New Text Confucianism
Confucianism by country
Confucianism in Indonesia
Doctrine of the Mean
Classic of Poetry
Book of Documents
Book of Rites
Spring and Autumn Annals
Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind
Confucian ritual religion
Temple of Confucius
Confucian churches and sects:
Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue
"ru school of thought"
Confucius of Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu. This is a wénmiào
(文庙), that is to say a temple where
Confucius is worshipped as
Wéndì (文帝), "
God of Culture".
Gates of the wénmiào of Datong, Shanxi.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a
philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way
of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucianism developed from
what was later called the
Hundred Schools of Thought
Hundred Schools of Thought from the
teachings of the Chinese philosopher
Confucius (551–479 BCE), who
considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and
values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600 BCE–1046 BCE) and Zhou
dynasty (c. 1046 BCE–256 BCE). In the
Han dynasty (206
Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist"
Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both
with the realist techniques of Legalism.
Confucian revival began during the
Tang dynasty (618–907). In the
Confucianism developed in response to
Buddhism and Taoism
and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was
adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of
the scholar official class in the
Song dynasty (960–1297). The
abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official
Confucianism. The intellectuals of the
New Culture Movement
New Culture Movement of the
early twentieth century blamed
Confucianism for China's weaknesses.
They searched for new doctrines to replace
Confucian teachings; some
of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People"
with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then
the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century
Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian
With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social
harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values,
the core of
Confucianism is humanistic. According to Herbert
Fingarette's conceptualisation of
Confucianism as a religion which
regards "the secular as sacred",
Confucianism transcends the
dichotomy between religion and humanism, considering the ordinary
activities of human life—and especially human relationships—as a
manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of
humanity's moral nature (xìng 性), which has a transcendent
anchorage in Heaven (Tiān 天) and unfolds through an appropriate
respect for the spirits or gods (shén) of the world. While Tiān
has some characteristics that overlap the category of godhead, it is
primarily an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào (道) or the
Confucianism focuses on the practical order that is given by
a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān.
Confucian liturgy (called
儒 rú, or sometimes 正統/正统 zhèngtǒng, meaning "orthoprax")
Confucian priests or "sages of rites" (禮生/礼生 lǐshēng)
to worship the gods in public and ancestral Chinese temples is
preferred on certain occasions, by
Confucian religious groups and for
civil religious rites, over Taoist or popular ritual.
The thisworldly concern of
Confucianism rests upon the belief that
human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and
perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially
self-cultivation and self-creation.
Confucian thought focuses on the
cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world. Some of the basic
Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, and lǐ,
and zhì. Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") is the essence of
the human being which manifests as compassion. It is the virtue-form
of Heaven. Yì (義/义) is the upholding of righteousness and the
moral disposition to do good. Lǐ (禮/礼) is a system of ritual
norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act
in everyday life in harmony with the law of Heaven. Zhì (智) is the
ability to see what is right and fair, or the converse, in the
behaviors exhibited by others.
Confucianism holds one in contempt,
either passively or actively, for failure to uphold the cardinal moral
values of rén and yì.
Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural
sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland
China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as
various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as
Singapore. In the 20th century Confucianism's influence diminished
greatly. In the last decades there have been talks of a "Confucian
Revival" in the academic and the scholarly community and there
has been a grassroots proliferation of various types of Confucian
churches. In late 2015 many
Confucian personalities formally
established a national
Holy Confucian Church
Holy Confucian Church (孔聖會/孔圣会
China to unify the many
and civil society organisations.
1.1 Five Classics (五经, Wǔjīng) and the
2.1 Theory and theology
2.1.1 Tiān and the gods
2.2 Social morality and ethics
Rite and centring
2.2.4 Filial piety
2.5 Rectification of names
4 Organisation and liturgy
7.1 In 17th-century Europe
7.2 On Islamic thought
7.3 In modern times
7.4 On Chinese martial arts
8.1 Women in
9 Catholic controversy over Chinese rites
10 See also
14 Translations of texts attributed to Confucius
Analects (Lun Yu)
15 External links
Olden versions of the grapheme 儒 rú, meaning "scholar", "refined
one", "Confucian". It is composed of 人 rén ("man") and 需 xū ("to
await"), itself composed of 雨 yǔ ("rain", "instruction") and 而
ér ("sky"), graphically a "man under the rain". Its full meaning is
"man receiving instruction from Heaven". According to Kang Youwei, Hu
Shih, and Yao Xinzhong, they were the official shaman-priests (wu)
experts in rites and astronomy of the Shang, and later Zhou,
Strictly speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly
corresponds to "Confucianism". In the Chinese language, the character
rú 儒 meaning "scholar" or "learned" or "refined man" is generally
used both in the past and the present to refer to things related to
Confucianism. The character rú in ancient
China had diverse meanings.
Some examples include "to tame", "to mould", "to educate", "to
refine".:190–197 Several different terms, some of which with
modern origin, are used in different situations to express different
facets of Confucianism, including:
Chinese: 儒家; pinyin: Rújiā — "ru school of thought";
Chinese: 儒教; pinyin: Rújiào — "ru religion" in the sense of
traditional Chinese: 儒學; simplified Chinese: 儒学; pinyin:
Rúxué — "Ruology" or "ru learning";
Chinese: 孔教; pinyin: Kǒngjiào — "Confucius' doctrine";
Chinese: 孔家店; pinyin: Kǒngjiādiàn — "Kong family's
business", a pejorative phrase used in the
New Culture Movement
New Culture Movement and
the Cultural Revolution.
Three of them use rú. These names do not use the name "Confucius" at
all, but instead focus on the ideal of the
Confucian man. The use of
the term "Confucianism" has been avoided by some modern scholars, who
favor "Ruism" and "Ruists" instead. Robert Eno argues that the term
has been "burdened... with the ambiguities and irrelevant traditional
associations". Ruism, as he states, is more faithful to the original
Chinese name for the school.:7
According to Zhou Youguang, 儒 rú originally referred to shamanic
methods of holding rites and existed before Confucius' times, but with
Confucius it came to mean devotion to propagating such teachings to
bring civilisation to the people.
Confucianism was initiated by
Confucius, developed by
Mencius (~372–289 BCE) and inherited by
later generations, undergoing constant transformations and
restructuring since its establishment, but preserving the principles
of humaneness and righteousness at its core.
Five Classics (五经, Wǔjīng) and the
Confucius in a fresco from a
Western Han tomb in Dongping, Shandong.
Confucius was thought to be the author or editor of the
Five Classics which were the basic texts of Confucianism. The scholar
Yao Xinzhong allows that there are good reasons to believe that
Confucian classics took shape in the hands of Confucius, but that
"nothing can be taken for granted in the matter of the early versions
of the classics". Professor Yao says that perhaps most scholars today
hold the "pragmatic" view that
Confucius and his followers, although
they did not intend to create a system of classics, "contributed to
their formation". In any case, it is undisputed that for most of the
last 2,000 years,
Confucius was believed to have either written or
edited these texts. 
