Coney Island is a peninsular residential neighborhood, beach, and
leisure/entertainment destination of
Long Island on the Coney Island
Channel, which is part of the Lower Bay in the southwestern part of
the borough of
Brooklyn in New York City. The site was formerly an
outer barrier island but became partially connected to the rest of
Long Island by land fill. The residential portion of the peninsula is
a community of 60,000 people in its western part, with Sea Gate to its
Beach to its east, the Lower Bay to
the south, and Gravesend to the north.
Coney Island is well known as the site of amusement parks and a
seaside resort. The attractions reached a historical peak during the
first half of the 20th century, declining in popularity after World
War II and following years of neglect. In recent years, the area has
seen the opening of
MCU Park stadium which has become home to the
Brooklyn Cyclones minor league baseball team, as well as the New York
Cosmos professional soccer club. In addition,
Coney Island has opened
a new amusement park among several adjacent ones.
3.1 Early history
3.2.1 Hotel era
3.2.2 Theme park era
3.2.3 No longer an island
Robert Moses era
Fred Trump era
3.2.6 Bullard deal and demolition of Thunderbolt
Thor Equities ownership
188.8.131.52 Initial interest
4 Theme parks and attractions
4.3 Other attractions
6.1 Elementary, Middle, and High schools
6.2 Public libraries
8 In popular culture
9.3 Further reading
10 External links
Coney Island peninsula from the air
Coney Island is the westernmost part of the barrier islands of Long
Island (referred to as the outer barrier islands), and is about 4
miles (6.4 km) long and 0.5 miles (0.80 km) wide lying
Sheepshead Bay to the east and
Lower New York Bay
Lower New York Bay to the west.
At its highest it is 7 feet (2.1 m) above sea level. It was
formerly an island that was separated from the main part of Brooklyn
Coney Island Creek, a partial tidal mudflat, but a large portion of
the creek was filled as part of 1920s and 30s land and highway
development, turning the island into a peninsula.
The perimeter of
Coney Island features man made structures designed to
maintain its current shape. The beaches are currently not a natural
feature with replenishing sand being cut off by the jetty at Breezy
Point, Queens. Sand has been redeposited on the beaches via beach
nourishment since 1922-1923, the first such project in the U.S.,
and is held in place by around two-dozen groynes.
Sheepshead Bay on
the east side is, for the most part, enclosed in bulkheads.
The original Native American inhabitants of the region, the Lenape,
called this area Narrioch. This name has been attributed the meaning
of "land without shadows" or "always in light" describing how
its south facing beaches always remained in sunlight. A second meaning
attributed to Narrioch is "point" or "corner of land".
There is no clear historical consensus on how the island got the name
"Coney Island", a name, in the form of Conyne Eylandt, that shows
up in early 17th century Dutch maps. The most popular theory is
the name came from the old spelling of the Dutch word for rabbit,
"conyn", derived from a purported large population of wild rabbits,
giving it the name "
Rabbit Island", The following part of the
theory is that the name was anglicized to "Coney Island" after the
English took over the colony in 1664, "coney" being the English
version of the word rabbit. Alternative theories are that it
was named after a Native American tribe, the Konoh, who supposedly
once inhabited it; that Conyn was the surname of a family of Dutch
settlers who lived there; or that "Conyne" was a distortion of the
name of Henry Hudson's second mate on the Halve Maen, John Colman, who
was slain by natives on the 1609 expedition and buried at a place they
named Colman's Point, possibly coinciding with Coney Island.
The Dutch established the colony of Nieuw Amsterdam in present-day
Coney Island in the early 17th century. The Native American population
in the area dwindled as the Dutch settlement grew and the entire
southwest section of what was to become
Brooklyn was purchased from a
Native American elder in 1645 for a gun, a blanket and a
Detail of a 1776 nautical chart showing the collection of islands and
shifting sand that eventually became present day Coney Island.
At the time of European settlement the land that makes up the present
Coney Island was divided across several separate islands that,
over the years, were changing shape because of the constant redeposit
of sand due to tidal and storm forces, as well as the reshaping of the
island by local residents.
The westernmost island was Coney Island, a 1.25-mile shifting sandspit
with a detached island at its western end extending into Lower New
York Bay. In a 1679–80 journal by Jasper Danckaerts and Peter
Sluyter it was noted "Coninen Island" was fully separated from the
main land and that:
"Nobody lives upon it, but it is used in winter for keeping cattle,
horses, oxen, hogs and others, which are able to obtain there
sufficient to eat the whole winter, and to shelter themselves from the
cold in the thickets. This island is not so cold as
Long Island or the
Mahatans, or others, like some other islands on the coast, in
consequence of their having more sea breeze, and of the saltness of
the sea breaking upon the shoals, rocks and reefs, with which the
coast is beset."
East of Coney was originally a peninsula called Coney Hook but in 1750
a canal (called the "Jamaica Ditch") was dug through the Coney Hook
salt-marsh from Brown’s creek east to Hubbard’s creek. This
connection to the waterways behind the islands allowed shipping
traffic to travel from
Jamaica Bay to New York Harbor without having
to venture out into the ocean. The canal turned Coney Hook
into a detached half mile long island called Pine Island, due to the
woods on it.
East of Pine was the largest section of island called Gysbert's or
Guisbert's Island (also called Johnson Island), containing most of the
arable land and extending east through today's
Each island was separated by an inlet that could only be crossed at
low tide. By the end of the 1700s the ongoing shifting of sand along
the barrier islands had closed up the inlets to the point that
residents began filling them in, eventually joining all the islands
into the single present day Coney Island. Development of the
island was slow over the period of the Dutch occupation up through the
early 1800s due to land disputes and the intervening Revolutionary War
and War of 1812. By the early 1800s there were only a scattered
handful of farms across the entire island.
