
* Hammonasset River
Hammonasset River
* Mad River
River
* Mianus River * Mill River
River
* Mill River
River
(Fairfield) * Mystic River
River
* Niantic River
Niantic River
* Noroton River
Noroton River
* Norwalk River
Norwalk River
* Oyster
Oyster
River
River
* Pequonnock River * Quinnipiac River
Quinnipiac River
* Rippowam River
Rippowam River
* Rooster River
Rooster River
* Saugatuck River * Silvermine River
Silvermine River
* West River
River

PAWCATUCK RIVER WATERSHED

* Ashaway River * Green Fall River
Green Fall River
* Pawcatuck River * Shunock River * Wood River
River

THAMES RIVER WATERSHED

* Basset Brook
Basset Brook
* Beaver Brook * Bigelow Brook
Bigelow Brook
* Fenton River
Fenton River
* Fishers Brook * Five Mile River * French River
River
* Hop River * Little River
River
* Merrick Brook * Moosup River * Mount Hope River
Mount Hope River
* Natchaug River
Natchaug River
* Oxoboxo River * Pachaug River * Quinebaug River * Shetucket River
Shetucket River
* Thames River
River
* Willimantic River * Yantic River

* v * t * e

Mountains of Connecticut
Connecticut

HANGING HILLS

* Cathole Mountain
Cathole Mountain
* East Peak * South Mountain * West Peak

METACOMET RIDGE

* Barn Door Hills
Barn Door Hills
* Beacon Hill * Besek Mountain
Besek Mountain
* Bradley Mountain
Bradley Mountain
* Cathole Mountain
Cathole Mountain
* Chauncey Peak
Chauncey Peak
* East Peak * East Rock * Farmington Mountain
Farmington Mountain
* Fowler Mountain
Fowler Mountain
* Hatchett Hill
Hatchett Hill
* Higby Mountain
Higby Mountain
* Lamentation Mountain
Lamentation Mountain
* Manitook Mountain
Manitook Mountain
* Mount Sanford * Peak Mountain * Peck Mountain * Peter\'s Rock * Pinnacle Rock * Pistapaug Mountain
Pistapaug Mountain
* Ragged Mountain * Rattlesnake Mountain * Saltonstall Mountain * Short Mountain * Sleeping Giant * South Mountain * Talcott Mountain
Talcott Mountain
* Totoket Mountain
Totoket Mountain
* Trimountain
Trimountain
* West Peak * West Suffield Mountain
West Suffield Mountain

TACONIC MOUNTAINS

* Bear Mountain * Gridley Mountain * Mount Frissell * Round Mountain

OTHERS

* Burley Hill * Haystack Mountain * Jeremy\'s Back * Snow Hill

* v * t * e

Waterbodies of Connecticut
Connecticut

Canals , Coves , Estuaries , Harbors , and Rivers

* Ash Creek * Connecticut River * Enfield Falls Canal
Canal
* Farm River
River
* Farmington Canal
Canal
* Hammonasset River
Hammonasset River
* Housatonic River * Kidd Harbor
Harbor
* Little Narragansett Bay * Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
* Mystic River
River
* New Haven
New Haven
Harbor
Harbor
* Niantic River
Niantic River
* Oxoboxo River * Oyster
Oyster
River
River
* Pawcatuck River * Quinnipiac River
Quinnipiac River
* Smith Cove
Cove
* Thames River
River
* Wequetequock Cove
Cove
* Wethersfield Cove
Cove
* Ziegler\'s Cove
Cove
* more

LAKES AND PONDS

* Ashford Lake
Lake
* Bantam Lake
Lake
* Burr Pond
Pond
* Converse Lake
Lake
* Crystal Lake
Lake
* Deer Lake
Lake
* Great Hollow Lake
Lake
* Highland Lake
Lake
* Lake
Lake
Chaffee * Lake
Lake
Hayward * Lake
Lake
Pocotopaug * Lake
Lake
Quassapaug * Lake
Lake
Saltonstall * Lake
Lake
Waramaug * Lake
Lake
Whitney * Mashapaug Lake
Lake
* Millers Pond
Pond
* Pinewood Lake
Lake
* Round Pond
Pond
* Squantz Pond
Pond
* Tuxis Pond
Pond
* Twin Lakes * Wetherell Pond
Pond

RESERVOIRS

* Aspetuck Reservoir * Candlewood Lake
Lake
* Hop Brook Lake
Lake
* Kohanza Reservoir * Lake
Lake
Beseck * Lake
Lake
Gaillard * Lake
Lake
Lillinonah * Lake
Lake
Zoar * Mansfield Hollow Lake
Lake
* Quaddick Reservoir * Saugatuck Reservoir * Shenipsit Lake
Lake
* Success Lake
Lake
* West Hartford
Hartford
Reservoir * West Thompson Lake
Lake

* v * t * e

Islands and peninsulas of Connecticut
Connecticut

ISLANDS

* Bear Island
Island
* Calf Island
Island
* Carting Island
Island
* Cedar Island
Island
* Charles Island
Island
* Cut in Two Island
Island
* Cuties Island
Island
* Davis Island
Island
* Duck
Duck
Island
Island
* Elihu Island
Island
* Enders Island
Island
* Falkner Island
Island
* Fayerweather Island
Island
* Fowler Island
Island
* Goat Island
Island
* Goose Island
Island
(Guilford) * Goose Island
Island
(Stratford) * Governor Island
Island
* Grannis Island
Island
* Great Captain Island
Island
* Gull Rock * Haddam Island
Island
* High Island
Island
* Horse Island
Island
* Kidd\'s Island
Island
* Little Pumpkin Island
Island
* Long Island
Island
* Mason\'s Island
Island
* Menunketesuck Island
Island
* Milford Point * Minnie Island
Island
* Money Island
Island
* Mother-in-Law Island
Island
* Nells Island
Island
* North and South Brother Islands * Norwalk Islands * Outer Island
Island
* Peacock Island
Island
* Pope\'s Flat * Pot Island
Island
* Ram Island
Island
* Rogers Island
Island
* Round Rock * Sandy Point Island
Island
* Sherwood Island
Island
* Thimble Islands
Thimble Islands
* Tuxis Island
Island
* Underwood Island
Island
* Wooster Island
Island

PENINSULAS

* City Point * Hay Island
Island
* Lordship * Shippan Point * South End of Stamford
South End of Stamford

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types in Connecticut
Connecticut
Scenery upon Barndoor Hills
Barndoor Hills
in Granby in autumn Winter in East Haven

Much of Connecticut
Connecticut
has a humid continental climate , with cold winters with moderate snowfall and mild, humid summers. Coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
has a milder Temperate climate
Temperate climate
(called humid subtropical in some climate classifications) climate with hot, humid summers and warmer winters with a mix of rain and infrequent snow. Most of Connecticut
Connecticut
sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine, averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.

Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool to warm, while mid and late spring (late April/May) is warm. By June, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks at the peak of summer in late July. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning. Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year. During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare.

Fall type weather starts in October and normally lasts to the first days of December. Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50's to 60's F with nights in the 40's and upper 30's F (November). Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in late September and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut
Connecticut
by early November. Far southern and coastal areas however have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples), and are often less colorful than areas to the north. By early December average overnight lows are below freezing across the entire state.

Winters (December through mid March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut. The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton). Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season. Most of Connecticut
Connecticut
has less than 60 days of snow cover. Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid March in the southern and coastal parts of the state.

Connecticut's warmest temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Connecticut cities

CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

BRIDGEPORT 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28

HARTFORD 35/16 39/19 47/27 59/38 70/48 79/57 84/63 82/61 74/51 63/40 52/32 40/22

FLORA

Main article: Flora of Connecticut See also: List of Connecticut tree species

Forests consist of a mix of Northeastern coastal forests of Oak in southern areas of the state, to the upland New England-Acadian forests in the northwestern parts of the state. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia ) is the state flower, and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut. Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum ) is also native to eastern uplands of Connecticut
Connecticut
and Pachaug State Forest is home to the Rhododendron Sanctuary Trail. Atlantic white cedar ( Chamaecyparis thyoides ), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state. Connecticut
Connecticut
has one native cactus ( Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides. Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut. Connecticut
Connecticut
spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones
USDA Plant Hardiness Zones
5b to 7a. Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated. In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles , scrub palms ( Sabal minor ), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Connecticut A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies

EARLY HISTORY

The name Connecticut
Connecticut
is derived from anglicized versions of the Algonquian word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river", referring to the Connecticut River . The Connecticut
Connecticut
region was inhabited by multiple Indian tribes before European settlement and colonization, including the Mohegans , the Pequots , and the Paugusetts .

COLONIAL CONNECTICUT

The first European explorer in Connecticut
Connecticut
was Dutch explorer Adriaen Block . After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier, "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch : Huis van Hoop).

The Connecticut Colony
Connecticut Colony
was originally a number of separate, smaller settlements at present-day Windsor, Wethersfield, Saybrook, Hartford, and New Haven. The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year. John Winthrop the Younger of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
received a commission to create a new colony at Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635.

The main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. They were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker , who established the Connecticut Colony
Connecticut Colony
at Hartford. The Quinnipiack Colony was established by John Davenport , Theophilus Eaton , and others at present-day New Haven
New Haven
in March 1638. The New Haven Colony
New Haven Colony
had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven
New Haven
Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639.

The settlements were established without official sanction of the English Crown; each was an independent political entity. They naturally were presumptively English but, in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay or expansions from Plymouth Colony. In 1662, Winthrop traveled to England and obtained a charter from Charles II which united the settlements of Connecticut.

Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford
Hartford
(1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646).

The Pequot War marked the first major clash between colonial settlers and Indians in New England. The Pequots reacted with increasing aggression to Colonial settlements in their territory, while simultaneously taking lands from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. Settlers responded to a murder in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island
Island
; the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then raided Wethersfield in the spring of 1637. Colonists declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and allies from the Mohegan and Narragansett tribes, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River
River
, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield , the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.

The western boundaries of Connecticut
Connecticut
have been subject to change over time. The Hartford
Hartford
Treaty with the Dutch was signed on September 19, 1650, but it was never ratified by the British. According to it, the western boundary of Connecticut
Connecticut
ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles (32 km), "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) of Hudson River." This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. Conflict continued concerning colonial limits until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664.

On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea"—that is, the Pacific Ocean. Most Colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut
Connecticut
took its grant seriously and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware
Delaware
rivers named Westmoreland County . This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
.

Yale College was established in 1701, providing Connecticut
Connecticut
with an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders. The Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony and, by extension, town affairs in many parts.

The American Revolution

A 1799 map of Connecticut
Connecticut
which shows The Oblong
The Oblong
. From Low\'s Encyclopaedia .

Connecticut
Connecticut
designated four delegates to the Second Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence : Samuel Huntington , Roger Sherman , William Williams , and Oliver Wolcott .

Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments in 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
militia at Lexington and Concord. There were some 1,200 Connecticut
Connecticut
troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
in June 1775.

In 1777, the British got word of Continental Army
Continental Army
supplies in Danbury , and they landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in Westport . This force then marched to Danbury and destroyed homes and much of the depot. Continental Army
Continental Army
troops and militia led by General David Wooster and General Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold
engaged them on their return march at Ridgefield in 1777.

For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington
George Washington
decided to split the Continental Army
Continental Army
into three divisions encircling New York City , where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters. Major General Israel Putnam chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in Danbury and to support any operations along Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
and the Hudson River Valley. Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at Valley Forge , Pennsylvania the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures, and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge".

The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island
Island
orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge , and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General William Tryon raided the Connecticut
Connecticut
coast in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield. New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Benedict Arnold, who had turned traitor to the British.

19TH CENTURY

Early National Period And Industrial Revolution

Connecticut
Connecticut
ratified the U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution
on January 9, 1788, becoming the fifth state. The state prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade and fisheries.

In 1786, Connecticut
Connecticut
ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory . The state retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio
Ohio
called the Connecticut Western Reserve . The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut
Connecticut
place names to Ohio.

Connecticut
Connecticut
made agreements with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York which extinguished her land claims within those states' boundaries and created the Connecticut
Connecticut
Panhandle . The state then ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government, which brought it to its present boundaries (other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts).