Tu Weiming explains these classics as embodying “five
visions" which underlie the development of Confucianism:
I Ching or
Classic of Change
Classic of Change or
Book of Changes, generally held to be
the earliest of the classics, shows a metaphysical vision which
combines divinatory art with numerological technique and ethical
insight; philosophy of change sees cosmos as interaction between the
two energies yin and yang, universe always shows organismic unity and
Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry or
Book of Songs is the earliest anthology of
Chinese poems and songs. It shows the poetic vision in the belief that
poetry and music convey common human feelings and mutual
Book of Documents
Book of Documents or
Book of History Compilation of speeches of major
figures and records of events in ancient times embodies the political
vision and addresses the kingly way in terms of the ethical foundation
for humane government. The documents show the sagacity, filial piety,
and work ethic of Yao, Shun, and Yu. They established a political
culture which was based on responsibility and trust. Their virtue
formed a covenant of social harmony which did not depend on punishment
Book of Rites
Book of Rites describes the social forms, administration, and
ceremonial rites of the Zhou Dynasty. This social vision defined
society not as an adversarial system based on contractual relations
but as a community of trust based on social responsibility. The four
functional occupations are cooperative (farmer, scholar, artisan,
Spring and Autumn Annals
Spring and Autumn Annals chronicles the period to which it gives its
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period (771–476 BCE) and these events
emphasise the significance of collective memory for communal
self-identification, for reanimating the old is the best way to attain
Theory and theology
Zhou dynasty oracular version of the grapheme for Tiān, representing
a man with a head informed by the north celestial pole.
Confucianism revolves around the pursuit of the unity of the
individual self and the
God of Heaven (Tiān 天), or, otherwise said,
around the relationship between humanity and Heaven. The
principle of Heaven (Lǐ 理 or Dào 道), is the order of the
creation and the source of divine authority, monistic in its
structure. Individuals may realise their humanity and become one
with Heaven through the contemplation of such order. This
transformation of the self may be extended to the family and society
to create a harmonious fiduciary community. Joël Thoraval studied
Confucianism as a diffused civil religion in contemporary China,
finding that it expresses itself in the widespread worship of five
cosmological entities: Heaven and Earth (Di 地), the sovereign or the
government (jūn 君), ancestors (qīn 親) and masters (shī
Heaven is not some being pre-existing the temporal world. According to
the scholar Stephan Feuchtwang, in Chinese cosmology, which is not
Confucian but shared by all Chinese religions, "the universe
creates itself out of a primary chaos of material energy" (hundun
混沌 and qi 氣), organising through the polarity of yin and yang
which characterises any thing and life. Creation is therefore a
continuous ordering; it is not a creation ex nihilo.
Yin and yang
Yin and yang are
the invisible and visible, the receptive and the active, the unshaped
and the shaped; they characterise the yearly cycle (winter and
summer), the landscape (shady and bright), the sexes (female and
male), and even sociopolitical history (disorder and order).
Confucianism is concerned with finding "middle ways" between yin and
yang at every new configuration of the world.
Confucianism conciliates both the inner and outer polarities of
spiritual cultivation, that is to say self-cultivation and world
redemption, synthesised in the ideal of "sageliness within and
kingliness without". Rén, translated as "humaneness" or the
essence proper of a human being, is the character of compassionate
mind; it is the virtue endowed by Heaven and at the same time the
means by which man may achieve oneness with Heaven comprehending his
own origin in Heaven and therefore divine essence. In the Dàtóng
shū (《大同書/大同书》) it is defined as "to form one body
with all things" and "when the self and others are not separated ...
compassion is aroused".
Tiān and the gods
Like other symbols such as the swastika, wàn 卍 ("all things")
in Chinese, the Mesopotamian 𒀭 Dingir/An ("Heaven"), and also
the Chinese 巫 wū ("shaman"; in Shang script represented by the
cross potent ☩), Tiān refers to the northern celestial pole
(北極 Běijí), the pivot and the vault of the sky with its spinning
constellations. Here is an approximate representation of the
Tiānmén 天門 ("Gate of Heaven") or Tiānshū 天樞 ("Pivot of
Heaven") as the precessional north celestial pole, with α Ursae
Minoris as the pole star, with the spinning Chariot constellations in
the four phases of time. According to Reza Assasi's theories, the wan
may not only be centred in the current precessional pole at α Ursae
Minoris, but also very near to the north ecliptic pole if Draco
(Tiānlóng 天龙) is conceived as one of its two beams.[note 1]
Main article: Tian
Tiān (天), a key concept in Chinese thought, refers to the
Heaven, the northern culmen of the skies and its spinning stars,
earthly nature and its laws which come from Heaven, to "Heaven and
Earth" (that is, "all things"), and to the awe-inspiring forces beyond
human control. There are such a number of uses in Chinese thought
that it is not possible to give one translation into English.
Confucius used the term in a mystical way. He wrote in the
Analects (7.23) that
Tian gave him life, and that
Tian watched and
judged (6.28; 9.12). In 9.5
Confucius says that a person may know the
movements of the Tian, and this provides with the sense of having a
special place in the universe. In 17.19
Confucius says that
to him, though not in words. The scholar Ronnie Littlejohn warns that
Tian has not to be interpreted as personal
God comparable to that of
the Abrahamic faiths, in the sense of an otherworldly or transcendent
creator. Rather it is similar to what
Taoists meant by Dao: "the
way things are" or "the regularities of the world", which Stephan
Feuchtwang equates with the ancient Greek concept of physis, "nature"
as the generation and regenerations of things and of the moral
Tian may also be compared to the
Brahman of Hindu and Vedic
traditions. The scholar Promise Hsu, in the wake of Robert B.
Louden, explained 17:19 ("What does
Tian ever say? Yet there are four
seasons going round and there are the hundred things coming into
being. What does
Tian say?") as implying that even though
Tian is not
a "speaking person", it constantly "does" through the rhythms of
nature, and communicates "how human beings ought to live and act", at
least to those who have learnt to carefully listen to it.
Zigong, a disciple of Confucius, said that
Tian had set the master on
the path to become a wise man (9.6). In 7.23
Confucius says that he
has no doubt left that the
Tian gave him life, and from it he had
developed right virtue (德 dé). In 8.19 he says that the lives of
the sages are interwoven with Tian.
Regarding personal gods (shén, energies who emanate from and
reproduce the Tian) enliving nature, in the
that it is appropriate (義/义 yì) for people to worship (敬 jìng)
them, though through proper rites (禮/礼 lǐ), implying respect
of positions and discretion.
