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Coordinates : 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7

STATE OF CONNECTICUT

_

Flag Seal

Nickname(s) :

* The Constitution State (official) * The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State * The Provisions State * The Land of Steady Habits

Motto(s) :

* Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet
_ ( Latin
Latin
) * He who transplanted still sustains

State song(s) : " Yankee Doodle
Yankee Doodle
"

_

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE None

DEMONYM

* Connecticuter * Connecticutian * Nutmegger

Yankee
Yankee

CAPITAL Hartford
Hartford

LARGEST CITY Bridgeport

LARGEST METRO Greater Hartford
Greater Hartford

AREA Ranked 48th

• TOTAL 5,543 sq mi (14,357 km2)

• WIDTH 70 miles (113 km)

• LENGTH 110 miles (177 km)

• % WATER 12.6

• LATITUDE 40°98′ N to 42°04′ N

• LONGITUDE 71°08′ W to 73°72′ W

POPULATION Ranked 29th

• TOTAL 3,576,452 (2016 est.)

• DENSITY 739/sq mi (285/km2) Ranked 4th

• MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $72,889 (4th)

ELEVATION

• HIGHEST POINT Massachusetts
Massachusetts
border on south slope of Mount Frissell 2,379 ft (725 m)

• MEAN 500 ft (150 m)

• LOWEST POINT Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
sea level

BEFORE STATEHOOD Connecticut Colony

ADMISSION TO UNION January 9, 1788 (5th)

GOVERNOR Dannel P. Malloy (D )

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR Nancy Wyman (D )

LEGISLATURE General Assembly

• UPPER HOUSE Senate

• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives

U.S. SENATORS Richard Blumenthal
Richard Blumenthal
(D ) Christopher S. Murphy (D )

U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION 5 Democrats (list )

TIME ZONE Eastern : UTC −5 /−4

ISO 3166 US-CT

ABBREVIATIONS CT , Conn.

WEBSITE www.ct.gov

CONNECTICUT STATE SYMBOLS

_ The Flag of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut

The Seal of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut

LIVING INSIGNIA

BIRD American robin

FISH American shad

FLOWER Mountain laurel

INSECT Praying mantis
Praying mantis

TREE White oak
White oak

INANIMATE INSIGNIA

GEMSTONE Garnet
Garnet

MOTTO Qui Transtulit Sustinet
Qui Transtulit Sustinet
_ (He Who Transplanted Still Sustains.)

SONG " Yankee Doodle
Yankee Doodle
"

STATE ROUTE MARKER

STATE QUARTER

Released in 1999

Lists of United States state symbols

CONNECTICUT (/kəˈnɛtᵻkət/ ( listen )) is the southernmost state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States
United States
. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut
Connecticut
features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(0.962), and median household income in the United States
United States
. Connecticut
Connecticut
is bordered by Rhode Island
Rhode Island
to the east, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island
Island
Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford
Hartford
, and its most populous city is Bridgeport . Although Connecticut
Connecticut
is technically part of New England, it is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area . The state is named for the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
, a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river".

Connecticut
Connecticut
is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous , and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States . It is known as the "Constitution State ", the " Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States . Much of southern and western Connecticut
Connecticut
(along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the New York metropolitan area ; three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the New York City
New York City
combined statistical area , which is widely referred to as the Tri-State area . Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire , New Haven
New Haven
County , which is also located within the Tri-State area.

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch . They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford
Hartford
at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut
Connecticut
rivers called Huys de Goede Hoop . Initially, half of Connecticut
Connecticut
was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland
New Netherland
, which included much of the land between the Connecticut
Connecticut
and Delaware
Delaware
rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker
led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony and founded what became the Connecticut Colony ; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony
Saybrook Colony
and the New Haven Colony
New Haven Colony
. The Connecticut and New Haven
New Haven
Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders , considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter , making Connecticut a crown colony . This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
American Revolution
.

The Connecticut
Connecticut
River, Thames River
River
, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut
Connecticut
a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Climate * 1.2 Flora

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history

* 2.2 Colonial Connecticut
Connecticut

* 2.2.1 The American Revolution
American Revolution

* 2.3 19th century

* 2.3.1 Early National Period and Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
* 2.3.2 Civil War era * 2.3.3 Second Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution

* 2.4 20th century

* 2.4.1 World War I * 2.4.2 Interwar period * 2.4.3 World War II
World War II
* 2.4.4 Post- World War II
World War II
economic expansion * 2.4.5 Late 20th century

* 2.5 Early 21st century

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Population * 3.2 Birth data * 3.3 Religion * 3.4 Largest cities and towns

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Taxation * 4.2 Real estate * 4.3 Industries