The British blockade during the War of 1812
War of 1812
hurt exports and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war. The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Connecticut
Connecticut
came to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing, due in part to the inventions of Eli Whitney and other early innovators of the Industrial Revolution .

The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight . The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster , who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the Congregational Church struggled to maintain traditional viewpoints, in alliance with the Federalists. The failure of the Hartford
Hartford
Convention in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Republican Party gaining control in 1817.

Connecticut
Connecticut
had been governed under the "Fundamental Orders " since 1639, but the state adopted a new constitution in 1818.

Civil War Era

Main article: Connecticut in the American Civil War View of New London in 1854

Connecticut
Connecticut
manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War . The state furnished 55,000 men, formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. Colored Troops , with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2,100 men, and Glastonbury native Gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy. James H. Ward of Hartford
Hartford
was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War. Connecticut
Connecticut
casualties included 2,088 killed in combat, 2,801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.

A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However, as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a pro-slavery position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.

Second Industrial Revolution

1895 map from Rand McNally

Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles (164 km) of line were in operation, growing to 402 miles (647 km) in 1850 and 601 miles (967 km) in 1860.

The New York, New Haven
New Haven
and Hartford
Hartford
Railroad , called the New Haven or "The Consolidated", became the dominant Connecticut
Connecticut
railroad company after 1872. J. P. Morgan began financing the major New England railroads in the 1890s, dividing territory so that they would not compete. The New Haven
New Haven
purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven
New Haven
operated over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track with 120,000 employees.

In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.

20TH CENTURY

World War I

When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut
Connecticut
became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort. Remington Arms in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army, with other major suppliers including Winchester in New Haven and Colt in Hartford.

Connecticut
Connecticut
was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines, Lake
Lake
Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs, and the Groton Iron Works
Groton Iron Works
building freighters. On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.

The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds, a further expansion of industry, and an emphasis on increasing food production on the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort and were coordinated by the Connecticut
Connecticut
State Council of Defense. Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; Waterbury's American Brass and Manufacturing Company was running at half capacity, so the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to work there.

Interwar Period

In 1919, J. Henry Roraback started the Connecticut
Connecticut
Light & Power Co. which became the state's dominant electric utility. In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt the company became an important military supplier in World War II
World War II
and one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.

On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people. The eye of the "Long Island
Island
Express" passed just west of New Haven
New Haven
and devastated the Connecticut
Connecticut
shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington from the full force of wind and waves, even though they had partial protection by Long Island. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot (150 m) sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford
Hartford
and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.

World War II

The advent of lend-lease in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut
Connecticut
from the Great Depression, with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in World War II
World War II
. Connecticut
Connecticut
manufactured 4.1 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states, with major factories including Colt for firearms, Pratt his son George H.W. Bush and grandson George W. Bush
George W. Bush
both became Presidents of the United States. In 1965, Connecticut
Connecticut
ratified its current constitution , replacing the document that had served since 1818.

In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut
Connecticut
Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in East Haddam ; in 1970, the Millstone Nuclear Power Station began operations in Waterford . In 1974, Connecticut elected Democratic Governor Ella T. Grasso , who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor.

Late 20th Century

Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War
Cold War
. The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy was a state income tax which proved effective in balancing the budget, but only for the short-term. He did not run for a second term, in part because of this politically unpopular move.

In 1992, initial construction was completed on Foxwoods Casino at the Mashantucket Pequots reservation in eastern Connecticut, which became the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun
followed four years later.

EARLY 21ST CENTURY

In 2000, presidential candidate Al Gore
Al Gore
chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his running mate, marking the first time that a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish
Jewish
faith. Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
in the Electoral College. In the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 , 65 state residents were killed, mostly Fairfield County residents who were working in the World Trade Center . In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland resigned during a corruption investigation, later pleading guilty to federal charges. Connecticut
Connecticut
was hit by three major storms in just over 14 months in 2011 and 2012, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene
Hurricane Irene
struck Connecticut
Connecticut
August 28, and damage totaled $235 million. Two months later, the "Halloween nor\'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees, resulting in snapped branches and trunks that damaged power lines; some areas were without electricity for 11 days. Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut
Connecticut
October 29, 2012. Sandy's winds drove storm surges into streets and cut power to 98 percent of homes and businesses, with more than $360 million in damage.

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown , and then killed himself. The massacre spurred renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.

In the summer and fall of 2016, Connecticut
Connecticut
experienced a drought in many parts of the state, causing some water-use bans. As of November 15, 2016 (2016-11-15), 45% of the state was listed at Severe Drought by the US Drought Monitor, including almost all of Hartford
Hartford
and Litchfield counties. All the rest of the state was in Moderate Drought or Severe Drought, including Middlesex , Fairfield , New London , New Haven , Windham , and Tolland counties. This affected the agricultural economy in the state.

* The 21st century in Connecticut
Connecticut
in photos

*

Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
was born in Connecticut, winner in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections. *

9/11 killed 65 people living in Connecticut. *

Governor John G. Rowland was arrested for corruption in 2004. *

Tropical Storm Irene made landfall in Connecticut
Connecticut
in August 2011. *

The 2011 October nor\'easter caused major snow damage in the state. *

Category
Category
1 Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
made landfall in Connecticut
Connecticut
in October 2012, causing heavy destruction . *

In the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting , Adam Lanza killed 20 children and 6 adults. *

The 2016 Connecticut
Connecticut
Drought affected the agricultural market around the state, causing water limitations to be applied on some towns.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 237,946

1800 251,002

5.5%

1810 261,942

4.4%

1820 275,248

5.1%

1830 297,675

8.1%

1840 309,978

4.1%

1850 370,792

19.6%

1860 460,147

24.1%

1870 537,454

16.8%

1880 622,700

15.9%

1890 746,258

19.8%

1900 908,420

21.7%

1910 1,114,756

22.7%

1920 1,380,631

23.9%

1930 1,606,903

16.4%

1940 1,709,242

6.4%

1950 2,007,280

17.4%

1960 2,535,234

26.3%

1970 3,031,709

19.6%

1980 3,107,576

2.5%

1990 3,287,116

5.8%

2000 3,405,565

3.6%

2010 3,574,097

4.9%

EST. 2017 3,588,184

0.4%

SOURCES:

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Connecticut
Connecticut
was 3,590,886 on July 1, 2015, a 0.47% increase since the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
.