Confucius himself was a ritual and
sacrificial master. Answering to a disciple who asked whether it
is better to sacrifice to the god of the stove or to the god of the
family (a popular saying), in 3.13
Confucius says that in order to
appropriately pray gods one should first know and respect Heaven. In
3.12 he explains that religious rituals produce meaningful
experiences, and one has to offer sacrifices in person, acting in
presence, otherwise "it is the same as not having sacrificed at all".
Rites and sacrifices to the gods have an ethical importance: they
generate good life, because taking part in them leads to the
overcoming of the self.
Analects 10.11 tells that
took a small part of his food and placed it on the sacrificial bowls
as an offering to his ancestors.
Other movements, such as
Mohism which was later absorbed by Taoism,
developed a more theistic idea of Heaven. Feuchtwang explains that
the difference between
Taoism primarily lies in the
fact that the former focuses on the realisation of the starry order of
Heaven in human society, while the latter on the contemplation of the
Dao which spontaneously arises in nature.
Social morality and ethics
Worship at the Great Temple of Lord Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng
Huī gōng dàdiàn), the cathedral ancestral shrine of the Zhang
lineage corporation, at their ancestral home in Qinghe, Hebei.
Ancestral temple of the
Zeng lineage and Houxian village cultural
centre, Cangnan, Zhejiang.
As explained by Stephan Feuchtwang, the order coming from Heaven
preserves the world, and has to be followed by humanity finding a
"middle way" between yin and yang forces in each new configuration of
reality. Social harmony or morality is identified as patriarchy, which
is expressed in the worship of ancestors and deified progenitors in
the male line, at ancestral shrines.
Confucian ethical codes are described as humanistic. They may be
practiced by all the members of a society.
Confucian ethics is
characterised by the promotion of virtues, encompassed by the Five
Constants, Wǔcháng (五常) in Chinese, elaborated by Confucian
scholars out of the inherited tradition during the Han dynasty.
The Five Constants are:
Rén (仁, benevolence, humaneness);
Yì (義/义, righteousness or justice);
Lǐ (禮/礼, proper rite);
Zhì (智, knowledge);
Xìn (信, integrity).
These are accompanied by the classical Sìzì (四字), that singles
out four virtues, one of which is included among the Five Constants:
Zhōng (忠, loyalty);
Xiào (孝, filial piety);
Jié (節/节, contingency);
Yì (義/义, righteousness).
There are still many other elements, such as chéng (誠/诚,
honesty), shù (恕, kindness and forgiveness), lián (廉, honesty
and cleanness), chǐ (恥/耻, shame, judge and sense of right and
wrong), yǒng (勇, bravery), wēn (溫/温, kind and gentle), liáng
(良, good, kindhearted), gōng (恭, respectful, reverent), jiǎn
(儉/俭, frugal), ràng (讓/让, modestly, self-effacing).
Main article: Ren (Confucianism)
Rén (Chinese: 仁) is the
Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling
a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic. It is exemplified
by a normal adult's protective feelings for children. It is considered
the essence of the human being, endowed by Heaven, and at the same
time the means by which man may act according to the principle of
Heaven (天理, Tiān lǐ) and become one with it.
Yán Huí, Confucius's most outstanding student, once asked his master
to describe the rules of rén and
Confucius replied, "one should see
nothing improper, hear nothing improper, say nothing improper, do
Confucius also defined rén in the following
way: "wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish
others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge
Another meaning of rén is "not to do to others as you would not wish
done to yourself."
Confucius also said, "rén is not far off; he
who seeks it has already found it." Rén is close to man and never
Rite and centring
Confucius in Dujiangyan, Chengdu, Sichuan.
Confucian rite in Jeju.
Main article: Li (Confucianism)
Li (禮/礼) is a classical Chinese word which finds its most
extensive use in
Confucian and post-
Confucian Chinese philosophy. Li
is variously translated as "rite" or "reason," "ratio" in the pure
sense of Vedic ṛta ("right," "order") when referring to the cosmic
law, but when referring to its realisation in the context of human
social behaviour it has also been translated as "customs", "measures"
and "rules", among other terms. Li also means religious rites which
establish relations between humanity and the gods.
According to Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes
the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the
underlying order of nature. Correctly performed rituals move society
in alignment with earthly and heavenly (astral) forces, establishing
the harmony of the three realms—Heaven, Earth and humanity. This
practice is defined as "centring" (央 yāng or 中 zhōng). Among all
things of creation, humans themselves are "central" because they have
the ability to cultivate and centre natural forces.
Li embodies the entire web of interaction between humanity, human
objects, and nature.
Confucius includes in his discussions of li such
diverse topics as learning, tea drinking, titles, mourning, and
governance. Xunzi cites "songs and laughter, weeping and
lamentation... rice and millet, fish and meat... the wearing of
ceremonial caps, embroidered robes, and patterned silks, or of fasting
clothes and mourning clothes... spacious rooms and secluded halls,
soft mats, couches and benches" as vital parts of the fabric of li.
Confucius envisioned proper government being guided by the principles
of li. Some Confucians proposed that all human beings may pursue
perfection by learning and practising li. Overall, Confucians believe
that governments should place more emphasis on li and rely much less
on penal punishment when they govern.
Loyalty (Chinese: 忠, zhōng) is particularly relevant for the social
class to which most of Confucius' students belonged, because the most
important way for an ambitious young scholar to become a prominent
official was to enter a ruler's civil service.
Confucius himself did not propose that "might makes right," but rather
that a superior should be obeyed because of his moral rectitude. In
addition, loyalty does not mean subservience to authority. This is
because reciprocity is demanded from the superior as well. As
Confucius stated "a prince should employ his minister according to the
rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with
Mencius also said that "when the prince regards his
ministers as his hands and feet, his ministers regard their prince as
their belly and heart; when he regards them as his dogs and horses,
they regard him as another man; when he regards them as the ground or
as grass, they regard him as a robber and an enemy." Moreover,
Mencius indicated that if the ruler is incompetent, he should be
replaced. If the ruler is evil, then the people have the right to
overthrow him. A good
Confucian is also expected to remonstrate
with his superiors when necessary. At the same time, a proper
Confucian ruler should also accept his ministers' advice, as this will
help him govern the realm better.
In later ages, however, emphasis was often placed more on the
obligations of the ruled to the ruler, and less on the ruler's
obligations to the ruled. Like filial piety, loyalty was often
subverted by the autocratic regimes in China. Nonetheless, throughout
the ages, many Confucians continued to fight against unrighteous
superiors and rulers. Many of these Confucians suffered and sometimes
died because of their conviction and action. During the Ming-Qing
era, prominent Confucians such as
Wang Yangming promoted individuality
and independent thinking as a counterweight to subservience to
authority. The famous thinker
Huang Zongxi also strongly
criticised the autocratic nature of the imperial system and wanted to
keep imperial power in check.