* 5 Transportation

* 5.1 Roads * 5.2 Rail * 5.3 Bus
Bus
* 5.4 Air * 5.5 Ferry

* 6 Law and government

* 6.1 Constitutional history * 6.2 Executive * 6.3 Legislative * 6.4 Judicial * 6.5 Local government

* 7 Politics

* 7.1 Registered voters * 7.2 Political office * 7.3 Republican areas * 7.4 Democratic areas * 7.5 Voting

* 8 Education

* 8.1 K–12 * 8.2 Private schools

* 8.3 Colleges and universities

* 8.3.1 Private * 8.3.2 Public universities * 8.3.3 Public community colleges

* 9 Sports

* 9.1 Professional sports

* 9.1.1 Former major league teams * 9.1.2 Other defunct teams

* 9.2 Current professional sports teams

* 9.3 Amateur sports

* 9.3.1 College sports

* 10 Etymology and symbols * 11 Notable people * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geology of Connecticut and Geology of New England

* Landmarks and Cities of Connecticut

*

Bridgeport *

New Haven
New Haven
*

Hartford
Hartford
*

Stamford *

New London *

Willimantic *

Gold Star Bridge and Amtrak Thames River Bridge *

Mount Frissell , the highest point in the state *

Lake
Lake
McDonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail Overlook Spur trail. *

The Connecticut River
Connecticut River
near Connecticut Route 82

Connecticut
Connecticut
is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, on the west by New York , on the north by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and on the east by Rhode Island
Rhode Island
. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford
Hartford
, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport , New Haven
New Haven
, Stamford , Waterbury , Norwalk , Danbury , New Britain , Greenwich , and Bristol . Connecticut
Connecticut
is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro
Montenegro
. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. Map of Connecticut
Connecticut

The highest peak in Connecticut
Connecticut
is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell , whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level.

Connecticut
Connecticut
has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking). The coast of Connecticut
Connecticut
sits on Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, which is an estuary . The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island). This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island
Island
Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.

The Connecticut River
Connecticut River
cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island
Island
Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
Valley . Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills
Litchfield Hills
, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven
New Haven
along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes , beaches , and large scale maritime activities. Further information: List of Connecticut rivers

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
center around a green , such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England
New England
towns, such as a white church , a colonial meeting house , a colonial tavern or inn , several colonial houses , and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick\'s residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half.

The southwestern border of Connecticut
Connecticut
where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County , containing the towns of Greenwich , Stamford , New Canaan , Darien , and parts of Norwalk and Wilton . This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York . Further information: Connecticut panhandle
Connecticut panhandle

Areas maintained by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include Appalachian National Scenic Trail , Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor , and Weir Farm National Historic Site .

* v * t * e

Rivers of Connecticut
Connecticut

CONNECTICUT RIVER WATERSHED

* Blackledge River * Coginchaug River
Coginchaug River
* Connecticut River
Connecticut River
* Duck
Duck
River
River
* Eightmile River * Falls River
River
* Farmington River * Hockanum River
Hockanum River
* Hubbard River * Jeremy River * Lieutenant River * Mattabesset River
Mattabesset River
* Nepaug River * Pameacha Creek * Park River
River
* Pequabuck River * Salmon River
River
* Scantic River

HOUSATONIC RIVER WATERSHED

* East Aspetuck River * Housatonic River
Housatonic River
* Konkapot River * Naugatuck River * Pomperaug River * Rocky River
River
* Schenob Brook * Shepaug River * Still River
River
* Ten Mile River
River

HUDSON RIVER WATERSHED

* Titicus River

LONG ISLAND SOUND

* Ash Creek * Aspetuck River * Black Hall River * Byram River * Farm River
River
* Hammonasset River * Mad River
River
* Mianus River
Mianus River
* Mill River
River
* Mill River
River
(Fairfield) * Mystic River
River
* Niantic River * Noroton River * Norwalk River * Oyster
Oyster
River
River
* Pequonnock River
Pequonnock River
* Quinnipiac River
Quinnipiac River
* Rippowam River * Rooster River * Saugatuck River
Saugatuck River
* Silvermine River * West River
River

PAWCATUCK RIVER WATERSHED

* Ashaway River * Green Fall River * Pawcatuck River * Shunock River * Wood River
River

THAMES RIVER WATERSHED

* Basset Brook * Beaver Brook * Bigelow Brook * Fenton River * Fishers Brook * Five Mile River * French River
River
* Hop River * Little River
River
* Merrick Brook * Moosup River * Mount Hope River * Natchaug River * Oxoboxo River * Pachaug River * Quinebaug River * Shetucket River * Thames River
River
* Willimantic River * Yantic River