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Coney Island has always been controversial. When the
first structures were built around the 1830s, there was an outcry to
prevent any development on the island and preserve it as a natural
park. Starting in the early 1900s, the
City of New York made efforts
to condemn all buildings and piers built south of Surf Avenue. It was
an effort to reclaim the beach which by then had almost completely
been built over with bath houses, clam bars, amusements, and other
structures. The local amusement community opposed the city. Eventually
a settlement was reached where the beach did not begin until 1,000
feet (300 m) south of Surf Avenue, the territory marked by a
city-owned boardwalk, while the city would demolish any structures
that had been built over public streets, to reclaim beach access.
Coney Island in 1879
Railroad station in Coney Island, Brooklyn, ca. 1872–1887
Coney Island started to become a resort area after 1829 when the
Coney Island Road and Bridge Company built the first
Coney Island Creek, connecting the island with the
mainland, and built Shell Road across the island to the beaches.
That same year they also built the first hotel on the island called
Coney Island House, near present day Sea Gate. Due to Coney
Island's proximity to
Manhattan and other boroughs, and its
simultaneous relative distance from the city of
Brooklyn to provide
the illusion of a proper vacation, it began attracting vacationers in
the 1830s and 1840s, assisted by carriage roads and steamship service
that reduced travel time from a formerly half-day journey to two
hours.:15 Most of the vacationers were wealthy and went by
Samuel Colt built an observation tower on the
peninsula in 1845, but he abandoned the project soon after. In
1847, the middle class started going to
Coney Island upon the
introduction of a ferry line to Norton's Point—named after hotel
owner Michael Norton—at the western portion of the peninsula. Gang
activity started as well, with one 1870s writer noting that going to
Coney Island could result in losing money and even lives.
In 1868, William A. Engeman built a resort in the area. The resort
was given the name "
Brighton Beach" in 1878 by
Henry C. Murphy
Henry C. Murphy and a
group of businessmen, who chose to name as an allusion to the English
resort city of Brighton. With the help of Gravesend's surveyor
William Stillwell, Engeman acquired all 39 lots for $20,000, a
"bargain price." This 460-by-210-foot (140 by 64 m) hotel,
with rooms for up to 5,000 people nightly and meals for up to 20,000
people daily, was close to the then-rundown western Coney Island, so
it was mostly the upper middle class that went to this hotel. The
400-foot (120 m), double-decker
Beach Pavilion was also
built nearby. "Hotel Brighton" (or
Beach Hotel) was
situated on the beach at what is now the foot of Coney Island
Avenue, and was accessed by the Brooklyn, Flatbush, and Coney
Island Railway (the present-day BMT
Brighton Line), which opened on
July 2, 1878.
Simultaneously, wealthy banker August Corbin was developing adjacent
Beach after being interested in the area during a trip to
the beach to heal his sick son. Corbin, who worked on Wall
Street and had many railroad investments, built the New York and
Beach Railway for his two luxury shoreline hotels. These
hotels were used by the wealthy upper class, who would not go to
Beach because of its proximity to Coney Island. The J.
Pickering Putnam-designed, 150-room
Beach Hotel, with
restaurants, ballrooms, and shops, was open for business by 1877 at a
ceremony presided over by Ulysses S. Grant. In 1880, the similarly
prodigal Oriental Hotel, which hosted rooms for wealthy families
staying for extended periods, opened.
Andrew R. Culver, president of the Prospect Park and Coney Island
Railroad (the present-day IND Culver Line) had built a steam
railway to West Brighton, the Culver Line, before Corbin and Engeman
had even built their railroads. For 35 cents, one could ride the
Prospect Park &
Railroad to the Surf Avenue
terminal. Across the street from the terminal, the 300-foot
(91 m) Iron Tower, bought from the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition,
provided patrons with a bird's-eye view of the coast. The nearby
"Camera Obscura" similarly used mirrors and lens to provide a
panoramic view of the area.
Coney Island became a major resort
destination after the Civil War as excursion railroads and the Coney
Railroad streetcar line reached the area in the
1860s, and the
Iron steamboat company
Iron steamboat company in 1881.
Dreamland tower and lagoon in 1907
The 150-suite Cable Hotel was built nearby in 1875. Next to it, on
a 12-acre (4.9 ha) piece of land leased by James Voorhies, maitre
d' Paul Bauer built the western peninsula's largest hotel, which
opened in 1876. By the turn of the century, Victorian hotels,
private bathhouses, and vaudeville theaters were a common sight on
From the 1870s through the first decade of the 1900s, these three
Beach and West
Brighton—competed with each other for clientele, with West Brighton
gradually becoming the most popular destination by the early
Theme park era
Coney Island Charles Looff carousel
Between about 1880 and World War II,
Coney Island was the largest
amusement area in the United States, attracting several million
visitors per year. At its height, it contained three competing major
amusement parks, Luna Park, Dreamland, and Steeplechase Park, as well
as many independent amusements.:147–150 The area was also the
center of new technological events, with electric lights, roller
coasters, and baby incubators among the innovations at
Coney Island in
the 1900s. This continued through the end of World War II, with
world's fair-style structures such as the
Parachute Jump and Wonder
Charles I. D. Looff, a Danish woodcarver, built the first carousel and
amusement ride at
Coney Island in 1876. It was installed at
Vandeveer's bath-house complex at West 6th Street and Surf Avenue. The
complex was later called Balmer's Pavilion. The carousel consisted of
hand-carved horses and animals standing two abreast. Two musicians, a
drummer, and a flute player provided the music. A metal ring-arm hung
on a pole outside the ride, feeding small, iron rings for eager riders
to grab. A tent-top protected the riders from the weather. The fare
was five cents.
From 1885 to 1896, the Elephantine Colossus, a seven story building
(including a brothel) in the shape of an elephant, was the first sight
to greet immigrants arriving in New York, who would see it before they
saw the Statue of Liberty. The
Coney Island "Funny Face" logo,
which is still extant, dates 100 years to the early days of George C.