Many Confucians also realised that loyalty and filial piety have the
potential of coming into conflict with one another. This may be true
especially in times of social chaos, such as during the period of the
Fourteenth of The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars
Main article: Filial piety
Confucian philosophy, filial piety (Chinese: 孝, xiào) is a
virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors, and of the
hierarchies within society: father–son, elder–junior and
Confucian classic Xiaojing ("
Book of Piety"),
thought to be written around the Qin-Han period, has historically been
the authoritative source on the
Confucian tenet of xiào. The book, a
Confucius and his student
Zeng Shen (曾參, also
Zengzi 曾子), is about how to set up a good society using
the principle of xiào.
In more general terms, filial piety means to be good to one's parents;
to take care of one's parents; to engage in good conduct not just
towards parents but also outside the home so as to bring a good name
to one's parents and ancestors; to perform the duties of one's job
well so as to obtain the material means to support parents as well as
carry out sacrifices to the ancestors; not be rebellious; show love,
respect and support; display courtesy; ensure male heirs, uphold
fraternity among brothers; wisely advise one's parents, including
dissuading them from moral unrighteousness, for blindly following the
parents' wishes is not considered to be xiao; display sorrow for their
sickness and death; and carry out sacrifices after their death.
Filial piety is considered a key virtue in Chinese culture, and it is
the main concern of a large number of stories. One of the most famous
collections of such stories is "The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars"
(Ershi-si xiao 二十四孝). These stories depict how children
exercised their filial piety in the past. While
China has always had a
diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost
all of them; historian Hugh D.R. Baker calls respect for the family
the only element common to almost all Chinese believers.
Social harmony results in part from every individual knowing his or
her place in the natural order, and playing his or her part well.
Reciprocity or responsibility (renqing) extends beyond filial piety
and involves the entire network of social relations, even the respect
for rulers. When Duke Jing of Qi asked about government, by which
he meant proper administration so as to bring social harmony,
There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is
minister; when the father is father, and the son is son. (Analects
XII, 11, tr. Legge)
Particular duties arise from one's particular situation in relation to
others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different
relationships with different people: as a junior in relation to
parents and elders, and as a senior in relation to younger siblings,
students, and others. While juniors are considered in
owe their seniors reverence, seniors also have duties of benevolence
and concern toward juniors. The same is true with the husband and wife
relationship where the husband needs to show benevolence towards his
wife and the wife needs to respect the husband in return. This theme
of mutuality still exists in East Asian cultures even to this day.
The Five Bonds are: ruler to ruled, father to son, husband to wife,
elder brother to younger brother, friend to friend. Specific duties
were prescribed to each of the participants in these sets of
relationships. Such duties are also extended to the dead, where the
living stand as sons to their deceased family. The only relationship
where respect for elders isn't stressed was the friend to friend
relationship, where mutual equal respect is emphasised instead. All
these duties take the practical form of prescribed rituals, for
instance wedding and death rituals.
Main article: Junzi
The junzi (Chinese: 君子, jūnzǐ, "lord's son") is a Chinese
philosophical term often translated as "gentleman" or "superior
person" and employed by
Confucius in his works to describe the
ideal man. In the
I Ching it is used by the Duke of Wen.
In Confucianism, the sage or wise is the ideal personality; however,
it is very hard to become one of them.
Confucius created the model of
junzi, gentleman, which may be achieved by any individual. Later, Zhu
Xi defined junzi as second only to the sage. There are many
characteristics of the junzi: he may live in poverty, he does more and
speaks less, he is loyal, obedient and knowledgeable. The junzi
disciplines himself. Ren is fundamental to become a junzi.
As the potential leader of a nation, a son of the ruler is raised to
have a superior ethical and moral position while gaining inner peace
through his virtue. To Confucius, the junzi sustained the functions of
government and social stratification through his ethical values.
Despite its literal meaning, any righteous man willing to improve
himself may become a junzi.
On the contrary, the xiaoren (小人, xiăorén, "small or petty
person") does not grasp the value of virtues and seeks only immediate
gains. The petty person is egotistic and does not consider the
consequences of his action in the overall scheme of things. Should the
ruler be surrounded by xiaoren as opposed to junzi, his governance and
his people will suffer due to their small-mindness. Examples of such
xiaoren individuals may range from those who continually indulge in
sensual and emotional pleasures all day to the politician who is
interested merely in power and fame; neither sincerely aims for the
long-term benefit of others.
The junzi enforces his rule over his subjects by acting virtuously
himself. It is thought that his pure virtue would lead others to
follow his example. The ultimate goal is that the government behaves
much like a family, the junzi being a beacon of filial piety.
Rectification of names
Priest paying homage to Confucius' tablet, c. 1900.
Main article: Rectification of names
Confucius believed that social disorder often stemmed from failure to
perceive, understand, and deal with reality. Fundamentally, then,
social disorder may stem from the failure to call things by their
proper names, and his solution to this was zhèngmíng (Chinese:
正名; pinyin: zhèngmíng; literally: "rectification of terms"). He
gave an explanation of zhengming to one of his disciples.
Zi-lu said, "The vassal of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with
you to administer the government. What will you consider the first
thing to be done?"
The Master replied, "What is necessary to rectify names."
"So! indeed!" said Zi-lu. "You are wide off the mark! Why must there
be such rectification?"
The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! The superior man
[Junzi] cannot care about the everything, just as he cannot go to
check all himself!
If names be not
correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things.
If language be not in
accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to
When affairs cannot be
carried on to success, proprieties and music do not flourish.
When proprieties and
music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded.
When punishments are
not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.
Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses
may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be
carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that
in his words there may be nothing incorrect."
Analects XIII, 3, tr. Legge)
Xun Zi chapter (22) "On the Rectification of Names" claims the ancient
sage-kings chose names (Chinese: 名; pinyin: míng) that directly
corresponded with actualities (Chinese: 實; pinyin: shí), but later
generations confused terminology, coined new nomenclature, and thus
could no longer distinguish right from wrong. Since social harmony is
of utmost importance, without the proper rectification of names,
society would essentially crumble and "undertakings [would] not [be]
The dragon is one of the oldest symbols of Chinese religious culture.
It symbolises the supreme godhead, Di or Tian, at the north ecliptic
pole, around which it coils itself as the homonymous constellation. It
is a symbol of the "protean" supreme power which has in itself both
yin and yang.