* v * t * e

Mountains of Connecticut
Connecticut

HANGING HILLS

* Cathole Mountain
Cathole Mountain
* East Peak * South Mountain * West Peak

METACOMET RIDGE

* Barn Door Hills
Barn Door Hills
* Beacon Hill * Besek Mountain * Bradley Mountain
Bradley Mountain
* Cathole Mountain
Cathole Mountain
* Chauncey Peak
Chauncey Peak
* East Peak * East Rock
East Rock
* Farmington Mountain * Fowler Mountain * Hatchett Hill * Higby Mountain
Higby Mountain
* Lamentation Mountain * Manitook Mountain * Mount Sanford * Peak Mountain
Peak Mountain
* Peck Mountain * Peter\'s Rock * Pinnacle Rock * Pistapaug Mountain * Ragged Mountain * Rattlesnake Mountain * Saltonstall Mountain * Short Mountain * Sleeping Giant * South Mountain * Talcott Mountain
Talcott Mountain
* Totoket Mountain * Trimountain * West Peak * West Suffield Mountain

TACONIC MOUNTAINS

* Bear Mountain * Gridley Mountain * Mount Frissell * Round Mountain

OTHERS

* Burley Hill * Haystack Mountain * Jeremy\'s Back * Snow Hill

* v * t * e

Waterbodies of Connecticut
Connecticut

Canals , Coves , Estuaries , Harbors , and Rivers

* Ash Creek * Connecticut River
Connecticut River
* Enfield Falls Canal
Canal
* Farm River
River
* Farmington Canal
Canal
* Hammonasset River * Housatonic River
Housatonic River
* Kidd Harbor
Harbor
* Little Narragansett Bay * Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
* Mystic River
River
* New Haven
New Haven
Harbor
Harbor
* Niantic River * Oxoboxo River * Oyster
Oyster
River
River
* Pawcatuck River * Quinnipiac River
Quinnipiac River
* Smith Cove
Cove
* Thames River
River
* Wequetequock Cove
Cove
* Wethersfield Cove
Cove
* Ziegler\'s Cove
Cove
* more

LAKES AND PONDS

* Ashford Lake
Lake
* Bantam Lake
Lake
* Burr Pond
Pond
* Converse Lake
Lake
* Crystal Lake
Lake
* Deer Lake
Lake
* Great Hollow Lake
Lake
* Highland Lake
Lake
* Lake
Lake
Chaffee * Lake
Lake
Hayward * Lake
Lake
Pocotopaug * Lake
Lake
Quassapaug * Lake
Lake
Saltonstall * Lake
Lake
Waramaug * Lake
Lake
Whitney * Mashapaug Lake
Lake
* Millers Pond
Pond
* Pinewood Lake
Lake
* Round Pond
Pond
* Squantz Pond
Pond
* Tuxis Pond
Pond
* Twin Lakes * Wetherell Pond
Pond

RESERVOIRS

* Aspetuck Reservoir
Reservoir
* Candlewood Lake
Lake
* Hop Brook Lake
Lake
* Kohanza Reservoir
Reservoir
* Lake
Lake
Beseck * Lake
Lake
Gaillard * Lake
Lake
Lillinonah * Lake
Lake
Zoar * Mansfield Hollow Lake
Lake
* Quaddick Reservoir
Reservoir
* Saugatuck Reservoir
Reservoir
* Shenipsit Lake
Lake
* Success Lake
Lake
* West Hartford
Hartford
Reservoir
Reservoir
* West Thompson Lake
Lake

* v * t * e

Islands and Peninsulas of Connecticut
Connecticut

ISLANDS

* Bear Island
Island
* Calf Island
Island
* Carting Island
Island
* Cedar Island
Island
* Charles Island
Island
* Cut in Two Island
Island
* Cuties Island
Island
* Davis Island
Island
* Duck
Duck
Island
Island
* Elihu Island
Island
* Enders Island
Island
* Falkner Island
Island
* Fayerweather Island
Island
* Fowler Island
Island
* Goat Island
Island
* Goose Island
Island
(Guilford) * Goose Island
Island
(Stratford) * Governor Island
Island
* Grannis Island
Island
* Great Captain Island
Island
* Gull Rock * Haddam Island
Island
* High Island
Island
* Horse Island
Island
* Kidd\'s Island
Island
* Little Pumpkin Island
Island
* Long Island
Island
* Mason\'s Island
Island
* Menunketesuck Island
Island
* Milford Point * Minnie Island
Island
* Money Island
Island
* Mother-in-Law Island
Island
* Nells Island
Island
* North and South Brother Islands * Norwalk Islands * Outer Island
Island
* Peacock Island
Island
* Pope\'s Flat * Pot Island
Island
* Ram Island
Island
* Rogers Island
Island
* Round Rock * Sandy Point Island
Island
* Sherwood Island
Island
* Thimble Islands * Tuxis Island
Island
* Underwood Island
Island
* Wooster Island
Island

PENINSULAS

* City Point * Hay Island
Island
* Lordship * Shippan Point * South End of Stamford

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types in Connecticut
Connecticut
Scenery upon Barndoor Hills
Barndoor Hills
in Granby in autumn Winter in East Haven

Much of Connecticut
Connecticut
has a humid continental climate , with cold winters with moderate snowfall and warm, humid summers. Far southern and coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
has a milder humid temperate climate (also called subtropical in some climate classifications), with hot, humid summers and warmer winters with a mix of rain and infrequent snow. Most of Connecticut
Connecticut
sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine, averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.

Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool to warm, while mid and late spring (May/early June) is warm. By mid June, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning. Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year. During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare.

Fall type weather (cooler days and nights, fewer air masses thundershowers) starts in October and normally lasts to the first days of December. Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50's to 60's F with nights in the 40's and upper 30's F (November). Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in early October and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut
Connecticut
by early November. Far southern and coastal areas however have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples), and are often less colorful than areas to the north. By early December average overnight lows are below freezing across the entire state.

Winters (December through mid March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut. The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton). Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season. Most of Connecticut
Connecticut
has less than 60 days of snow cover. Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid March in the southern and coastal parts of the state.

Connecticut's warmest temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities

CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

BRIDGEPORT 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28

HARTFORD 35/16 39/19 47/27 59/38 70/48 79/57 84/63 82/61 74/51 63/40 52/32 40/22

FLORA

Forests consist of a mix of Northeastern coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests
of Oak in southern areas of the state, to the upland New England-Acadian forests in the northwestern parts of the state. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia ) is the state flower, and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut. Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum ) is also native to eastern uplands of Connecticut
Connecticut
and Pachaug State Forest is home to the Rhododendron Sanctuary Trail. Atlantic white cedar ( Chamaecyparis thyoides ), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state. Connecticut
Connecticut
has one native cactus ( Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides. Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut. . Connecticut
Connecticut
spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5b to 7a. Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated. In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
(southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles , scrub palms ( Sabal minor ), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Connecticut A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies

EARLY HISTORY

The name Connecticut
Connecticut
is derived from anglicized versions of the Algonquian word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river", referring to the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
. The Connecticut
Connecticut
region was inhabited by multiple Indian tribes before European settlement and colonization, including the Mohegans , the Pequots , and the Paugusetts .

COLONIAL CONNECTICUT

The first European explorer in Connecticut
Connecticut
was Dutch explorer Adriaen Block . After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
(then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier, "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch : _Huis van Hoop_).

The Connecticut Colony was originally a number of separate, smaller settlements at present-day Windsor, Wethersfield, Saybrook, Hartford, and New Haven. The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year. John Winthrop the Younger of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
received a commission to create a new colony at Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
in 1635.

The main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. They were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker
, who established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford. The Quinnipiack Colony was established by John Davenport , Theophilus Eaton , and others at present-day New Haven
New Haven
in March 1638. The New Haven Colony
New Haven Colony
had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven
New Haven
Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639.

The settlements were established without official sanction of the English Crown; each was an independent political entity. They naturally were presumptively English but, in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay or expansions from Plymouth Colony. In 1662, Winthrop traveled to England and obtained a charter from Charles II which united the settlements of Connecticut.

Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford
Hartford
(1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646).

The Pequot War marked the first major clash between Colonial settlers and Indians in New England. The Pequots reacted with increasing aggression to Colonial settlements in their territory, while simultaneously taking lands from the Narragansett and Mohegan
Mohegan
tribes. Settlers responded to a murder in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island
Island
; the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then raided Wethersfield in the spring of 1637. Colonists declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and allies from the Mohegan
Mohegan
and Narragansett tribes, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River
River
, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield , the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.

The western boundaries of Connecticut
Connecticut
have been subject to change over time. The Hartford
Hartford
Treaty with the Dutch was signed on September 19, 1650, but it was never ratified by the British. According to it, the western boundary of Connecticut
Connecticut
ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles (32 km), "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) of Hudson River." This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. Conflict continued concerning colonial limits until the Duke of York captured New Netherland
New Netherland
in 1664.

On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea"—that is, the Pacific Ocean. Most Colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut
Connecticut
took its grant seriously and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware
Delaware
Rivers named Westmoreland County . This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
.

Yale College was established in 1701, providing Connecticut
Connecticut
with an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders. The Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony and, by extension, town affairs in many parts.

The American Revolution

A 1799 map of Connecticut
Connecticut
which shows The Oblong
The Oblong
. From Low\'s Encyclopaedia .

Connecticut
Connecticut
designated four delegates to the Second Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence : Samuel Huntington , Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
, William Williams , and Oliver Wolcott
Oliver Wolcott
.

Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments in 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
militia at Lexington and Concord. There were some 1,200 Connecticut
Connecticut
troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
in June 1775.

