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The Info List - Congaree National Park


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Congaree National Park, in central South Carolina, is a 26,276-acre (41.06 sq mi; 10,633.52 ha; 106.34 km2) United States national park. It received its official designation in 2003 as the culmination of a grassroots campaign launched in 1969. The park preserves the largest tract of old growth bottomland hardwood forest left in the United States. The lush trees growing in its floodplain forest are some of the tallest in the Eastern United States, forming one of the highest temperate deciduous forest canopies remaining in the world. The Congaree River
Congaree River
flows through the park. About 57 percent (15,000 acres or 61 square kilometers) of the park is designated wilderness area.

Contents

1 Park history

1.1 Pre-park 1.2 Monument establishment 1.3 Converting to National Park

2 Environment 3 Amenities and attractions 4 Geology 5 Documentary 6 References 7 External links

Park history[edit] Pre-park[edit] Resource extraction on the Congaree River
Congaree River
centered on cypress logging from 1898, when the Santee River Cypress Logging Company began to operate in the area of what is now the park. Owned by Francis Beidler and Benjamin F. Ferguson of Chicago, the company operated until 1914; subsequently, Beidler and his heirs retained ownership of the area. In the 1950s Harry R.E. Hampton was a member of the Cedar Creek Hunt Club and co-editor of The State.[3] Hampton joined with Peter Manigault at the Charleston The Post and Courier
The Post and Courier
to advocate preservation of the Congaree floodplain. Hampton formed the Beidler Forest Preservation Association in 1961. As a result of this advocacy a 1963 study by the National Park Service
National Park Service
reported favorably on the establishment of a national monument.[4] Monument establishment[edit] No progress was made in the 1960s. Renewed logging by the Beidlers in 1969 prompted the 1972 formation of the Congaree Swamp National Preserve Association (CSNPA). The CSNPA joined forces with the Sierra Club and other conservation organizations to promote federal legislation to preserve the tract. South Carolina
South Carolina
Senators Strom Thurmond and Ernest F. Hollings
Ernest F. Hollings
introduced legislation in 1975 for the establishment of a national preserve. On October 18, 1976 legislation was passed to create Congaree Swamp National Monument. An expansion plan was introduced by Hollings and Thurmond in 1988, expanding the monument to 22,200 acres (9,000 ha).[4] Converting to National Park[edit] Over two-thirds of the national monument was designated a wilderness area on October 24, 1988, and it became an Important Bird Area
Important Bird Area
on July 26, 2001. Congress redesignated the monument Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park
on November 10, 2003, dropping the inappropriate "swamp" from the name, and simultaneously expanded its authorized boundary by approximately 4,576 acres (1,852 ha). As of December 31, 2011, approximately 26,021 acres (10,530 ha) of the park are in Federal ownership.[1][4] Environment[edit]

Old growth
Old growth
forest

The park preserves a significant part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion.[5] Although it is frequently referred to as a swamp, it is largely bottomland subject to periodic inundation by floodwaters.[1] It has been designated an old growth forest. The park also has one of the largest concentrations of champion trees in the world, with the tallest known examples of 15 species. Champion trees include a 167-foot (51 m) 361-point loblolly pine, a 157-foot (48 m) 384-point sweetgum, a 154-foot (47 m) 465-point cherrybark oak, a 135-foot (41 m) 354-point American elm, a 133-foot (41 m) 356-point swamp chestnut oak, a 131-foot (40 m) 371-point overcup oak, and a 127-foot (39 m) 219-point common persimmon.[6][7] Large animals possibly seen in the park include bobcats, deer, feral pigs, feral dogs, coyotes, armadillos, turkeys, and otters. Its waters contain interesting creatures like amphibians, turtles, snakes, and many types of fish, including bowfin, alligator gar, and catfish.[8] Amenities and attractions[edit]

Kayakers paddle on Cedar Creek

In addition to being a designated Wilderness Area, an International Biosphere Reserve, a Globally Important Bird Area
Important Bird Area
and a National Natural Landmark, Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park
features primitive campsites and offers hiking, canoeing, kayaking, and bird watching. Primitive and backcountry camping are available. Some of the hiking trails include the Bluff Trail (0.7 mi), Weston Lake Loop Trail (4.6 mi), Oakridge Trail (7.5 mi), and King Snake Trail (11.1 mi) where hikers may spot deer, raccoon, opossum, and even bobcat tracks. The National Park Service
National Park Service
rangers have current trail conditions which can be found in the Harry Hampton Visitor Center. Along with hiking trails, the park also has a 20-mile (32 km) marked canoe trail on Cedar Creek. Most visitors to the park walk along the Boardwalk Loop, an elevated 2.4-mile (3.9 km) walkway through the swampy environment that protects delicate fungi and plant life at ground level. Congaree boasts both the tallest (169 ft, 51.4m) and largest (42 cubic meters) Loblolly Pines (Pinus taeda) alive today as well as several Cypress Trees well over 500 years old. The Harry Hampton Visitor Center features exhibits about the natural history of the park, and the efforts to protect the swamp. There is also an orientation film. There are monthly volunteer-led hikes on some of the longer trails to give visitors an opportunity to get off the boardwalk and up close to nature. Geology[edit]