Birth places of notable Chinese philosophers of the Hundred Schools of
Thought in Zhou dynasty. Confucians are marked by triangles in dark
See also: History of religion in China
According to He Guanghu,
Confucianism may be identified as a
continuation of the Shang-Zhou (~1600 BCE–256 BCE) official
religion, or the Chinese aboriginal religion which has lasted
uninterrupted for three thousand years. Both the dynasties
worshipped the supreme godhead, called
Shangdi (上帝 "Highest
Deity") or simply Dì (帝) by the Shang and
Tian (天 "Heaven") by
Shangdi was conceived as the first ancestor of the Shang
royal house, an alternate name for him being the "Supreme
Progenitor" (上甲 Shàngjiǎ). In Shang theology, the
multiplicity of gods of nature and ancestors were viewed as parts of
Di, and the four 方 fāng ("directions" or "sides") and their 風
fēng ("winds") as his cosmic will. With the Zhou dynasty, which
overthrew the Shang, the name for the supreme godhead became
"Heaven"). While the Shang identified
Shangdi as their
ancestor-god to assert their claim to power by divine right, the Zhou
transformed this claim into a legitimacy based on moral power, the
Mandate of Heaven. In Zhou theology,
Tian had no singular earthly
progeny, but bestowed divine favour on virtuous rulers. Zhou kings
declared that their victory over the Shang was because they were
virtuous and loved their people, while the Shang were tyrants and thus
were deprived of power by Tian.
John C. Didier and David Pankenier relate the shapes of both the
Chinese characters for Di and
Tian to the patterns of stars in
the northern skies, either drawn, in Didier's theory by connecting the
constellations bracketing the north celestial pole as a square, or
in Pankenier's theory by connecting some of the stars which form the
constellations of the
Big Dipper and broader Ursa Major, and Ursa
Minor (Little Dipper). Cultures in other parts of the world have
also conceived these stars or constellations as symbols of the origin
of things, the supreme godhead, divinity and royal power. The
supreme godhead was also identified with the dragon, symbol of
unlimited power (qi), of the "protean" primordial power which
embodies both yin and yang in unity, associated to the constellation
Draco which winds around the north ecliptic pole, and slithers
between the Little and Big Dipper.
By the 6th century BCE the power of
Tian and the symbols that
represented it on earth (architecture of cities, temples, altars and
ritual cauldrons, and the Zhou ritual system) became "diffuse" and
claimed by different potentates in the Zhou states to legitimise
economic, political, and military ambitions. Divine right no longer
was an exclusive privilege of the Zhou royal house, but might be
bought by anyone able to afford the elaborate ceremonies and the old
and new rites required to access the authority of Tian.
Besides the waning Zhou ritual system, what may be defined as "wild"
(野 yě) traditions, or traditions "outside of the official system",
developed as attempts to access the will of Tian. The population had
lost faith in the official tradition, which was no longer perceived as
an effective way to communicate with Heaven. The traditions of the
九野 ("Nine Fields") and of the
Yijing flourished. Chinese
thinkers, faced with this challenge to legitimacy, diverged in a
"Hundred Schools of Thought", each proposing its own theories for the
reconstruction of the Zhou moral order.
Confucius (551–479 BCE) appeared in this period of political
decadence and spiritual questioning. He was educated in Shang-Zhou
theology, which he contributed to transmit and reformulate giving
centrality to self-cultivation and agency of humans, and the
educational power of the self-established individual in assisting
others to establish themselves (the principle of 愛人 àirén,
"loving others"). As the Zhou reign collapsed, traditional values
were abandoned resulting in a period of moral decline.
an opportunity to reinforce values of compassion and tradition into
society. Disillusioned with the widespread vulgarisation of the
rituals to access Tian, he began to preach an ethical interpretation
of traditional Zhou religion. In his view, the power of
immanent, and responds positively to the sincere heart driven by
humaneness and rightness, decency and altruism.
these qualities as the foundation needed to restore socio-political
harmony. Like many contemporaries,
Confucius saw ritual practices as
efficacious ways to access Tian, but he thought that the crucial knot
was the state of meditation that participants enter prior to engage in
the ritual acts.
Confucius amended and recodified the classical
books inherited from the Xia-Shang-Zhou dynasties, and composed the
Spring and Autumn Annals.
Philosophers in the Warring States period, both "inside the square"
(focused on state-endorsed ritual) and "outside the square"
(non-aligned to state ritual) built upon Confucius' legacy, compiled
in the Analects, and formulated the classical metaphysics that became
the lash of Confucianism. In accordance with the Master, they
identified mental tranquility as the state of Tian, or the One (一
Yī), which in each individual is the Heaven-bestowed divine power to
rule one's own life and the world. Going beyond the Master, they
theorised the oneness of production and reabsorption into the cosmic
source, and the possibility to understand and therefore reattain it
through meditation. This line of thought would have influenced all
Chinese individual and collective-political mystical theories and
Organisation and liturgy
Confucian churches, Lineage churches, and Temple
Confucian ritual religion
Confucian ritual religion and Holy
A Temple of the
God of Culture (文庙 wénmiào) in Liuzhou, Guangxi,
Confucius is worshiped as Wéndì (文帝), "
God of Culture."
Temple of the Filial Blessing (孝佑宫 Xiàoyòugōng), an ancestral
temple of a lineage church, in Wenzhou, Zhejiang.
Since the 2000s, there has been a growing identification of the
Chinese intellectual class with Confucianism. In 2003, the
Confucian intellectual Kang Xiaoguang published a manifesto in which
he made four suggestions:
Confucian education should enter official
education at any level, from elementary to high school; the state
Confucianism as the state religion by law; Confucian
religion should enter the daily life of ordinary people through
standardisation and development of doctrines, rituals, organisations,
churches and activity sites; the
Confucian religion should be spread
through non-governmental organisations. Another modern proponent
of the institutionalisation of
Confucianism in a state church is Jiang
In 2005, the Center for the Study of
established, and guoxue started to be implemented in public
schools on all levels. Being well received by the population, even
Confucian preachers have appeared on television since 2006. The
most enthusiastic New Confucians proclaim the uniqueness and
Confucian Chinese culture, and have generated some
popular sentiment against Western cultural influences in China.
The idea of a "
Confucian Church" as the state religion of
roots in the thought of Kang Youwei, an exponent of the early New
Confucian search for a regeneration of the social relevance of
Confucianism, at a time when it was de-institutionalised with the
collapse of the
Qing dynasty and the Chinese empire. Kang modeled
his ideal "
Confucian Church" after European national Christian
churches, as a hierarchic and centralised institution, closely bound
to the state, with local church branches, devoted to the worship and
the spread of the teachings of Confucius.