In 1777, the British got word of Continental Army
Continental Army
supplies in Danbury , and they landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in Westport . This force then marched to Danbury and destroyed homes and much of the depot. Continental Army
Continental Army
troops and militia led by General David Wooster and General Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold
engaged them on their return march at Ridgefield in 1777.

For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington
George Washington
decided to split the Continental Army
Continental Army
into three divisions encircling New York City , where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters. Major General Israel Putnam
Israel Putnam
chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in Danbury and to support any operations along Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
and the Hudson River
Hudson River
Valley. Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at Valley Forge
Valley Forge
, Pennsylvania the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures, and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge".

The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island
Island
orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge , and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General William Tryon raided the Connecticut
Connecticut
coast in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield. New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Benedict Arnold, who had turned traitor to the British.

19TH CENTURY

Early National Period And Industrial Revolution

Connecticut
Connecticut
ratified the U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution
on January 9, 1788, becoming the fifth state. The state prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade and fisheries.

In 1786, Connecticut
Connecticut
ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
. The state retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio
Ohio
called the Connecticut Western Reserve
Connecticut Western Reserve
. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut
Connecticut
place names to Ohio.

Connecticut
Connecticut
made agreements with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York which extinguished her land claims within those states' boundaries and created the Connecticut
Connecticut
Panhandle
Panhandle
. The state then ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government, which brought it to its present boundaries (other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts).

The British blockade during the War of 1812
War of 1812
hurt exports and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war. The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Connecticut
Connecticut
came to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing, due in part to the inventions of Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
and other early innovators of the Industrial Revolution .

The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight . The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster
Noah Webster
, who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the Congregational Church struggled to maintain traditional viewpoints, in alliance with the Federalists. The failure of the Hartford
Hartford
Convention in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Republican Party gaining control in 1817.

Connecticut
Connecticut
had been governed under the "Fundamental Orders " since 1639, but the state adopted a new constitution in 1818.

Civil War Era

Main article: Connecticut in the American Civil War View of New London in 1854

Connecticut
Connecticut
manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War . The state furnished 55,000 men, formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. Colored Troops , with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2,100 men, and Glastonbury native Gideon Welles
Gideon Welles
was Secretary of the Navy. James H. Ward of Hartford
Hartford
was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War. Connecticut
Connecticut
casualties included 2,088 killed in combat, 2,801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.

A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However, as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a pro-slavery position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.

Second Industrial Revolution

1895 map from Rand McNally
Rand McNally

Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles (164 km) of line were in operation, growing to 402 miles (647 km) in 1850 and 601 miles (967 km) in 1860.

The New York, New Haven
New Haven
and Hartford
Hartford
Railroad , called the _New Haven_ or "The Consolidated", became the dominant Connecticut
Connecticut
railroad company after 1872. J. P. Morgan
J. P. Morgan
began financing the major New England railroads in the 1890s, dividing territory so that they would not compete. The New Haven
New Haven
purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven
New Haven
operated over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track with 120,000 employees.

In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.

20TH CENTURY

World War I

When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut
Connecticut
became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort. Remington Arms
Remington Arms
in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army, with other major suppliers including Winchester in New Haven and Colt in Hartford.

Connecticut
Connecticut
was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines, Lake
Lake
Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs, and the Groton Iron Works building freighters. On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.

The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds, a further expansion of industry, and an emphasis on increasing food production on the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort and were coordinated by the Connecticut
Connecticut
State Council of Defense. Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; Waterbury's American Brass and Manufacturing Company was running at half capacity, so the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to work there.

Interwar Period

In 1919, J. Henry Roraback started the Connecticut
Connecticut
Light & Power Co. which became the state's dominant electric utility. In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt the company became an important military supplier in World War II
World War II
and one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.

On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people. The eye of the "Long Island
Island
Express" passed just west of New Haven
New Haven
and devastated the Connecticut
Connecticut
shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington from the full force of wind and waves, even though they had partial protection by Long Island. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
to flood downtown Hartford
Hartford
and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.

World War II

The advent of Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut
Connecticut
from the Great Depression, with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in World War II
World War II
. Connecticut
Connecticut
manufactured 4.1 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states, with major factories including Colt for firearms, Pratt his son George H.W. Bush and grandson George W. Bush
George W. Bush
both became Presidents of the United States. In 1965, Connecticut
Connecticut
ratified its current constitution , replacing the document that had served since 1818.

In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut
Connecticut
Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in East Haddam ; in 1970, the Millstone Nuclear Power Station began operations in Waterford . In 1974, Connecticut elected Democratic Governor Ella T. Grasso , who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor.

Late 20th Century

Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War
Cold War
. The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy was a state income tax which proved effective in balancing the budget, but only for the short-term. He did not run for a second term, in part because of this politically unpopular move.

In 1992, initial construction was completed on Foxwoods Casino at the Mashantucket Pequots reservation in eastern Connecticut, which became the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun
followed four years later.