Geologic map
Geologic map
of the park

Park geologic cross section

The park resides entirely within the Congaree River
Congaree River
Floodplain
Floodplain
Complex with flood deposits of sand, silt, and clay. Muck and peat are the products of vegetation decay. The meander of the river has produced distinctive oxbow lakes. North of the park is the NE-SW regional trending Augusta Fault and the Terrace Complex consisting of Pliocene fluvial terraces. South of the park is the Southern Bluffs, which have been eroding since the Late Pleistocene. West of the park is the Fall Line and Piedmont.[9] Documentary[edit] In 2008, South Carolina
South Carolina
Educational Television (SCETV) produced a documentary on the history of the Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park
titled Roots in the River: The Story of Congaree National Park. The documentary featured interviews with people involved in the movement that eventually led to the area's U.S. National Monument status, and observed the role the park plays in the surrounding community of the Lower Richland County area of South Carolina. The program first aired on the SCETV network in September 2009. References[edit]

Notes

^ a b c "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-06.  ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved February 23, 2018.  ^ Arning, David R. (September 7, 2005). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Woodlands" (PDF). National Park Service.  ^ a b c Almlie, Elizabeth J. (2011). "A Place of Nature and Culture: The Founding of Congaree National Park, South Carolina" (PDF). Federal History Journal (3). Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ Olson, D. M, E. Dinerstein; et al. (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience. 51 (11): 933–938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original on 2011-10-14. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Bronaugh, Whit (Summer 2009). "Congaree: Where The Trees Are Still Tall". American Forests.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park
Big Trees!" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ http://www.wildlifesouth.com/Locations/SouthCarolina/Congaree.html ^ Graham, J.P. (2014). Congaree National Park: Geologic resources inventory report. Fort Collins: US Dept. of the Interior National Park Service. pp. 1–48. 

Sources

The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior. https://web.archive.org/web/20110722135216/http://www.scetv.org/index.php/press/release/etv_to_broadcast_new_carolina_stories_documentary_roots_in_the_river

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCongaree National Parkat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Official site: Congaree National Park Friends of Congaree Swamp Wilderness.net page on the park Panoramic photo of the exhibits in the Harry Hampton Visitor Center Article about the Congaree Swamp and efforts to protect it Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park
Hiking[permanent dead link]

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National parks of the United States

Acadia American Samoa Arches Badlands Big Bend Biscayne Black Canyon of the Gunnison Bryce Canyon Canyonlands Capitol Reef Carlsbad Caverns Channel Islands Congaree Crater Lake Cuyahoga Valley Death Valley Denali Dry Tortugas Everglades Gates of the Arctic Gateway Arch Glacier Glacier Bay Grand Canyon Grand Teton Great Basin Great Sand
Sand
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List of national parks of the United States
United States
(by elevation)

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Protected areas of South Carolina

Federal

National Parks

Congaree

National Historic Sites and Monuments

Charles Pinckney NHS Fort Sumter NM Ninety Six NHS Reconstruction Era NM

National Military Parks and Battlefields

Cowpens NB Kings Mountain NMP

National Historic Trail

Overmountain Victory

National Forests

Francis Marion Sumter

National Wildlife Refuges

Cape Romain Carolina Sandhills Ernest F. Hollings
Ernest F. Hollings
ACE Basin Pinckney Island Santee Savannah Tybee Waccamaw

National Estuarine Research Reserves

Ashepoo Combahee Edisto Basin North Inlet-Winyah Bay

Wilderness Areas

Cape Romain Congaree Ellicott Rock Hell Hole Bay Little Wambaw Swamp Wambaw Creek Wambaw Swamp

Wild and Scenic River

Chattooga River

State

State Parks

Aiken Andrew Jackson Baker Creek Barnwell Caesars Head Calhoun Falls Cheraw Chester Colleton Croft Devils Fork Dreher Island Edisto Beach Givhans Ferry Goodale H. Cooper Black Jr. Memorial Field Trial and Recreation Area Hamilton Branch Hickory Knob Hunting Island Huntington Beach Jones Gap Keowee-Toxaway Kings Mountain Lake Greenwood Lake Hartwell Lake Warren Lake Wateree Landsford Canal Lee Little Pee Dee Myrtle Beach Oconee Paris Mountain Poinsett Sadlers Creek Santee Sesquicentennial Table Rock Woods Bay

State Historic Sites

Charles Towne Landing Colonial Dorchester Hampton Plantation Musgrove Mill Oconee Station Redcliffe Plantation Rivers Bridge Rose Hill Plantation

State Forests

Harbison Manchester Poe Creek Sand
Sand
Hills Wee Tee

Wildlife Management Areas

Bear Island Belfast Bonneau Ferry Campbell's Crossroads Crackerneck Donnelley Draper Edisto River Fant's Grove Gray Court Hickory Top James Ross Jim Timmerman Keowee Lewis Ocean Bay Heritage Preserve Mason McBee McConnells Tract Palachucola Pee Dee Samworth Santee-Delta St. Helena Sound Thurmond Turkey Creek Turtle Island Webb Woodbury Worth Mountain

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Ramsar sites in the United States

Ramsar Sites

Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge Bolinas Lagoon Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Caddo Lake Cape May National Wildlife Refuge Catahoula Lake Chesapeake Bay Cheyenne Bottoms Congaree National Park Connecticut River Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary Delaware Bay Dixon Waterfowl Refuge Emiquon National Wildlife Refuge Everglades National Park Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge Francis Beidler Forest Grasslands Wildlife Management Area Heron Pond – Little Black Slough Nature Preserve Horicon Marsh Humbug Marsh Izembek National Wildlife Refuge Kakagon Sloughs Kawai Nui Marsh Laguna de Santa Rosa Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Olentangy River Wetland Research Park Palmyra Atoll Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge Quivira National Wildlife Refuge San Francisco Bay Sand
Sand
Lake National Wildlife Refuge Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve Tomales Bay Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge White River Nation

.