Tilyou's Steeplechase Park.
Coney Island, c. 1914, by Edward Henry Potthast
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company electrified the steam
railroads and connected
Manhattan via the
at the beginning of the 20th century,
Coney Island turned rapidly from
a resort to an accessible location for day-trippers seeking to escape
the summer heat in New York City's tenements. In 1915, the Sea
Beach Line was upgraded to a subway line, followed by the other former
excursion roads, and the opening of the New West End Terminal in 1919
ushered in Coney Island's busiest era.
Since the 1920s, all property north of the boardwalk and south of Surf
Avenue was zoned for amusement and recreational use only, with some
large lots of property north of Surf also zoned for amusements only.
No longer an island
Coney Island Creek
Through the turn of the 20th century
Coney Island was still an island,
being separated from the main part of
Brooklyn by the 3-mile-long
Coney Island Creek. There were plans for several decades in the
19th century and early 20th century to dredge and straighten the creek
as a ship canal, but they were abandoned. By 1924 local land owners
had filled a portion of the creek, and a major section of the
creek was further filled in to allow construction of the Belt Parkway
in the 1930s. More fill was added in 1962 with the construction of the
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. The western and eastern ends of the
island became peninsulas.
Robert Moses era
Coney Island by Irving Underhill, in the
Coney Island, circa 1940
Luna Park was damaged by fire, and sold to a company who
announced they were going to tear down what was left of
Luna Park and
Robert Moses had the land rezoned for residential
use with the proviso that the apartment complex include low-income
After World War II, contraction began seriously from a series of
Air conditioning in movie theaters and then in homes, along
with the advent of automobiles, which provided access to the less
crowded and more appealing
Long Island state parks, especially Jones
Beach, lessened the attractions of Coney's beaches.
Luna Park closed
in 1946 after a series of fires and the street gang problems of the
1950s spilled into Coney Island. The presence of threatening youths
did not impede beachgoing but discouraged visitors to the rides and
concessions, staples of the
Coney Island economy. The local economy
was particularly damaged by the 1964 closing of Steeplechase Park.
In 1949, Moses moved the boardwalk back from the beach several yards,
demolishing many structures, including the city's municipal bath
house. He would later demolish several blocks of amusements:149 to
clear land for both the New York Aquarium:687 and the Abe Stark
Rink.:56 Critics complained that Moses took three times more land
than each structure needed, surrounding each with vacant lots that
were of no use to the city. Four years later, Moses had the entire
peninsula rezoned for residential use only and announced plans to
demolish the amusements to make room for public housing. After many
public complaints, the Estimate Board reinstated the area between West
22nd Street and
The Cyclone as amusement only and threw in 100 feet
(30 m) of property north of Surf Avenue between these streets. It
has since then been protected for amusement use only, which has led to
many public land battles.
Fred Trump era
Coney Island snack shops along the boardwalk
In 1964, Coney Island's last remaining large theme park, Steeplechase
Park, closed. The rides were auctioned off, and the property was sold
to developer Fred Trump, the father of Donald Trump. Trump, convinced
that the amusement area would die off once the large theme parks were
gone, wanted to build luxury apartments on the old Steeplechase
property. He spent ten years battling in court to get the property
rezoned. At one point Trump organized a funeral for amusement parks in
Coney Island. Trump invited the press to the funeral where bikini-clad
girls first handed out hot dogs, then handed out stones which Fred
invited all to cast through the stained-glass windows of the pavilion.
Then, pronouncing the amusement park dead, he had the pavilion
bulldozed. After a decade of court battles, Trump exhausted all his
legal options and the property was still zoned only for amusements. He
eventually leased the property to Norman Kaufman, who ran a small
collection of fairground amusements on a corner of the site, calling
his amusement park "Steeplechase Park".
A 1973 photo of an abandoned 'Giant Slide' that had been set up for a
few years on the old Steeplechase site.
Between the loss of both
Luna Park and the original Steeplechase Park,
as well as an urban-renewal plan that took place in the surrounding
neighborhood where middle class houses were replaced with housing
projects, fewer people visited Coney Island. With attendance dropping,
many amusement owners abandoned their properties. In the late 1970s,
the city came up with a plan to revitalize
Coney Island by bringing in
gambling casinos, as had been done in Atlantic City. The city's plans
backfired when the prospect of selling property to rich casino owners
created a land boom where property was bought up and the rides cleared
in preparation of reselling to developers. Gambling was never
legalized for Coney, and the area ended up with vacant lots.
By the 1970s, the area was in dispute. The city was considering
demolishing the Cyclone in favor of an extension of the adjacent New
York Aquarium.:153 In 1979, the city purchased Steeplechase Park
Fred Trump and proceeded to evict Norman Kaufman's amusements. By
this time, Kaufman had expanded his park and had plans to eventually
rebuild the historic Steeplechase Park. He had even bought back the
original Steeplechase horse ride with plans to install it the
following season. But the city decided it did not want to wait decades
for Steeplechase park to be rebuilt and believed it could attract a
developer to build a large combination theme park and casino on the
site. The property remained vacant for another five years.
Bullard deal and demolition of Thunderbolt
Co-ops on Coney Island
In the mid-1980s, businessman Horace Bullard approached the city to
allow him to rebuild Steeplechase Park. He had already bought several
acres of property just east of the
Steeplechase Park site, including
the property with a large coaster called Thunderbolt and property west
of Abe Stark rink.:150 His plans called for the combination of his
property as well as the Steeplechase property and the unused property
on the Abe Stark site as a multimillion-dollar theme park based on the
original. The city agreed, and it and the state legislature approved
the project in 1986.:150 However, several bureaucrats held up the
project for another two years while the NYC Planning Commission
compiled an environmental impact report. In 1987, state senator Thomas
Bartosiewics attempted to block Bullard from building on the
Steeplechase site. Bartosiewics was part of a group called The
Brooklyn Sports Foundation which had promised another theme park
developer, Sportsplex, the right to build on the site. Construction
was held up for another four years as Bullard and Sportsplex fought
over the site.