In contemporary China, the
Confucian revival has developed into
various interwoven directions: the proliferation of
or academies (shuyuan 书院), the resurgence of
(chuántǒng lǐyí 传统礼仪), and the birth of new forms of
Confucian activity on the popular level, such as the Confucian
communities (shèqū rúxué 社区儒学). Some scholars also
consider the reconstruction of lineage churches and their ancestral
temples, as well as cults and temples of natural and national gods
within broader Chinese traditional religion, as part of the renewal of
Other forms of revival are salvationist folk religious movements
groups with a specifically
Confucian focus, or
Confucian churches, for
example the Yidan xuetang (一耽学堂) of Beijing, the
Mengmutang (孟母堂) of Shanghai,
(儒宗神教 Rúzōng Shénjiào) or the phoenix churches, the
Confucian Fellowship (儒教道坛 Rújiào Dàotán) in northern
Fujian which has spread rapidly over the years after its
foundation, and ancestral temples of the Kong kin (the lineage of
the descendants of
Confucius himself) operating as Confucian-teaching
Confucian Academy, one of the direct heirs of Kang
Confucian Church, has expanded its activities to the
mainland, with the construction of statues of Confucius, Confucian
hospitals, restoration of temples and other activities. In 2009,
Zhou Beichen founded another institution which inherits the idea of
Confucian Church, the Holy Hall of
Kǒngshèngtáng) in Shenzhen, affiliated with the Federation of
Confucian Culture of
Qufu City. It was the first of a
nationwide movement of congregations and civil organisations that was
unified in 2015 in the
Holy Confucian Church
Holy Confucian Church (孔圣会
Kǒngshènghuì). The first spiritual leader of the Holy Church is the
renowned scholar Jiang Qing, the founder and manager of the Yangming
Confucian Abode (阳明精舍 Yángmíng jīngshě), a Confucian
academy in Guiyang, Guizhou.
Chinese folk religious temples and kinship ancestral shrines may, on
peculiar occasions, choose
Confucian liturgy (called 儒 rú or 正统
zhèngtǒng, "orthoprax") led by
Confucian ritual masters (礼生
lǐshēng) to worship the gods, instead of Taoist or popular
Confucian businessmen" (儒商人 rúshāngrén, also
"refined businessman") is a recently rediscovered concept defining
people of the economic-entrepreneurial elite who recognise their
social responsibility and therefore apply
Confucian culture to their
Yushima Seidō in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan.
To govern by virtue, let us compare it to the North Star: it stays in
its place, while the myriad stars wait upon it. (
Confucian concept is that in order to govern others one must
first govern oneself according to the universal order. When actual,
the king's personal virtue (de) spreads beneficent influence
throughout the kingdom. This idea is developed further in the Great
Learning, and is tightly linked with the Taoist concept of wu wei
(simplified Chinese: 无为; traditional Chinese: 無為; pinyin: wú
wéi): the less the king does, the more gets done. By being the "calm
center" around which the kingdom turns, the king allows everything to
function smoothly and avoids having to tamper with the individual
parts of the whole.
This idea may be traced back to the ancient shamanic beliefs of the
king being the axle between the sky, human beings, and the Earth. The
China were considered agents of Heaven, endowed with the
Mandate of Heaven. They hold the power to define the hierarchy of
divinities, by bestowing titles upon mountains, rivers and dead
people, acknowledging them as powerful and therefore establishing
In teaching, there should be no distinction of classes. (Analects
Confucius claimed that he never invented anything but was
only transmitting ancient knowledge (
Analects 7.1), he did produce a
number of new ideas. Many European and American admirers such as
H. G. Creel point to the revolutionary idea of replacing
nobility of blood with nobility of virtue. Jūnzǐ (君子, lit.
"lord's child"), which originally signified the younger,
non-inheriting, offspring of a noble, became, in Confucius' work, an
epithet having much the same meaning and evolution as the English
A virtuous commoner who cultivates his qualities may be a "gentleman",
while a shameless son of the king is only a "small man." That he
admitted students of different classes as disciples is a clear
demonstration that he fought against the feudal structures that
defined pre-imperial Chinese society.
Another new idea, that of meritocracy, led to the introduction of the
imperial examination system in China. This system allowed anyone who
passed an examination to become a government officer, a position which
would bring wealth and honour to the whole family. The Chinese
imperial examination system started in the Sui dynasty. Over the
following centuries the system grew until finally almost anyone who
wished to become an official had to prove his worth by passing written
government examinations. The practice of meritocracy still exists
today in the Chinese cultural sphere, including China, Taiwan,
Singapore and so forth.
In 17th-century Europe
"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687
The works of
Confucius were translated into European languages through
the agency of
Jesuit scholars stationed in China.[note 2] Matteo Ricci
was among the very earliest to report on the thoughts of Confucius,
Prospero Intorcetta wrote about the life and works of
Latin in 1687.
Confucian texts influenced European thinkers of the
period, particularly among the
Deists and other philosophical
groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of
the system of morality of
Confucius into Western civilisation.
Confucianism influenced Gottfried Leibniz, who was attracted to the
philosophy because of its perceived similarity to his own. It is
postulated that certain elements of Leibniz's philosophy, such as
"simple substance" and "preestablished harmony," were borrowed from
his interactions with Confucianism. The French philosopher
Voltaire was also influenced by Confucius, seeing the concept of
Confucian rationalism as an alternative to Christian dogma. He
Confucian ethics and politics, portraying the sociopolitical
China as a model for Europe.
Confucius has no interest in falsehood; he did not pretend to be
prophet; he claimed no inspiration; he taught no new religion; he used
no delusions; flattered not the emperor under whom he lived...
On Islamic thought
From the late 17th century onwards a whole body of literature known as
Han Kitab developed amongst the Hui Muslims of
China who infused
Islamic thought with Confucianism. Especially the works of Liu Zhi
such as Tiānfāng Diǎnlǐ（天方典禮）sought to harmonise Islam
with not only
Confucianism but also with
Daoism and is considered to
be one of the crowning achievements of the Chinese Islamic
In modern times
Important military and political figures in modern Chinese history
continued to be influenced by Confucianism, like the Muslim warlord Ma
New Life Movement
New Life Movement in the early 20th century was also
influenced by Confucianism.
Referred to variously as the
Confucian hypothesis and as a debated
component of the more all-encompassing Asian Development Model, there
exists among political scientists and economists a theory that
Confucianism plays a large latent role in the ostensibly non-Confucian
cultures of modern-day East Asia, in the form of the rigorous work
ethic it endowed those cultures with. These scholars have held that,
if not for Confucianism's influence on these cultures, many of the
people of the
East Asia region would not have been able to modernise
and industrialise as quickly as Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong,
South Korea and even
China has done.
For example, the impact of the
Vietnam War on Vietnam was devastating,
however over the last few decades Vietnam has been re-developing in a
very fast pace. Most scholars attribute the origins of this idea to
futurologist Herman Kahn's World Economic Development: 1979 and
Other studies, for example Cristobal Kay's Why
East Asia Overtook
Latin America: Agrarian Reform, Industrialization, and Development,
have attributed the Asian growth to other factors, for example the
character of agrarian reforms, "state-craft" (state capacity), and
interaction between agriculture and industry.