As of 2015, Connecticut
Connecticut
had an estimated population of 3,590,886, which is an decrease of 5,791, or -0.16%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,789, or 0.47%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut
Connecticut
moved from the 29th most populous state to 30th. 2016 estimates put Connecticut's population at 3,576,452.

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut
Connecticut
was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, only 12.3% was considered rural. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast ) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state and has high property costs and high incomes. The center of population of Connecticut
Connecticut
is located in the town of Cheshire . Connecticut Population Density Map

POPULATION

As of the 2010 U.S. Census
2010 U.S. Census
, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:

* 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White , 6.4% White Hispanic ) * 10.1% Black or African American
African American
* 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native
Alaska Native
* 3.8% Asian * 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander * 5.6% from some other race * 2.6% Two or more races

Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population in the 2010 Census.

The state's most populous ethnic group is Non-Hispanic White, but this has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.

CONNECTICUT RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 87.0% 81.6% 77.6%

Black 8.3% 9.1% 10.1%

Asian 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – -

Other race 2.9% 4.3% 5.6%

Two or more races – 2.2% 2.6%

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans
Americans
had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut
Connecticut
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31%, and Polish at 1.20%.

The largest European ancestry groups are:

* 19.3% Italian * 17.9% Irish * 10.7% English * 10.4% German * 8.6% Polish * 6.6% French * 3.0% French Canadian
French Canadian
* 2.7% American * 2.0% Scottish * 1.4% Scotch Irish

Main Street, Newtown

BIRTH DATA

As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White : 28,454 (78.8%) 28,543 (78.7%) 28,164 (78.8%)

Non-Hispanic White 20,704 (57.4%) 20,933 (57.7%) 20,395 (57.1%)

Black 5,103 (14.1%) 5,154 (14.2%) 4,988 (14.0%)

Asian 2,221 (6.2%) 2,280 (6.3%) 2,497 (7.0%)

Native 307 (0.9%) 308 (0.8%) 97 (0.3%)

Hispanic (of any race) 8,208 (22.7%) 8,129 (22.4%) 8,275 (23.1%)

TOTAL CONNECTICUT 36,085 (100%) 36,285 (100%) 35,746 (100%)

RELIGION

The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut
Connecticut
as of 2014:

RELIGION IN CONNECTICUT (2014)

Religion

Percent

Protestant
Protestant
  35%

Catholic
Catholic
  33%

None   28%

Jewish
Jewish
  3%

Mormon
Mormon
  1%

Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
  1%

Other Christian
Christian
  1%

Buddhist
Buddhist
  1%

Hindu
Hindu
  1%

Muslim
Muslim
  1%

Other   2%

Don't know   1%

A Pew survey of Connecticut
Connecticut
residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant
Protestant
27%, Mormonism 0.5%, Jewish
Jewish
1%, Roman Catholic
Catholic
43%, Orthodox 1%, Non-religious 23%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 0.5%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 0.5%. Jewish
Jewish
congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000. The Jewish
Jewish
population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island
Island
Sound between Greenwich and New Haven
New Haven
, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford
Greater Hartford
, especially the suburb of West Hartford
Hartford
. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives , the largest Christian
Christian
denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the Catholic
Catholic
Church , with 1,252,936; the United Church of Christ , with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.

Recent immigration has brought other non- Christian
Christian
religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also home to New England's largest Protestant
Protestant
Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County . Hartford
Hartford
is seat to the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Archdiocese of Hartford
Hartford
, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich .

LARGEST CITIES AND TOWNS

* Bridgeport , 147,629 * New Haven
New Haven
, 130,741 * Stamford , 129,113 * Hartford
Hartford
, 123,243 * Waterbury , 110,366 * Norwalk , 88,438 * Danbury , 84.992 * New Britain , 73,206 * West Hartford
Hartford
, 63,324 * Greenwich , 62,610

* The largest cities in the state

*

Bridgeport *

New Haven
New Haven
*

Hartford
Hartford
*

Stamford *

Waterbury

ECONOMY

See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income Connecticut
Connecticut
state welcome sign in Enfield, Connecticut

The total gross state product for 2012 was $229.3 billion, up from $225.4 billion in 2011.

Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2013 was estimated at $60,847, the highest of any state. There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1 percent and the average incomes of the bottom 99 percent. According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut
Connecticut
had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.32 percent. New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien , Greenwich , Weston , Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford
Hartford
is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000. Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in Greenwich, Connecticut
Greenwich, Connecticut

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in May 2016 was 5.7 percent, the 41st highest in the nation.

TAXATION

Before 1991, Connecticut
Connecticut
had an investment-only income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.

In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. , an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2014, Fairfield County was home to the headquarters for 14 of the 200 largest hedge funds in the world.

As of 2014, the income tax rates on Connecticut
Connecticut
individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); and 6.7% (more than $250,000), with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.

All wages of Connecticut
Connecticut
residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut
Connecticut
income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut
Connecticut
tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut
Connecticut
residents that work in those states have no Connecticut
Connecticut
income tax withheld. Connecticut
Connecticut
permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut
Connecticut
income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut
Connecticut
tax amount.

Connecticut
Connecticut
levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute . A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. In August 2013, Connecticut
Connecticut
authorized a sales tax "holiday" for one week during which retailers did not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut
Connecticut
is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value . Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $300 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward. Connecticut
Connecticut
does not levy an intangible personal property tax . According to the Tax Foundation , the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut
Connecticut
residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey
New Jersey
ahead of them.

The Tax Foundation determined Connecticut
Connecticut
residents had the third highest burden in the nation for state and local taxes at 11.86%, or $7,150, compared to the national average of 9.8%.

As of 2014, the gasoline tax in Connecticut
Connecticut
is 49.3 cents per gallon (the third highest in the nation) and the diesel tax is 54.9 cents per gallon (the highest in the nation).