In 1994, after
Rudy Giuliani took office as mayor of New York, he
negated the Bullard deal by building a baseball stadium on the site
allotted for Steeplechase Park.:150 Giuliani stated that he wanted
to build Sportsplex, provided that it included a stadium for a
minor-league team owned by the Mets; however, when Giuliani ordered
the stadium to be built first, Sportsplex accused the city of planning
to build a parking lot on the property earmarked for the Sportsplex
construction. Giuliani publicly denied this and promised Sportsplex
could begin construction the moment the stadium was finished.[citation
needed] By doing this, Giuliani wanted to improve sports facilities in
the area, as well as found a professional baseball team in Brooklyn
(which had not hosted such a team since 1957, when the Brooklyn
Los Angeles Dodgers—moved to Los Angeles).
As soon as the stadium was completed, Giuliani nullified the
Sportsplex deal and had the parking lot built, angering many in the
community. The Mets decided the minor league team would be called
Brooklyn Cyclones and sold the naming rights to the stadium to
Keyspan Energy. Executives from Keyspan complained that the stadium's
line of view from the rest of
Coney Island amusement area was blocked
by the now derelict Thunderbolt coaster and considered not going
through with the deal. Bullard, now no longer
rebuilding Steeplechase Park, had wanted to restore the Thunderbolt as
part of a scaled-down amusement park. The following month in "an
early-morning raid" on the site, Giuliani, who stated that the
Thunderbolt was about to collapse, had the coaster demolished;
however, full destruction of the supposedly structurally unstable
coaster took weeks.:150 No connection between the Mets
organization and the demolition has ever been proven, but Giuliani was
later accused of tearing it down at the Mets' request.[citation
Thor Equities ownership
Wonder Wheel and
Astroland Park from a
Coney Island beach
In 2003, Mayor
Michael Bloomberg took an interest in revitalizing
Coney Island as a possible site for the New York
City bid of the 2012
Summer Olympics. A plan was developed by the Astella Development
Corporation. When the city lost the bid for the Olympics,
revitalization plans were passed on to the
Coney Island Development
Corporation (CIDC), which came up with a plan to restore the resort.
Many amusement owners worried that because one of the report's goals
to develop the area as a year-round destination, they could be forced
out as their businesses are only seasonal and did not meet the CIDC's
year-round goal. The CIDC also suggested that property north of Surf
Avenue and west of Abe Stark should be rezoned for other uses
including residential to lure developers into the area.[citation
needed] Shortly before the CIDC's plans were publicly released, a
development company, Thor Equities, purchased all of Bullard's
168,000-square-foot (15,600 m2) western property, worth $2.2
million, for $13 million. In less than a year, Thor sold the property
Taconic Investment Partners for over $90 million.:158 Taconic
now had 100 acres (40 ha), on which it planned to build 2,000
Thor then went about using much of its $77 million profit to purchase
property well over market value lining Stillwell Avenue and offered to
buy out every piece of property inside the traditional amusement area.
Quickly, rumors started that Thor was interested in building a retail
mall in the heart of the amusement area.:158–159 In September
2005, Thor's founder, Joe Sitt, went public with his new plans, a
large Bellagio-style hotel resort surrounded by rides and amusements.
Sitt released renderings of a hotel that would take up the entire
amusement area from the Aquarium to beyond Keyspan Park.
Senior housing on Coney Island
Astroland owner Carol Hill Albert, whose husband's family had owned
the park since 1962, sold the site to developer
Thor Equities in
November 2006 for an undisclosed amount.
In January 2007, Thor released renderings for a new amusement park to
be built on the
Astroland site called
Coney Island Park.
Low tide on the beach west of the pier
Thor proposed a $1.5 billion renovation and expansion of the Coney
Island amusement area to include hotels, shopping, movies, an indoor
water park and the city's first new roller coaster since the Cyclone.
The Municipal Art Society launched the initiative ImagineConey, in
early 2007, as discussion of a rezoning plan that highly favored
housing and hotels began circulating from the Department of City
Planning. MAS held several public workshops, a call for ideas, and
a charrette to garner attention to the issue.
Astroland, which had served as a major amusement park since 1962,
closed in 2008 and was replaced by a new incarnation of Dreamland
in 2009 and of
Luna Park in 2010.
City Planning certified the rezoning plan in January 2009 to negative
responses from all amusement advocates and
Coney Island enthusiasts.
In 2012 the plan was working through the ULURP process. Thor
Equities said it hoped to complete the project by 2011. Thor
Equities plan to demolish most of the iconic, early 20th-century
buildings along Surf Avenue. In their place, Sitt plans to build
cheap, one-story retail, and his recently released rendering clearly
shows Burger King and Taco Bell-like buildings. The Aquarium is
also planning a renovation. In June 2009, the city's planning
commission unanimously approved the construction of 4,500 units of
housing and 900 affordable units and vowed to "preserve, in
perpetuity, the open amusement area rides that everyone knows and
loves," while protesters argued that "20 percent affordable-housing
component is unreasonably low."
Besides Luna Park, the remaining parks and attractions include Deno's
Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, 12th Street Amusements, and Kiddie Park,
while the Eldorado Arcade has an indoor bumper car ride. The Zipper
and Spider on 12th Street were closed permanently on September 4,
2007, and dismantling began after its owner lost his lease. They have
since been reassembled at an amusement park in Honduras.
On April 20, 2011, the first new roller coasters to be built at Coney
Island in eighty years were opened as part of efforts to reverse the
decline of the amusement area.
Hurricane Sandy caused major damage to the Coney Island
amusement parks, the Aquarium, and businesses. Nathan's, however,
reported that the
Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest
Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest would be held the
following summer, as usual.