EARLY 21ST CENTURY

In 2000, presidential candidate Al Gore
Al Gore
chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his running mate, marking the first time that a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith. Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
in the Electoral College. In the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 , 65 state residents were killed, mostly Fairfield County residents who were working in the World Trade Center . In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland
John G. Rowland
resigned during a corruption investigation, later pleading guilty to federal charges. Connecticut
Connecticut
was hit by three major storms in just over 14 months in 2011 and 2012, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene
Hurricane Irene
struck Connecticut
Connecticut
August 28, and damage totaled $235 million. Two months later, the "Halloween nor\'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees, resulting in snapped branches and trunks that damaged power lines; some areas were without electricity for 11 days. Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut
Connecticut
October 29, 2012. Sandy's winds drove storm surges into streets and cut power to 98 percent of homes and businesses, with more than $360 million in damage.

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown , and then killed himself. The massacre spurred renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.

In the summer and fall of 2016, Connecticut
Connecticut
experienced a drought in many parts of the state, causing some water-use bans. As of November 15, 2016 (2016-11-15), 45% of the state was listed at Severe Drought by the US Drought Monitor, including almost all of Hartford
Hartford
and Litchfield counties. All the rest of the state was in Moderate Drought or Severe Drought, including Middlesex , Fairfield , New London , New Haven , Windham , and Tolland counties. This affected the agricultural economy in the state.

* The 21st century in Connecticut
Connecticut
in photos

*

Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
was born in Connecticut, winner in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections. *

9/11 killed 65 people living in Connecticut. *

Governor John G. Rowland
John G. Rowland
was arrested for corruption in 2004. *

Tropical Storm Irene made landfall in Connecticut
Connecticut
in August 2011. *

The 2011 October nor\'easter caused major snow damage in the state. *

Category
Category
1 Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
made landfall in Connecticut
Connecticut
in October 2012, causing heavy destruction . *

In the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
, Adam Lanza killed 20 children and 6 adults. *

The 2016 Connecticut
Connecticut
Drought affected the agricultural market around the state, causing water limitations to be applied on some towns.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 237,946

1800 251,002

5.5%

1810 261,942

4.4%

1820 275,248

5.1%

1830 297,675

8.1%

1840 309,978

4.1%

1850 370,792

19.6%

1860 460,147

24.1%

1870 537,454

16.8%

1880 622,700

15.9%

1890 746,258

19.8%

1900 908,420

21.7%

1910 1,114,756

22.7%

1920 1,380,631

23.9%

1930 1,606,903

16.4%

1940 1,709,242

6.4%

1950 2,007,280

17.4%

1960 2,535,234

26.3%

1970 3,031,709

19.6%

1980 3,107,576

2.5%

1990 3,287,116

5.8%

2000 3,405,565

3.6%

2010 3,574,097

4.9%

EST. 2016 3,576,452

0.1%

SOURCES:

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Connecticut
Connecticut
was 3,590,886 on July 1, 2015, a 0.47% increase since the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
.

As of 2015, Connecticut
Connecticut
had an estimated population of 3,590,886, which is an decrease of 5,791, or -0.16%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,789, or 0.47%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut
Connecticut
moved from the 29th most populous state to 30th. 2016 estimates put Connecticut's population at 3,576,452.

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut
Connecticut
was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, only 12.3% was considered rural. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast ) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state and has high property costs and high incomes. The center of population of Connecticut
Connecticut
is located in the town of Cheshire . Connecticut Population Density Map

POPULATION

As of the 2010 U.S. Census
2010 U.S. Census
, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:

* 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
, 6.4% White Hispanic
White Hispanic
) * 10.1% Black or African American
African American
* 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native
Alaska Native
* 3.8% Asian * 0.0% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
* 5.6% from some other race * 2.6% Two or more races

In the same year Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population.

The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.

CONNECTICUT RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 87.0% 81.6% 77.6%

Black 8.3% 9.1% 10.1%

Asian 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
– – -

Other race 2.9% 4.3% 5.6%

Two or more races – 2.2% 2.6%

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans
Americans
had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut
Connecticut
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.

The largest European ancestry groups are:

* 19.3% Italian * 17.9% Irish * 10.7% English * 10.4% German * 8.6% Polish * 6.6% French * 3.0% French Canadian
French Canadian
* 2.7% American * 2.0% Scottish * 1.4% Scotch Irish

Main Street, Newtown

Connecticut
Connecticut
has large Italian American
Italian American
, Irish American
Irish American
and English American populations, as well as German American and Polish American populations, with the Italian American
Italian American
population having the second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county. Connecticut
Connecticut
has the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans of any state. African Americans
Americans
and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans ) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also known for its relatively large Hungarian American population, the majority of which live in and around Fairfield , Stamford , Naugatuck
Naugatuck
and Bridgeport . Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American
Polish American
population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish American
Polish American
population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from Jamaica
Jamaica
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Haiti
Haiti
, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
, Mexico
Mexico
, India
India
, Philippines , Laos
Laos
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Thailand
Thailand
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Brazil
Brazil
, Panama
Panama
, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
and former Soviet countries.