On Chinese martial arts
Confucianism had become the official 'state religion' in China,
its influence penetrated all walks of life and all streams of thought
in Chinese society for the generations to come. This did not exclude
martial arts culture. Though in his own day,
Confucius had rejected
the practice of Martial Arts (with the exception of Archery), he did
serve under rulers who used military power extensively to achieve
their goals. In later centuries,
Confucianism heavily influenced many
educated martial artists of great influence, such as Sun Lutang,
especially from the 19th century onwards, when empty-handed martial
China became more widespread and had begun to more readily
absorb philosophical influences from Confucianism,
Daoism. Some argue therefore that despite Confucius' disdain with
martial culture, his teachings became of much relevance to it.
Confucianism were opposed or criticised from the start,
including Laozi's philosophy and Mozi's critique, and Legalists such
Han Fei ridiculed the idea that virtue would lead people to be
orderly. In modern times, waves of opposition and vilification showed
that Confucianism, instead of taking credit for the glories of Chinese
civilisation, now had to take blame for its failures. The Taiping
Confucianism sages as well as gods in
Buddhism as devils. In the New Culture Movement,
Lu Xun criticised
Confucianism for shaping Chinese people into the condition they had
reached by the late Qing Dynasty: his criticisms are dramatically
portrayed in "A Madman's Diary," which implies that
was cannibalistic. Leftists during the
Cultural Revolution described
Confucius as the representative of the class of slave owners.
In South Korea, there has long been criticism. Some South Koreans
Confucianism has not contributed to the modernisation of South
Korea. For example, South Korean writer Kim Kyong-il wrote an
essay[when?] entitled "
Confucius Must Die For the Nation to Live"
(공자가 죽어야 나라가 산다, gongjaga jug-eoya naraga
sanda). Kim said that filial piety is one-sided and blind, and if it
continues social problems will continue as government keeps forcing
Confucian filial obligations onto families.
See also: Women in ancient and imperial China
Confucianism "largely defined the mainstream discourse on gender in
China from the
Han dynasty onward." The gender roles prescribed in
Three Obediences and Four Virtues became a cornerstone of the
family, and thus, societal stability. Starting from the Han period,
Confucians began to teach that a virtuous woman was supposed to follow
the males in her family: the father before her marriage, the husband
after she marries, and her sons in widowhood. In the later dynasties,
more emphasis was placed on the virtue of chastity. The Song dynasty
Confucian Cheng Yi stated that: "To starve to death is a small matter,
but to lose one's chastity is a great matter." Chaste widows were
revered and memorialised during the Ming and Qing periods. This "cult
of chastity" accordingly condemned many widows to poverty and
loneliness by placing a social stigma on remarriage.
Western scholars until the mid-1990s accepted the view of Confucianism
as a sexist, patriarchal ideology. It has also been argued by some
Chinese and Western writers that the rise of neo-
Song dynasty had led to a decline of status of women.
Some critics have also accused the prominent Song neo-Confucian
Zhu Xi for believing in the inferiority of women and that men
and women need to be kept strictly separate. Finally, scholars
have also discussed the attitudes toward women in Confuican texts such
as Analects, where it has suggested that certain groups of women may
be comparable to xiaoren (小人, literally "small people", meaning
people of low status or low moral) who are difficult to cultivate or
Further analysis suggests, however, that women's place in Confucian
society may be more complex. During the
Han dynasty period, the
Lessons for Women (Nüjie), was written by
Ban Zhao (45–114 CE) to instruct her daughters how to be proper
Confucian wives and mothers, that is, to be silent, hard-working, and
compliant. She stresses the complementarity and equal importance of
the male and female roles according to yin-yang theory, but she
clearly accepts the dominance of the male. However, she does present
education and literary power as important for women. In later
dynasties, a number of women took advantage of the Confucian
acknowledgment of education to become independent in thought.
Indeed, as Joseph A. Adler points out, "Neo-
Confucian writings do not
necessarily reflect either the prevailing social practices or the
scholars' own attitudes and practices in regard to actual women."
Matthew Sommers has also indicated that the
Qing dynasty government
began to realise the utopian nature of enforcing the "cult of
chastity" and began to allow practices such as widow remarrying to
stand. Moreover, some
Confucian texts like the Chunqiu Fanlu
春秋繁露 have passages that suggest a more equal relationship
between a husband and his wife. More recently, some scholars have
also begun to discuss the viability of constructing a "Confucian
Catholic controversy over Chinese rites
Main article: Chinese Rites controversy
Ever since Europeans first encountered Confucianism, the issue of how
Confucianism should be classified has been subject to debate. In the
16th and the 17th centuries, the earliest European arrivals in China,
the Christian Jesuits, considered
Confucianism to be an ethical
system, not a religion, and one that was compatible with
Christianity. The Jesuits, including Matteo Ricci, saw Chinese
rituals as "civil rituals" that could co-exist alongside the spiritual
rituals of Catholicism.
By the early 18th century, this initial portrayal was rejected by the
Dominicans and Franciscans, creating a dispute among Catholics in East
Asia that was known as the "Rites Controversy." The Dominicans
Franciscans argued that
Chinese ancestral worship
Chinese ancestral worship was a form of
idolatry that was contradictory to the tenets of Christianity. This
view was reinforced by Pope Benedict XIV, who ordered a ban on Chinese
Some critics view
Confucianism as definitely pantheistic and
nontheistic, in that it is not based on the belief in the supernatural
or in a personal god existing separate from the temporal
Confucius views about Tiān 天 and about the divine
providence ruling the world, can be found above (in this page) and in
Analects 6:26, 7:22, and 9:12, for example. On spirituality, Confucius
said to Chi Lu, one of his students: "You are not yet able to serve
men, how can you serve spirits?" Attributes such as ancestor
worship, ritual, and sacrifice were advocated by
necessary for social harmony; these attributes may be traced to the
traditional Chinese folk religion.
Scholars recognise that classification ultimately depends on how one
defines religion. Using stricter definitions of religion, Confucianism
has been described as a moral science or philosophy. But
using a broader definition, such as Frederick Streng's
characterisation of religion as "a means of ultimate
Confucianism could be described as a
"sociopolitical doctrine having religious qualities." With the
Confucianism is religious, even if non-theistic, in
the sense that it "performs some of the basic psycho-social functions
of full-fledged religions."
Chinese folk religion
Confucian view of marriage
Confucianism in Indonesia
Family as a model for the state
Temple of Confucius
Vietnamese folk religion
^ Whether centred in the changeful precessional north celestial pole
or in the fixed north ecliptic pole, the spinning constellations draw
the wàn 卍 symbol around the centre.
^ The first was
Michele Ruggieri who had returned from
China to Italy
in 1588, and carried on translating in
Latin Chinese classics, while
residing in Salerno.
^ Yao (2000), pp. 38-47.
^ a b c Fung (2008), p. 163.
^ Lin, Justin Yifu (2012). Demystifying the Chinese Economy. Cambridge
University Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780521191807.
^ Fingarette (1972), p. 1–2.
^ a b Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005).
Religion in Global Civil Society.