Luna Park at
Coney Island reopened on
March 24, 2013. Rebuilding of the Aquarium started in early 2013
and is expected to finish in 2018.
Theme parks and attractions
See also: Luna Park,
Coney Island (1903); Dreamland (amusement park);
and Steeplechase Park
Coney Island has two amusement parks —
Luna Park and
Wonder Wheel Amusement Park — as well as several rides that
are not incorporated into either theme park.
Coney Island also has
several other visitor attractions and hosts renowned events as well.
Coney Island's amusement area is one of a few in the United States
that is not mostly owned by any one entity.:153
Coney Island Cyclone
Coney Island Cyclone roller coaster
The Wonder Wheel
The Parachute Jump
The current amusement park contains various rides, games such as
skeeball and ball tossing, and a sideshow, including games of
shooting, throwing, and tossing skills. The rides and other amusements
Coney Island are owned and managed by several different companies
and operate independently of each other. It is not possible to
purchase season tickets to the attractions in the area.
Three rides at
Coney Island are protected as designated New York City
landmarks and are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
These three rides are:
Wonder Wheel – built in 1918 and opened in 1920, this steel
Ferris wheel has both stationary cars and rocking cars that slide
along a track. It holds 144 riders, stands 150 ft (46 m)
tall, and weighs over 200 tons. At night, the Wonder Wheel's steel
frame is outlined and illuminated by neon tubes. It is located at
Wonder Wheel Amusement Park.
The Cyclone roller coaster – built in 1927, it is one of the
United States's oldest wooden coasters still in operation. Popular
with roller coaster aficionados, the Cyclone includes an 85 ft
(26 m), 60-degree drop. It is owned by the
City of New York, and
was operated by Astroland, under a franchise agreement. It is now
located in and operated by Luna Park.
Parachute Jump – originally built as the
Life Savers Parachute
Jump at the 1939 New York World's Fair, this was the first ride of its
kind. Patrons were hoisted 262 ft (80 m) in the air before
being allowed to drop using guy-wired parachutes. Although the ride
has been closed since 1964, it remains a
Coney Island landmark and is
sometimes referred to as Brooklyn's Eiffel Tower. Between 2002 and
2004, it was completely dismantled, cleaned, painted, and restored,
but remains inactive. After an official lighting ceremony in July
Parachute Jump was slated to be lit year-round using
different color motifs to represent the seasons. However, this idea
was scrapped when New York
City started conserving electricity in the
summer months, and it has not been lit regularly since.
Other notable, currently operating attractions include:
The new Thunderbolt roller coaster, opened in 2014
Thunderbolt – In March 2014, construction started on the new
Thunderbolt coaster at Coney Island. The Thunderbolt was manufactured
Zamperla at a cost of US$10 million and has a 90-degree vertical
drop, followed by a 100-foot loop and a zero-gravity roll, along with
dives, hills and a corkscrew — all within two minutes. The ride
features 2,000 feet (610 m) of track, a height of 125 feet
(38 m), and a top speed of 65 miles per hour (105 km/h).
Thunderbolt features three inversions including a vertical loop,
corkscrew, and an Immelmann loop. The Thunderbolt is
located near Surf Avenue and West 15th Street in
Coney Island will be
constructed with 2,233 feet of track that will stretch to a height of
115 feet and was built next to the B&B Carousell, an antique
merry-go-round that underwent an extensive restoration and reopened
last summer. The opening of the Thunderbolt, expected to be by
Memorial Day 2014, was pushed back to June 6,
2014, and in early June, it was delayed once again to
later in summer 2014. Finally, on June 14, the Thunderbolt was
B&B Carousell [sic] (as spelled by the frame's builder, William
F. Mangels) – this is Coney Island's last traditional carousel,
near the old entrance to Luna Park. The carousel is faster than usual,
with a traditional roll-operated fairground organ. When the long-term
operator died unexpectedly, the carousel was put up for auction, with
fears that it would leave
Coney Island or be broken up for sale to
collectors. However, the
City of New York bought the B&B Carousell
a few days before the auction; it was dismantled and rebuilt in
Steeplechase Plaza, a 2.2-acre public plaza. All the other carousels
Coney Island are kiddie park-style.
For the restoration, Theresa Rollison, a painter with Carousels and
Carvings, custom-mixed more than 80 colors to replicate the original
hues. She then applied salmon pink, lemon yellow, metallic silver and
maroon, using natural brushes made from badger, squirrel, and hog
bristle. “I wouldn’t have chosen to put some of the colors
together, but overall it works,” she said. The final part of the
restoration was new horsehair tails for the 50 horses, and with that
the New York
City Economic Development Corp paid $1,700,000 for the
restoration. For decades,
Coney Island was something of a carousel
headquarters. In the late 1800s, carousel makers set up shops there,
and by the turn of the century, two dozen merry-go-rounds were
operating on the island. There even evolved a
Coney Island school of
carousel design, distinct from the more staid Philadelphia and County
Fair styles. The
Coney Island style was characterized by a flamboyant,
aggressive-looking horse — neck straining, nostrils flaring,
and tongue lolling.
The B&B was built in Coney Island, with a frame dating to 1906,
and at some point, it operated in New Jersey, although it is unclear
for how long. In the early 1920s it received a new set of horses that
were carved by Charles Carmel, one of Coney Island’s celebrated
carousel makers. It had returned to
Brooklyn by 1935.
Bumper cars – there are three separate bumper car rides on
Coney Island, located on 12th street, Deno's
Wonder Wheel Park, and
Eldorado's Arcade on Surf Avenue.