BIRTH DATA

As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010

_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White : 28,454 (78.8%) 28,543 (78.7%) 28,164 (78.8%)

Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
20,704 (57.4%) 20,933 (57.7%) 20,395 (57.1%)

Black 5,103 (14.1%) 5,154 (14.2%) 4,988 (14.0%)

Asian 2,221 (6.2%) 2,280 (6.3%) 2,497 (7.0%)

Native 307 (0.9%) 308 (0.8%) 97 (0.3%)

_Hispanic _ (of any race) _8,208 (22.7%)_ _8,129 (22.4%)_ _8,275 (23.1%)_

TOTAL CONNECTICUT 36,085 (100%) 36,285 (100%) 35,746 (100%)

RELIGION

The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut
Connecticut
as of 2014:

* Christian : 70%

* Mainline Protestant
Mainline Protestant
: 17%

* Evangelical Protestant : 13%

* Baptist : 5% * Presbyterian : Lime Rock —a home of the American Le Mans tournament

CURRENT PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS

TEAM SPORT LEAGUE

Bridgeport Sound Tigers
Bridgeport Sound Tigers
Ice hockey
Ice hockey
American Hockey League
American Hockey League

Hartford
Hartford
Wolf Pack Ice hockey American Hockey League

Danbury Titans Ice hockey Federal Hockey League

Connecticut
Connecticut
Whale Ice Hockey National Women\'s Hockey League

Hartford
Hartford
Yard Goats Baseball Eastern League (AA)

Connecticut Tigers
Connecticut Tigers
Baseball New York–Penn League
New York–Penn League
(A)

Bridgeport Bluefish
Bridgeport Bluefish
Baseball Atlantic League

New Britain Bees Baseball Atlantic League

Connecticut Sun
Connecticut Sun
Basketball Women\'s National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association

Connecticut Wildcats Rugby league
Rugby league
USA Rugby League
USA Rugby League

AC Connecticut Soccer Premier Development League
Premier Development League

New England
New England
Black Wolves Lacrosse National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League

AMATEUR SPORTS

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.

College Sports

Yale Bowl
Yale Bowl
during "The Game " between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the NFL
NFL
's New York Giants
New York Giants
in 1973–74.

The Connecticut Huskies
Connecticut Huskies
, often called "UConn", play NCAA Division I sports and are popular in the state. Both the men\'s basketball and women\'s basketball teams have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. In 2014, UConn repeated its feat of being the only school in NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
to win men's and women's basketball tournaments in the same year. The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 111 games, a streak that ended in 2017. The UConn Huskies football team has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since.

New Haven
New Haven
biennially hosts "The Game " between the Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
and the Harvard Crimson
Harvard Crimson
, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum Walter Camp
Walter Camp
, deemed the "Father of American Football", helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.

Other Connecticut
Connecticut
universities which feature Division I sports teams are Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University
, Fairfield University
Fairfield University
, Central Connecticut State University , Sacred Heart University
Sacred Heart University
, and the University of Hartford
Hartford
.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYMBOLS

CONNECTICUT STATE SYMBOLS

_ The Flag of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut

The Seal of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut

LIVING INSIGNIA

BIRD American robin

FISH American shad

FLOWER Mountain laurel

INSECT European mantis

MAMMAL Sperm whale
Sperm whale

TREE Charter Oak , a white oak

INANIMATE INSIGNIA

DANCE Square dance
Square dance

FOSSIL Dinosaur tracks

MINERAL Garnet
Garnet

MOTTO

* Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet
_ Latin
Latin
* "He Who Transplanted Still Sustains"

SHELL Eastern oyster
Eastern oyster

SHIP USS _Nautilus_ (SSN-571) , _Freedom Schooner Amistad_

SLOGAN _Full of Surprises_

SONG

* " Yankee Doodle
Yankee Doodle
" * "The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
"

TARTAN Connecticut
Connecticut
State Tartan

STATE ROUTE MARKER

STATE QUARTER

Released in 1999

Lists of United States state symbols

The name "Connecticut" originated with the Mohegan
Mohegan
word _quonehtacut_, meaning "place of long tidal river". Connecticut's official nickname is "The Constitution State", adopted in 1959 and based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also unofficially known as "The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State," whose origin is unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg, which was a very valuable spice in the 18th and 19th centuries. It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut
Connecticut
peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee
Yankee
peddlers from Connecticut
Connecticut
who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington gave Connecticut
Connecticut
the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid that the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut
Connecticut
is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits". _ The Charter Oak The USS Nautilus_ (SSN-571)