REAL ESTATE

Of home-sale transactions that closed in March 2014, the median home in Connecticut
Connecticut
sold for $225,000, up 3.2% from March 2013. Connecticut
Connecticut
ranked ninth nationally in foreclosure activity as of April 2014, with one of every 887 residential units involved in a foreclosure proceeding, or 0.11% of the total housing stock., including City Place I and the Traveler\'s Tower , both housing the major insurance industry.

INDUSTRIES

Finance and insurance is Connecticut's largest industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, generating 16.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009. Major financial industry employers include The Hartford , Travelers , Cigna
Cigna
, Aetna
Aetna
, Mass Mutual , People\'s United Financial , Royal Bank of Scotland
Royal Bank of Scotland
, UBS
UBS
Bridgewater Associates , and GE Capital . Separately, the real estate industry accounted for an additional 15% of economic activity in 2009, with major employers including Realogy and William Raveis Real Estate. Hartford Skyline

Manufacturing is the third biggest industry at 11.9% of GDP and dominated by Hartford-based United Technologies Corporation (UTC), which employs more than 22,000 people in Connecticut. Lockheed Martin subsidiary Sikorsky Aircraft operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in Stratford , where it makes helicopters. Other UTC divisions include UTC Propulsion and Aerospace Systems, including jet engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney and UTC Building and Industrial Systems.

Other major manufacturers include the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics , which makes submarines in Groton , and Boehringer Ingelheim , a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield .

Connecticut
Connecticut
historically was a center of gun manufacturing, and four gun-manufacturing firms continued to operate in the state as of December 2012, employing 2,000 people: Colt , Stag , Ruger , and Mossberg . Marlin , owned by Remington , closed in April 2011.

A report issued by the Connecticut
Connecticut
Commission on Culture both are located on Indian reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.

Connecticut's agricultural sector employed about 12,000 people as of 2010, with more than a quarter of that number involved in nursery stock production. Other agricultural products include dairy products and eggs , tobacco , fish and shellfish , and fruit .

Oyster
Oyster
harvesting was historically an important source of income to towns along the Connecticut
Connecticut
coastline. In the 19th century, oystering boomed in New Haven, Bridgeport, and Norwalk and achieved modest success in neighboring towns. In 1911, Connecticut's oyster production reached its peak at nearly 25 million pounds of oyster meats. This was, at the time, higher than production in New York, Rhode Island, or Massachusetts. During this time, the Connecticut
Connecticut
coast was known in the shellfishing industry as the oyster capital of the world. From before World War 1 until 1969, Connecticut
Connecticut
laws restricted the right to harvest oysters in state-owned beds to sailing vessels. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop style vessel that lasted well into the 20th century. The sloop Hope is believed to be the last oyster sloop built in Connecticut, completed in Greenwich in 1948.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Connecticut

ROADS

Main article: List of State Routes in Connecticut
List of State Routes in Connecticut

The Interstate highways in the state are Interstate 95 (I-95; the Connecticut Turnpike ) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 traveling north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut
Connecticut
are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway , which together form Connecticut Route 15 (Route 15), traveling from the Hutchinson River
River
Parkway in New York parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven
New Haven
and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin . I-95 and Route 15 were originally toll roads ; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988. Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 (US 7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River
Naugatuck River
Valley nearly parallel with US 7, and Connecticut Route 9 in the east.

Between New Haven
New Haven
and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Although I-95 has been widened in several spots, some areas are only 3 lanes and this strains traffic capacity, resulting in frequent and lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway and even US 1. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing .

Connecticut
Connecticut
also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling , is particularly active. According to the US Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven
New Haven
has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.

RAIL

A Metro-North Railroad New Haven
New Haven
Line train leaving Stamford Station

Rail is a popular travel mode between New Haven
New Haven
and New York City's Grand Central Terminal . Southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
is served by the Metro-North Railroad 's New Haven
New Haven
Line , operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan , Danbury , and Waterbury . Connecticut
Connecticut
lies along Amtrak
Amtrak
's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service from New Haven
New Haven
south to New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Norfolk, VA.

Coastal cities and towns between New Haven
New Haven
and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Several new stations were completed along the Connecticut
Connecticut
shoreline recently, and a commuter rail service called the Hartford
Hartford
Line between New Haven
New Haven
and Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is scheduled to begin operating in 2018. A proposed commuter rail service, the Central Corridor Rail Line , will connect New London with Norwich , Willimantic , Storrs , and Stafford Springs , with service continuing into Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Brattleboro . Amtrak
Amtrak
also operates a shuttle service between New Haven
New Haven
and Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the Vermonter runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont
Vermont
via the same line.

BUS

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit , owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation , with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus
Bus
networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. Connecticut Transit also operates CTfastrak , a bus rapid transit service between New Britain and Hartford
Hartford
. The bus route opened to the public on March 28, 2015. Bradley International Airport , the state's largest airport

AIR

Bradley International Airport , is located in Windsor Locks , 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford
Hartford
. Many residents of central and southern Connecticut
Connecticut
also make heavy use of JFK International Airport and Newark International Airports , especially for international travel. Smaller regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport . Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut, Hartford–Brainard Airport in central Connecticut, and Groton-New London Airport in eastern Connecticut. Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.

FERRY

The Bridgeport Fishers Island, New York ; and Block Island, Rhode Island
Island
, which are popular tourist destinations. Small local services operate the Rocky Hill – Glastonbury Ferry and the Chester–Hadlyme Ferry which cross the Connecticut
Connecticut
River.