Haunted houses – two traditional dark ride haunted houses
operate at Coney Island,
Spook-a-Rama at Deno's and
Ghost Hole on 12th
The original Thunderbolt in 1995
Former rides include:
Thunderbolt – this roller coaster across the street from
Steeplechase Park was constructed in 1925 and closed in 1983. It was
torn down by the city "to protect public safety" in 2000 during the
construction of nearby Keyspan Park. In the
Woody Allen movie Annie
Hall, Allen's character's family lives in the small house-like
structure under the rear of the roller coaster track.
Tornado – this roller coaster was constructed in 1926. It
suffered a series of small fires which made the structure unstable,
and was torn down in 1977.
Steeplechase Park Horse Race – created by a Coney Island
resident George C. Tilyou in 1897, this ride consisted of people
riding wooden horses around the park on a steel track.
The beach at
Coney Island in June 2016, with the Marine Parkway–Gil
Hodges Memorial Bridge visible on the horizon.
The sand beach at the west end of
Coney Island at Sea Gate is private,
only accessible to residents. There is a broad public sand beach
that starts at Sea Gate at West 37th Street, through the central Coney
Island area and
Brighton Beach, to the beginning of the community of
Manhattan Beach, a distance of approximately 2.5 mi
(4.0 km). The beach is continuous and is served for its entire
length by the broad Riegelmann Boardwalk. A number of amusements are
directly accessible from the land-side of the boardwalk, as is the
aquarium and a variety of food shops and arcades. There is a 400m long
public beach further down in the community of
The public beaches are groomed on a regular basis by the city. Because
sand no longer naturally deposits on the beach, it is replenished in
regular beach nourishment projects using dredged sand. The south
facing beach is without significant obstructions and is in sunlight
all day. The public beaches are open to all without restriction, and
there is no charge for use. The beach area is divided into "bays",
areas of beach delineated by rock groynes, which moderate erosion and
the force of ocean waves.
Coney Island Polar Bear Club
Coney Island Polar Bear Club consists of a group of people who
Coney Island throughout the winter months, most notably on New
Year's Day, when additional participants join them to swim in the
The beach serves as the training grounds for the
Coney Island Brighton
Beach Open Water Swimmers (CIBBOWS), a group dedicated to
promoting open water swimming for individuals of all levels. CIBBOWS
hosts several open water swim races each year, such as Grimaldo's Mile
New York Aquarium
New York Aquarium 5k, as well as regular weekend training
Nearby, the New York Aquarium, which opened in 1957 on the former site
of the Dreamland amusement park, is another attraction on Coney
Island. In 2001,
KeySpan Park opened on the former site of
Steeplechase Park to host the
Brooklyn Cyclones minor league baseball
In May 2015,
Thor Equities unveiled Coney Art Walls, a public art wall
project curated by former director of the Museum of Contemporary Art
(MOCA) Jeffrey Deitch and Thor CEO Joseph Sitt. Located at 3050
Stillwell Avenue, the project featured more than 30 world renowned
artists including legends such as Lady Pink, Crash, Daze, Futura and
Kenny Scharf, as well as leading artists of the next generation
including Shepard Fairey, Maya Hayuk and How & Nosm. Coney Art
Walls returned in 2016 with 21 new murals, including several of the
leading paintings and sculptors in New York, in addition to leading
artists connected with street culture. 
In June 2016, the
Ford Amphitheater at Coney Island
Ford Amphitheater at Coney Island opened on the
boardwalk, hosting several live musical acts as well as other events.
Construction began in 2015. It was constructed at the location of
the Childs Restaurant on the
Coney Island Boardwalk. The restaurant
was originally constructed in 1923. It was renovated when the
amphitheater was being constructed. The rooftop part of the restaurant
opened back up in July 2016 and the main restaurant is scheduled to
reopen in 2017.
Nathan's Famous at Coney Island
Coney Island Mermaid Parade
Coney Island Mermaid Parade takes place on Surf Avenue and the
boardwalk, and features floats and various acts. It has been produced
Coney Island USA, a non-profit arts organization
established in 1979, dedicated to preserving the dignity of American
Coney Island USA
Coney Island USA has also sponsored the
Coney Island Film Festival
every October since 2000, as well as Burlesque At The Beach, and
Creepshow at the Freakshow (an interactive Halloween-themed event). It
also houses the
Coney Island Museum.
The annual Cosme 5K Charity Run/Walk, supported by the Coney Island
Sports Foundation (CISF), takes place on the last Sunday of June on
the Riegelmann Boardwalk.
In August 2006,
Coney Island hosted a major national volleyball
tournament sponsored by the Association of
The tournament, usually held on the west coast of the United States,
was televised live on NBC. The league built a 4,000-seat stadium and
twelve outer courts next to the boardwalk for the event. The
tournament returned to
Coney Island in 2007 and 2008.
In April 2009, Feld Entertainment, parent company to Ringling Bros.
and Barnum & Bailey Circus, announced that "The Greatest Show on
Earth" would perform on
Coney Island for the entire summer of 2009,
the first time since July 16, 1956 that Ringling Bros. had performed
in this location. The tents were located between the boardwalk and
Surf Avenue, and the show was called The
Coney Island Boom-A-Ring. In
2010, they returned to the same location with The Coney Island
Coney Island waterfront as seen from the pier in June 2016
Volunteers arrive to clear the boardwalk after Hurricane Sandy
At the 2000 census, there were 51,205 people living in Coney Island.
Of those people, 51.2% were White, 29.3% were Black, 18% were Hispanic
or Latino, 3.8% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, 0.1% were
Pacific Islander, 7.6% were some other race, and 3.7% described
themselves as two or more races. 70.5% had a high school diploma or
higher, and 20.7% had a bachelor's degree or higher. The median
household income in 1999 was $21,281.
The neighborhoods on Coney Island, from west to east, are Sea Gate,
Coney Island proper,
Brighton Beach, and
Manhattan Beach. Sea Gate is
a private community, one of only a handful of neighborhoods in New
City where the streets are co-owned by the residents and the
city. Sea Gate residents pay both, city and Sea Gate taxes. Sea Gate
Breezy Point Cooperative
Breezy Point Cooperative are the only city neighborhoods
cordoned off by a fence and gate houses.