According to Webster's New International Dictionary (1993), a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut
Connecticut
is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print but not in use, such as "Connecticotian" ( Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather
in 1702) and "Connecticutensian" ( Samuel Peters in 1781). Linguist Allen Walker Read suggests the more playful term "connecticutie." " Nutmegger " is sometimes used, as is " Yankee
Yankee
." The official state song is " Yankee Doodle
Yankee Doodle
"), though this usually refers to someone from the wider New England
New England
region. (In the Southern United States, the term "Yankee" refers to anyone who lives north of the Mason–Dixon line
Mason–Dixon line
.) The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
with Connecticut
Connecticut
themes include Nathan Hale , Eugene O\'Neill , Josiah Willard Gibbs , Noah Webster
Noah Webster
, Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked at Mystic Seaport , and a decoy of a broadbill duck .

Connecticut
Connecticut
state insignia and historical figures Source Sites, Seals born in New Haven
New Haven
1946 and 1950, respectively. * Charles Dow
Charles Dow
, founder of _ The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
_ and Dow Jones . * Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
, named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history. * J.P. Morgan
J.P. Morgan
, financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time. * Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
, who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
. * Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
, who created and flew the first practical helicopter. * Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
, whose novel _Uncle Tom's Cabin_ (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North. * Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
, who holds the record for the most Academy Awards nominations for acting. * Mark Twain
Mark Twain
resided in his innovative Hartford
Hartford
home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published _The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ and _The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910. * Noah Webster
Noah Webster
was born in Hartford
Hartford
in an area that is now part of West Hartford
Hartford
and was the author of the _Blue Backed Speller_, now known as _Webster's Dictionary_. The _Speller_ was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans. * Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
, best known for inventing the cotton gin which shaped the economy of the Antebellum South
Antebellum South
, and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. * Glenn Close
Glenn Close
, American actress who is best known for appearing as Alex Forrest in Fatal Attraction
Fatal Attraction
, and Cruella de Vil in Disney's live-action remake of the 101 Dalmatians . * Seth MacFarlane
Seth MacFarlane
, a cartoonist, well known for creating Family Guy , American Dad , Cleveland Show , and the TED series . * Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
, was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

SEE ALSO

* Connecticut
Connecticut
portal * New England
New England
portal

* Index of Connecticut-related articles * Outline of Connecticut —organized list of topics about Connecticut * National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut
National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Sites, Seals & Symbols". _Secretary of the State_. State of Connecticut. August 28, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "Style Manual". U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000. §5.23. Archived from the original on August 31, 2008. * ^ "Connecticutian". _Merriam-Webster Online_. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "State Resident\'s Names". _eReference Desk_. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "General Description and Facts". State of Connecticut. * ^ "2014 Population Estimate". _ American FactFinder
American FactFinder
_. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ Table B-1. Metropolitan Areas – Area and Population (PDF). _State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006_ (Report). United States Census Bureau . July 2006. * ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017. * ^ "Median Annual Household Income". _The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation_. Retrieved December 9, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Highest and Lowest Elevations". _Elevations and Distances in the United States_. United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
. 2001. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 . * ^ "Connecticut". _Dictionary.com_. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (November 29, 2005). "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". _ USA Today
USA Today
_. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010. * ^ "Median Household Income". _American FactFinder_. U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015. * ^ "US slips down development index". _ BBC News
BBC News
_. July 17, 2008. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. * ^ Trumbull, James Hammond (1881). _Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them_. Harford, Connecticut: Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company. p. 60. * ^ _A_ _B_ Table 18, Area Measurements: 2010; and Population and Housing Unit Density: 1990 to 2010 (PDF). _ United States
United States
Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts_ (Report). United States Census Bureau. September 2012. p. 41. Retrieved May 16, 2014. * ^ Table 19, Population by Urban and Rural and Type of Urban Area: 2010 (PDF). _ United States
United States
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Biography". _Biography.com_. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ " Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Biography". _Biography.com_. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ "Harriet Beecher Stowe\'s Life". _Harriet Beecher Stowe Center_. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ "Meryl Streep, Oscars\' Stars and Other Celebs in Connecticut (We Map Them)". _ Connecticut
Connecticut
Magazine_. February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ "Samuel Clemens and the Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Library". Mark Twain Library. Retrieved September 15, 2011. * ^ " Noah Webster
Noah Webster
Biography". _Biography.com_. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ " Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
Biography". _Biography.com_. Retrieved May 18, 2014. * ^ Writers, Biography.com (April 2, 2014). "Glenn Close Biography". _The Biography.com website_. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved September 23, 2016. * ^ "Seth MacFarlane". _IMDb_. Retrieved October 1, 2016. * ^ "J. Willard Gibbs". _APS Physics_. Retrieved July 9, 2017.

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