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Law of Connecticut
Law of Connecticut
and Administrative divisions of Connecticut
Connecticut

This article is part of a series on the

Law of Connecticut
Law of Connecticut
-------------------------

Sources of law

* Constitution of Connecticut
Constitution of Connecticut
* Connecticut General Statutes

Legal history

* Alexander v. Yale * American Electric Power Co. v. Connecticut
American Electric Power Co. v. Connecticut
* Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
* Blue Laws (Connecticut) * Boddie v. Connecticut
Boddie v. Connecticut
* Cantwell v. Connecticut * Connecticut Indian Land Claims Settlement * Connecticut v. Doehr * Geer v. Connecticut
Geer v. Connecticut
* Griswold v. Connecticut
Griswold v. Connecticut

* History of the Connecticut Constitution

* Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

* Loewe v. Lawlor * Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut * New Haven
New Haven
Black Panther trials * New York v. Connecticut * Palko v. Connecticut * Trial of Thomas Hogg * United States v. The Amistad

Judiciary

* Connecticut Supreme Court

* Connecticut Superior Court * Connecticut Appellate Court * Connecticut Probate Courts

* United States District Court for the District of Connecticut

WikiProject Connecticut
Connecticut

* v * t * e

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford
Hartford

Hartford
Hartford
has been the sole capital of Connecticut
Connecticut
since 1875. Before then, New Haven
New Haven
and Hartford
Hartford
alternated as capitals.

CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY

Main article: History of the Connecticut Constitution

Connecticut
Connecticut
is known as the "Constitution State". The origin of this nickname is uncertain, but it likely comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth
Oliver Ellsworth
helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise , or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
and the New Jersey
New Jersey
Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, but Connecticut's plan was the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.

The nickname also might refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal Connecticut
Connecticut
state government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The State of Connecticut
Connecticut
government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of the state's constitutional history . After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut
Connecticut
was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
through the Connecticut
Connecticut
Charter of 1662.

Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution
was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.

EXECUTIVE

The governor heads the executive branch. As of 2011 , Dannel Malloy is the Governor and Nancy Wyman is the Lieutenant Governor , both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of Stamford , won the 2010 general election for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, Ella Grasso was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services , Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives). Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House. As of 2014 , Brendan Sharkey is the Speaker of the House of Connecticut.

As of 2015 , Connecticut's United States Senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Chris Murphy (Democrat). Connecticut
Connecticut
has five representatives in the U.S. House , all of whom are Democrats.

Locally elected representatives also develop Local ordinances to govern cities and towns. The town ordinances often include noise control and zoning guidelines. However, the State of Connecticut
Connecticut
does also provide statewide ordinances for noise control as well.

JUDICIAL

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court
Court
, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court
Court
is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States
United States
Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015 the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers .

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches. The Appellate Court
Court
is a lesser statewide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

The State of Connecticut
Connecticut
also offers access to Arrest warrant enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population , List of towns in Connecticut
Connecticut
, List of cities in Connecticut , Borough (Connecticut) , List of counties in Connecticut

Connecticut
Connecticut
does not have county government, unlike all other states except Rhode Island. Connecticut
Connecticut
county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county. In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided into judicial districts at the trial-court level which largely follow the old county lines. The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports and census reporting.

Connecticut
Connecticut
shares with the rest of New England
New England
a governmental institution called the New England
New England
town . The state is divided into 169 towns which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions. There are also 21 cities, most of which simply follow the boundaries of their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: the City of Groton , which is a subsection of the Town of Groton , and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester . There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town. Naugatuck
Naugatuck
is a consolidated town and borough.

The state is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management, with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County. The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations".

POLITICS

Further information: Political party strength in Connecticut and Elections in Connecticut Connecticut
Connecticut
political party registration 1958–2012 marked with presidential influence

REGISTERED VOTERS

Connecticut
Connecticut
residents who register to vote have the option of declaring an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. As of 2016 about 60% of registered voters are enrolled (just over 1% total in 28 third parties minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about 8 unaffiliated for every 7 in the Democratic Party of Connecticut and for every 4 in the Connecticut Republican Party .

(Among the minor parties, the Libertarian Party and Green Party appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2016, and drew, respectively, 2.96% and 1.39% of the vote.)

Many Connecticut
Connecticut
towns and cities show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.

CONNECTICUT VOTER REGISTRATION AND PARTY ENROLLMENT AS OF OCTOBER 26, 2016

PARTY ACTIVE VOTERS PERCENTAGE

Unaffiliated 831,436 39.59%

Democratic 790,188 37.63%

Republican 452,243 21.54%

Independent 21,216 1.01%

Libertarian 2,561 0.12%

Green 1,827 0.09%

Working Families 323 0.02%

24 other minor parties without statewide enrollment privileges 226 0.01%

TOTAL 2,100,020 100%

POLITICAL OFFICE

Elections in Connecticut take place mostly at the levels of town and/or city, state legislative districts for both houses, Congressional districts, and statewide. In almost all races, the two major parties have some practical advantages granted on the basis of their respective performances in the most recent election covering the same constituency. Several processes, to varying degrees internal to either a major or minor party, are in practice nearly prerequisites to being permitted mention on the provided ballots, and even more so to winning office.

More specifically, the status of "major party" is usually reconfirmed every four years, as belonging to the two parties that polled best, statewide, in the gubernatorial column; this status includes the benefit of appearing in one of the top two rows on the ballot provided the party has at least one candidate on the ballot. Minor parties appear below major parties, and their performance in recent elections determines whether a candidates who wins in their nomination process must also meet a petitioning threshold in order to appear.

In a major party, a party convention for the office's constituency must be held; in practice, at the town level, a major party convention of voters of the town who are enrolled in the party usually is attended almost exclusively by members of the town party committee. The convention may choose to endorse a candidate, who will appear on the ballot unless additional candidates meet a petition threshold for a primary election; if at least one candidate meets the petition threshold, the endorsed candidate and all who meet the threshold appear on the primary ballot, and the winner of the primary election appears on the party line for that office.

A candidate wishing to run on the ballot line of a minor-party which has recently enough met a general-election vote threshold follows similar steps; candidates of other minor parties must meet petition thresholds, and if other candidates of the same party, for the same office, do so as well, only the winner of a resulting primary will appear on the ballot.

Campaigns by candidates not on the ballot generally are entirely symbolic, and while any voter can cast a write-in ballot, write-in ballots are not even tallied by election officials, except for candidates who have submitted a formal request that the tally be made.

In short, most winning candidates have won the endorsement of the applicable "major"-party convention; nearly all of the rest have won with a "professionally managed" primary-election campaign; and successful minor-party candidates are almost without exception major-party figures like Lowell Weicker whose minor parties disappear after that success. A Connecticut Party , which Weicker founded, became nominally the leading major party, and state law was changed during his administration to provide that in a situation such as his win, the top "three" parties in the governor's race all became major parties.