The majority of Coney Island's population resides in approximately
thirty 18- to 24-story towers, mostly various forms of public housing.
In between the towers are many blocks that were filled with vacant and
burned out buildings. Since the 1990s there has been steady
revitalization of the area. Many townhouses were built on empty lots,
popular franchises opened, and
Keyspan Park was built to serve as the
home for the
Brooklyn Cyclones baseball team. Once home to many Jewish
residents, Coney Island's main population groups today are African
American, Hispanic, and recent Russian immigrants.
Elementary, Middle, and High schools
Abraham Lincoln High School
Coney Island is served by the New York
City Department of Education.
Coney Island neighborhood is zoned to PS 90 Edna Cohen School for
K-5 education PS 329 (K-5), PS 188 The Michael E. Berdy School
(K-5), PS 100
Coney Island School (K-5), Mark
Twain (6–8), IS 303 Herbert S.
Eisenberg, and PS/IS 288 The Shirley Tanyhill School
(Pre-K-8) serve Coney Island. In 2006, David
The New York Times
The New York Times said, "Coney Island’s elementary
schools are a mixed lot, with only some exceeding citywide averages on
the state’s testing regimen."
There are no zoned high schools, though Abraham Lincoln High School,
an academic high school, is in Coney Island. Rachel Carson
High School for Coastal Studies is located in Coney Island. Nearby
high schools include:
John Dewey High School
The Leon M. Goldstein High School for the Sciences
William E. Grady Vocational High School
The High School Of Sports Management
Liberation High School
Mark Twain Intermediate School for the Gifted and Talented
Coney Island Library
Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) operates the
Coney Island Library. It
opened in 1911 as an unmanned deposit station. In 1921 it moved to the
Coney Island Times offices and became fully staffed. In 1954
another branch was built. BPL stated that the library was referred to
as "the first-ever library built on stilts over the Atlantic
Stillwell Avenue subway station
Coney Island's main subway stop is Coney Island – Stillwell
Avenue and is served by the D, F, N, and Q trains. The
terminal is the largest elevated metro station in
North America and
one of the largest elevated metro stations in the world, with eight
tracks serving four platforms in the station. The entire station was
rebuilt in 2002–2004.
The bus terminal beneath the station serves the B68 to Prospect Park,
the B74 to the Coney Island/Sea Gate border, the B64 to Bay Ridge, and
the B82 to Starrett City. The B36 runs from the Sea Gate border at
West 37th Street to Nostrand Avenue at Avenue U in Sheepshead Bay,
Brooklyn. The X28 provides express bus service to
The three main west-east arteries in the
Coney Island community, are,
from north to south, Neptune Avenue (which crosses through Brighton
Beach before becoming Emmons Avenue at Sheepshead Bay), Mermaid
Avenue, and Surf Avenue (which becomes Ocean Parkway and then runs
north toward Prospect Park). The cross streets in the Coney Island
neighborhood proper are numbered with "West" prepended to their
numbers, running from West 1st Street to West 37th Street at the
border of Sea Gate (except for Cropsey Avenue, which becomes West 17th
Street south of Neptune Avenue).
The Ocean Parkway bicycle path, the oldest designated bicycle path in
the United States, terminates in Coney Island. The Shore Parkway
bikeway runs east along Jamaica Bay, and west and north along New York
Harbor. Street bike lanes are marked in Neptune Avenue and other
streets in Coney Island.
Coney Island is expected to be served by the Citywide Ferry
Service at a date not yet determined.
In popular culture
Coney Island in popular culture
Coney Island has been featured in many novels, films, television
shows, cartoons, and theatrical plays.
^ a b U.S. Geological Survey, Geology of National Parks, 3D and
Photographic Tours, 72. Coney Island,
United States Department of the
Interior. Accessed December 15, 2016.
^ Dornhelm, Rachel (Summer 2004). "
Beach Master". Invention &
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Brooklyn before the bridge: American paintings from the Long Island
Long Island Historical Society,
Brooklyn Museum – 1982, page 54
^ Evan T. Pritchard, Native New Yorkers: The Legacy of the Algonquin
People of New York, Council Oak Books – 2002, page 105
^ a b c d "American Experience —
Coney Island Gets a Name".
^ a b c Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon:
Henry Hudson and the Voyage
that Redrew the Map of the New World. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.
p. 278. ISBN 1608190986.
^ Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The mapping of America,
H.N. Abrams publishing, 1980, p. 108
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The Influence of Dutch on the North American Languages. p. 51.
^ a b "The Atlantic World: Dutch Place Names". The Dutch in America,
1609-1664. The Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
^ Evan T. Pritchard, Native New Yorkers: The Legacy of the Algonquin
People of New York, Council Oak Books - 2002, page 106
^ Douglass, Harvey (1933). "
Coney Island Scenes Shift, Never Change".
Brooklyn Daily Eagle (online, 23 March). Retrieved March 23,
^ The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts, with an introduction by Bryan
^ a b William H. Stillwell, A History of the Town of Gravesend, N.Y.,
1884, page 34
^ "Collection - Jamaica Ditch".
^ Eric J. Ierardi, Gravesend: The Home of Coney Island, Arcadia
Publishing, 2001, page 46
^ a b c d "
Coney Island History - Early History". Heart of Coney
^ William J. Phalen, Coney Island: 150 Years of Rides, Fires, Floods,
the Rich, the Poor and Finally Robert Moses, McFarland - 2016, page 8
^ a b c "American Experience. Coney Island. People & Events". PBS.
Retrieved November 13, 2015.
^ Berman, J.S.; York, Museum of the
City of New (2003). Coney Island.
Portraits of America. Barnes and Noble Books.