Oxford University Press. p. 70.
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188356.001.0001. ISBN 0195188357.
...humanist philosophies such as Confucianism, which do not share a
belief in divine law and do not exalt faithfulness to a higher law as
a manifestation of divine will .
^ Fingarette (1972).
^ a b c Adler (2014), p. 12.
^ Littlejohn (2010), pp. 34–36.
^ a b c Adler (2014), p. 10.
^ a b Clart (2003), pp. 3–5.
^ a b c Tay (2010), p. 102.
^ Benjamin Elman, John Duncan and Herman Ooms ed. Rethinking
Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
(Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series, 2002).
^ Yu Yingshi, Xiandai Ruxue Lun (River Edge: Global Publishing Co.
^ Billioud & Thoraval (2015), passim.
^ Yao (2000), p. 19.
^ a b Eno, Robert (1990). The
Confucian Creation of Heaven: Philosophy
and the Defense of
Ritual Mastery (1st ed.). State University of New
York Press. ISBN 079140191X.
^ a b Zhou (2012), p. 1.
^ Yao (2000), p. 52-54.
^ Tu, Weiming (1990). "
Confucian Tradition in Chinese History". In
Ropp, Paul S.; Barrett, Timothy Hugh. The Heritage of China:
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California Press. ISBN 0520064410. p. 113
^ Didier (2009), passim and page 3, Vol. III, for the graphic
interpretation of the character.
^ a b c d e Tay (2010), p. 100.
^ Thoraval, Joël (2016). "Heaven, Earth, Sovereign, Ancestors,
Masters: Some Remarks on the Politico-Religious in
Occasional Papers (5). Paris, France: Centre for Studies on China,
Korea and Japan. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018.
^ Feuchtwang (2016), pp. 146–150.
^ Didier (2009), p. 256, Vol. III.
^ Mair, Victor H. (2011). "Religious Formations and Intercultural
Contacts in Early China". In Krech, Volkhard; Steinicke, Marion.
Dynamics in the History of Religions between Asia and Europe:
Encounters, Notions, and Comparative Perspectives. Leiden: Brill.
pp. 85–110. ISBN 9004225358. pp. 97–98, note 26.
^ Didier (2009), p. 257, Vol. I.
^ a b Didier (2009), passim.
^ Reiter, Florian C. (2007). Purposes, Means and Convictions in
Daoism: A Berlin Symposium. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
ISBN 3447055138. p. 190.
^ Milburn, Olivia (2016). The
Spring and Autumn Annals
Spring and Autumn Annals of Master Yan.
Sinica Leidensia. BRILL. ISBN 9004309667. p. 343, note 17.
^ Assasi, Reza (2013). "Swastika: The Forgotten Constellation
Representing the Chariot of Mithras". Anthropological Notebooks
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^ a b Hagen, Kurtis. "
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Tian 天". State
University of New York at Plattsburgh. Archived from the original on 3
^ a b Littlejohn (2010), p. 35.
^ a b Hsu (2014).
^ Littlejohn (2010), pp. 35–36.
^ a b c d e f Feuchtwang (2016), p. 146.
^ a b Littlejohn (2010), p. 36.
^ a b Littlejohn (2010), p. 37.
^ Littlejohn (2010), p. 36–37.
^ Shen et al.
^ Dubs, Homer (1960). "
Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese
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^ a b Runes, Dagobert D., ed. (1983). Dictionary of Philosophy.
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^ "論語 : 雍也 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃".
^ "論語 : 顏淵 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃".
^ Feuchtwang (2016), p. 150.
^ "The Analects : Ba Yi - Chinese Text Project". Chinese Text
^ "Mengzi : Li Lou II - Chinese Text Project". Chinese Text
^ "孟子 : 梁惠王下 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃".
^ "論語 : 憲問 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃".
^ Example: Hai Rui 海瑞 in the Ming dynasty, Yuan Chang 袁昶 in
the Qing and so forth.
^ Wang Yangming, Instructions for Practical Living and Other
Confucian Writings by Wang Yang-Ming, Wing-tsit Chan tran. (New
York: Columbia University Press, 1963), 159.
^ William Theodore De Bary, Waiting for the Dawn: A Plan for the
Prince (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 91–110.
^ See the discussion in 何冠彪 He Guanbiao, 生與死 :
明季士大夫的抉擇 (Taipei: Lianjing Chuban Shiye Gongsi, 1997).
^ Wonsuk Chang; Leah Kalmanson (8 November 2010).
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^ Baker, Hugh D. R. Chinese
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^ Sometimes "exemplary person." Roger T. Ames and Henry Rosemont, Jr.,
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translates it "noble man" in an attempt to capture both its early
political and later moral meaning. Cf. "
Confucian Key Terms: Junzi
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^ (in Chinese) 君子——儒学的理想人格 Archived 18 April
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^ Chen (2012), p. 105, note 45.
^ a b c Libbrecht (2007), p. 43.
^ Didier (2009), pp. 227–228, Vol. II.
^ Didier (2009), pp. 143–144, Vol. II.
^ Didier (2009), p. 103, Vol. II.
^ Pankenier (2013), pp. 138–148, "Chapter 4: Bringing Heaven
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^ Didier (2009), passim Vol. I.
^ Didier (2009), pp. xxxvi–xxxvii, Vol. I.
^ Didier (2009), pp. xxxvii–xxxviii, Vol. I.
^ Zhou (2012), p. 2.
^ Didier (2009), p. xxxviii, Vol. I.
^ Didier (2009), pp. xxxviii–xxxix, Vol. I.
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^ a b Chen (2012), p. 174.
^ Fan & Chen (2015a), p. 7.
^ Billioud (2010), pp. 203–214.
^ Billioud (2010), p. 219.
^ a b Fan & Chen (2015), p. 29.
^ a b Fan & Chen (2015), p. 34.
^ Billioud & Thoraval (2015), p. 148.
^ Payette (2014).
^ Billioud & Thoraval (2015), pp. 152–156.
^ Billioud (2010), p. 204.
^ Feuchtwang (2016), pp. 146–147.
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^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese Outcasts: Discrimination and
Emancipation in Late Imperial China. Brill. p. 46.
^ Qiu Chong 邱崇, "释 '唯女子与小人为难养也'" Yuejiang
Academic Journal, vol.6 (December:2013),141-145.
The article points out the various disputes among traditional
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summarizes the debate in contemporary academia regarding the phrase's
^ Matthew Sommers, Sex,
Society in Late Imperial China
(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000), 319.
^ "春秋繁露 : 基義 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃".
^ Li-Hsiang Lisa Rosenlee (2007).
Confucianism and Women: A
Philosophical Interpretation. State University of New York Press.
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^ a b Elman 2005, p. 112.
^ a b Gunn 2003, p. 108.
^ a b c Yang 1961, p. 26.
^ Sinaiko 1998, p. 176.
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