Chris Murphy and Richard Blumenthal are Connecticut's U.S. senators ; both are Democrats.

REPUBLICAN AREAS

Presidential election results YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC

PERCENT ABSOLUTE PERCENT ABSOLUTE

2016 40.94% 673,139 54.57% 897,281

2012 40.73% 634,892 58.06% 905,083

2008 38.22% 629,428 60.59% 997,773

2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488

2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015

1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740

1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318

1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584

1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597

1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732

1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895

1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498

1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561

1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269

1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. Westport , a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of Wilton voted in the majority for Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in the 2008 Presidential Election. Fairfield , the namesake of the county , has historically favored moderate Republicans in municipal, congressional, senatorial, and gubernatorial campaigns, but in recent years has supported Democratic Presidential nominees. Norwalk and Stamford , two larger, mixed-income communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and former Congressman Chris Shays , however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat Jim Himes in the 2008 election.

The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining exurbs in the western side of Hartford
Hartford
County , the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River
Naugatuck River
Valley , and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border.

Joe Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. , was the last Connecticut
Connecticut
Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut
Connecticut
in the Senate was Prescott Bush , the father of former President George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush
and the grandfather of former President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
. He served 1953–63.

DEMOCRATIC AREAS

Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates of both traditional parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden , New Britain , Norwich and Middletown favor Democratic candidates. The state's major cities— Hartford
Hartford
, New Haven
New Haven
, Bridgeport and Stamford —are all strongly Democratic.

As of 2011 , Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The last Republican to be elected, Chris Shays , lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in 2008.

VOTING

In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut
Connecticut
state legislature passed a bill (20 to 16 and 86 to 62) that abolished the capital punishment for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the death row at the time could still be executed.

In July 2009 the Connecticut
Connecticut
legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell
M. Jodi Rell
to pass SustiNet , the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.

EDUCATION

K–12

See also: Connecticut State Board of Education

The Connecticut State Board of Education manages the public school system for children in grades K–12. Board of Education members are appointed by the Governor of Connecticut . Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR". The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.

PRIVATE SCHOOLS

This section MAY CONTAIN INDISCRIMINATE , EXCESSIVE , OR IRRELEVANT EXAMPLES. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples . See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (December 2013)

See also: Country Day School movement

* Academy of Our Lady of Mercy, Lauralton Hall (1905) * Avon Old Farms School
Avon Old Farms School
(1927) * Bridgeport International Academy (1997) * Brunswick School (1902) * Canterbury School (1915) * Cheshire Academy (1794) * Choate Rosemary Hall (1890) * East Catholic
Catholic
High School (1961) * Ethel Walker School (1911) * Fairfield Country Day School (1936) * Fairfield College Preparatory School (1942) * Foote School (1916) * Greens Farms Academy
Greens Farms Academy
(1925) * Greenwich Country Day School (1926) * The Gunnery (1850) * Hopkins School
Hopkins School
(1660) * Hotchkiss School (1891) * Kent School
Kent School
(1906) * Kingswood-Oxford School (1909) * Loomis Chaffee (1914) * Marianapolis Preparatory School (1926) * The Master\'s School (1970) * Mercy High School (1963) * Miss Porter\'s School (1843) * New Canaan Country School (1916) * Northwest Catholic
Catholic
High School (1961) * Norwich Free Academy
Norwich Free Academy
(1854) * Notre Dame Catholic
Catholic
High School (1955) * Notre Dame High School (1946) * Pomfret School
Pomfret School
(1894) * Rumsey Hall School (1900) * Sacred Heart Academy (1946) * Saint Bernard School (1956) * Stanwich School (1998) * St. Paul Catholic
Catholic
High School (1966) * Suffield Academy (1833) * The Taft School (1890) * Watkinson School * Westminster School (Connecticut) * Westover School (1909) * The Williams School (1891) * Xavier High School (1963)

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Connecticut
Connecticut
was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School , which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield . Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan
Manhattan
and the Boston Latin
Latin
School (1635).

Private

* Yale University (1701) * Trinity College (1823) * Wesleyan University
Wesleyan University
(1831) * University of Hartford
Hartford
(1877) * Post University (1890) * Connecticut College (1911) * United States Coast Guard Academy
United States Coast Guard Academy
(1915) * University of New Haven
New Haven
(1920) * University of Bridgeport (1927) * Albertus Magnus College (1925) * Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University
(1929) * University of Saint Joseph (Connecticut) (1932) * Mitchell College (1938) * Fairfield University (1942) * Sacred Heart University (1963)

Yale's motto means light "> University of Connecticut
University of Connecticut
, the state's main public university Yale (close up of door). Yale was formerly known as the Collegiate School.

Public Universities

See also: Connecticut State University System

* Central Connecticut State University (1849) * University of Connecticut
University of Connecticut
(1881) * Eastern Connecticut State University
Eastern Connecticut State University
(1889) * Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University
(1893) * Western Connecticut State University (1903) * Charter Oak State College (1973)

Public Community Colleges

Southbury Training School Greenhouse, Interior. Southbury Greenhouse, 2016

* Capital Community College (1946) * Norwalk Community College
Norwalk Community College
(1961) * Manchester Community College (1963) * Naugatuck
Naugatuck
Valley Community College (1964) * Northwestern Connecticut Community College (1965) * Middlesex Community College (1966) * Housatonic Community College (1967) * Gateway Community College (1968) * Asnuntuck Community College (1969) * Tunxis Community College
Tunxis Community College
(1969) * Quinebaug Valley Community College (1971) * Three Rivers Community College (1992)

The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world. See also: List of school districts in Connecticut
Connecticut

CULTURE

ARTS

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017)

SPORTS

Professional Sports

See also: Professional ice hockey in Connecticut

Currently, there are two Connecticut
Connecticut
teams in the American Hockey League : the Bridgeport Sound Tigers , a farm team for the New York Islanders , compete at the Webster Bank Arena in Bridgeport ; the Hartford
Hartford
Wolf Pack , the affiliate of the New York Rangers
New York Rangers
, play in the XL Center in Hartford. The Wolf Pack are the first professional team to bring Hartford
Hartford
and the state of Connecticut
Connecticut
a championship. The Wolf Pack won the Calder Cup
Calder Cup
on June 24, 2000 after defeating the Rochester Americans
Americans
in a best-of-seven series.

The Hartford
Hartford
Yard Goats of the Eastern League are a AA affiliate of the Colorado Rockies . Also, the Connecticut Tigers play in the New York-Penn League and are a A affiliate of the Detroit Tigers . The Bridgeport Bluefish and the New Britain Bees play in the Atlantic League .

The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville .

The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford
Hartford
area. Originally called the " Insurance
Insurance
City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open", the event is now known as the Travelers Championship . The Connecticut
Connecticut
Open tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven. Lime Rock —a home of the American Le Mans tournament

Lime Rock Park in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) road racing course, home to IMSA , SCCA , USAC , and K"> Yale Bowl during "The Game " between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the NFL 's New York Giants in 1973–74.

The Connecticut Huskies , often called "UConn", play NCAA Division I sports and are popular in the state. Both the men\'s basketball and women\'s basketball teams have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. In 2014, UConn repeated its feat of being the only school in NCAA Division I to win men's and women's basketball tournaments in the same year. The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 111 games, a streak that ended in 2017. The UConn Huskies football team
UConn Huskies football team
has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since.

New Haven
New Haven
biennially hosts "The Game " between the Yale Bulldogs and the Harvard Crimson , the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum Walter Camp
Walter Camp
, deemed the "Father of American Football", helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.

Other Connecticut
Connecticut
universities which feature Division I sports teams are Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University
, Fairfield University , Central Connecticut State University , Sacred Heart University , and the University of Hartford
Hartford
.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYMBOLS

CONNECTICUT STATE SYMBOLS

The Flag of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut

The Seal of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut

LIVING INSIGNIA

BIRD American robin

FISH American shad
American shad

FLOWER Mountain laurel

INSECT European mantis

MAMMAL Sperm whale
Sperm whale

TREE Charter Oak , a white oak

INANIMATE INSIGNIA

DANCE Square dance

FOSSIL Dinosaur tracks

MINERAL Garnet
Garnet

MOTTO

* Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet
Latin
Latin
* "He Who Transplanted Still Sustains"

SHELL Eastern oyster

SHIP USS Nautilus (SSN-571) , Freedom Schooner Amistad

SLOGAN Full of Surprises

SONG

* " Yankee Doodle " * "The Nutmeg "

TARTAN Connecticut
Connecticut
State Tartan

STATE ROUTE MARKER

STATE QUARTER

Released in 1999

Lists of United States state symbols

The name "Connecticut" originated with the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river". Connecticut's official nickname is "The Constitution State", adopted in 1959 and based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also unofficially known as "The Nutmeg State," whose origin is unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg, which was a very valuable spice in the 18th and 19th centuries. It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee
Yankee
peddlers from Connecticut
Connecticut
who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington
George Washington
gave Connecticut
Connecticut
the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid that the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".

According to Webster's New International Dictionary (1993), a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut
Connecticut
is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print but not in use, such as "Connecticotian" ( Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather
in 1702) and "Connecticutensian" ( Samuel Peters in 1781). Linguist Allen Walker Read suggests the more playful term "connecticutie". " Nutmegger " is sometimes used, as is " Yankee
Yankee
" The official state song is " Yankee Doodle ". The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
with Connecticut
Connecticut
themes include Nathan Hale , Eugene O\'Neill , Josiah Willard Gibbs , Noah Webster , Eli Whitney , the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan , which is docked at Mystic Seaport , and a decoy of a broadbill duck .

*

The Charter Oak *

The USS Nautilus (SSN-571)

Connecticut
Connecticut
state insignia and historical figures Source Sites, Seals born in New Haven
New Haven
1946 and 1950, respectively. * Glenn Close
Glenn Close
, American actress who is best known for appearing as Alex Forrest in Fatal Attraction , and Cruella de Vil in Disney's live-action remake of the 101 Dalmatians . * Charles Dow
Charles Dow
, founder of The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
and Dow Jones . * Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
, was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. * Katharine Hepburn , named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history. * Seth MacFarlane , a cartoonist, well known for creating Family Guy , American Dad , Cleveland Show , and the TED series . * J.P. Morgan
J.P. Morgan
, financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time. * Jackie Robinson , who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the Civil Rights Movement . * Igor Sikorsky , who created and flew the first practical helicopter. * Harriet Beecher Stowe , whose novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North. * Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
, who holds the record for the most Academy Awards nominations for acting. * Mark Twain
Mark Twain
resided in his innovative Hartford
Hartford
home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910. * Noah Webster was born in Hartford
Hartford
in an area that is now part of West Hartford
Hartford
and was the author of the Blue Backed Speller, now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans. * Eli Whitney , best known for inventing the cotton gin which shaped the economy of the Antebellum South , and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
.

SEE ALSO

* Connecticut
Connecticut
portal * New England
New England
portal

* Index of Connecticut-related articles
Index of Connecticut-related articles
* Outline of Connecticut
Outline of Connecticut
—organized list of topics about Connecticut * National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F "Sites, Seals & Symbols". Secretary of the State. State of Connecticut. August 28, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "Style Manual". U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000. §5.23. Archived from the original on August 31, 2008. * ^ "Connecticutian". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "State Resident\'s Names". eReference Desk. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "General Description and Facts". State of Connecticut. * ^ "2014 Population Estimate". American FactFinder
American FactFinder
. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ Table B-1. Metropolitan Areas – Area and Population (PDF). State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006 (Report). United States Census Bureau . July 2006. * ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017. * ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016. * ^ A B "Highest and Lowest Elevations". Elevations and Distances in the United States. United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
. 2001. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ A B Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 . * ^ "Connecticut". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (November 29, 2005). "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". USA Today
USA Today
. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010. * ^ "Median Household Income". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "US slips down development index". BBC News
BBC News
. July 17, 2008. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. * ^ Trumbull, James Hammond (1881). Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them. Harford, Connecticut: Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company. p. 60. * ^ A B Table 18, Area Measurements: 2010; and Population and Housing Unit Density: 1990 to 2010 (PDF). United States
United States
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