ISBN 978-0-7607-3887-0. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
^ a b c d e f g Stanton, Jeffrey (1997). "Coney Island — Luxury
Coney Island History Site. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
^ Weinstein, Stephen (2000). "
Brighton Beach". In Jackson, Kenneth T.;
Keller, Lisa; Flood, Nancy. The Encyclopedia of New York
ed.). New York, NY, and New Haven, CT, USA: The New York Historical
Society and Yale University Press. pp. 139–140.
ISBN 0-300-11465-6. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
^ a b Williams, Keith. "
Brighton Beach: Old World mentality, New World
reality". The Weekly Nabe. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
^ a b c d Feinman, Mark S. (February 17, 2001). "Early Rapid Transit
in Brooklyn, 1878–1913". nycsubway.org. Retrieved November 12,
^ a b c "The Upper-Class
Brooklyn Resorts of the Victorian Era".
Curbed NY. June 27, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
^ "Obituary 1 -- No Title". July 13, 1906 – via
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Judith N. DeSena; Timothy Shortell (2012).
The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic
Politics in a Global City. Lexington Books. pp. 147–176.
^ David A. Sullivan. "
Coney Island History: How 'West Brighton' became
Modern-day Coney Island". heartofconeyisland.com. Retrieved November
^ "Coney -
Carousel List". Westland Network. 1997-08-27. Retrieved
^ David A. Sullivan. "
Coney Island History: The Elephant Hotel and
Roller Coaster (1885-1896)". www.heartofconeyisland.com. Retrieved
November 19, 2016.
Coney Island Blog -
Coney Island History Project".
^ a b Matus, Paul. "The New BMT
Coney Island Terminal". The Third Rail
Online. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved
August 29, 2007.
^ "Canal Avenue, Brooklyn". January 12, 2016.
^ a b "Photo of the Week". March 4, 2016.
^ JONAH OWEN LAMB (August 6, 2006). "The Ghost Ships of Coney Island
Creek". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
^ a b Chan, Sewell. "Leaps of Imagination for the Parachute Jump", The
New York Times, July 21, 2005. Accessed June 5, 2017. "In 1964
Steeplechase Park was demolished and the forlorn site became a symbol
of blight, but the
Parachute Jump remained a nostalgic touchstone."
^ Caro, R.A. (1974). The Power Broker:
Robert Moses and the Fall of
New York. A borzoi book. Alfred A. Knopf. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
^ Matassa, Elizabeth (2003). "Whaddya Want? It's Coney Island!
Tourism, Play and Memory in the Illegible City" (PDF). University of
Delaware. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
^ "Video & Photos of the Day: Riding Coney Island's Abandoned
Giant Slide (1973)". February 8, 2015.
^ Farrell, Bill (1998-01-21). "Baseball Pitch Back in Sportsplex Mix
Rally for Coney Venue". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
^ Martin, Douglas (1998-11-23). "Back to the Drawing Board in Coney
Island". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
^ Fung, Amanda (2009-06-28). "
Coney Island keeper". Crain's New York
Business. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
^  1.5 Billion Development Plan For
Coney Island Publication: The
New York Sun Date: November 13, 2006
^ "Imagineconey". Imagineconey. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
^ "New York
City Department of
City Planning — Amanda M.
Burden, Director". Nyc.gov. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
Coney Island amusement park closing: News & Videos about Coney
Island amusement park closing — CNN iReport". Ireport.com.
Retrieved March 17, 2010.
^ "Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) – New York City
City Planning". Nyc.gov. Archived from the original on
July 19, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
^ See Bloomberg News, November 29, 2006.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 17, 2012.
Retrieved June 13, 2013.
^ "Plans Coming Together For
Coney Island Amusement Park Expansion"
Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., NY1, November 14,
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 3, 2009.
Retrieved 2009-06-17. Planning Commission Approves Unloved Coney
Plan: The Village Voice: 6/17/09
^ Calder, Rich (September 5, 2007). "Ride Over for Coney Classics".
New York Post. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
Coney Island gets first new roller coasters in 80 years".
^ Nathan's to recover 
^ "Despite Sandy's Wrath, Coney Island's
Luna Park To Reopen On
Schedule Sunday". CBS News New York. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
^ "Deno's Wonder Wheel".
^ NYCEDC Announces New "Thunderbolt" Roller Coaster to be Built at
Coney Island Archived March 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt (Luna Park)". Roller Coaster
DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 11, 2014.
Retrieved June 4, 2014.
^  New Roller Coaster Promises
Coney Island a Return of Thrills
^  coney-islands-luna-park-to-get-new-roller-coaster
^  Originally built in 1906 – Restored B&B Carousell,
^ "Coming Soon! The Thunderbolt". Official Website of Luna Park.
Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10,
^ "Memorial Day kicks off summer with a splash". NY Daily News.
^ "News and Rumors — Luna Park". Screamscape.com. Retrieved May
^ Anthony Bell (June 3, 2014). "New Thunderbolt Roller Coaster to Open
Friday in Coney Island". ALL MEDIA NY. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
^ Kensinger, Nathan (June 5, 2014). "Change Comes Once Again for Coney
Curbed NY. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
^ Brown, Stephen R. (June 14, 2014). "Coney Island's new Thunderbolt
roller coaster officially opens". NY Daily News. Retrieved June 29,
^ "Coney Island". NYCEDC.
City breaks ground on Coney Island's Steeplechase Plaza". NY Daily
^ "Coney Island’s historic B&B Carousell is open to the public
after a mammoth five year restoration", The New York Times
Carousel Spins Once Again". Archived from the
original on 2014-03-12.
^ "NY1 Exclusive: Historic
Carousel Is Jewel Of New Coney Island
Park". Archived from the original on 2014-03-12.
^ "Visiting NYC's Coney, Rockaway beaches post-Sandy". Yahoo News.
June 20, 2013.
^ "Nathan's, aquarium, B & B Carousell, and
Brooklyn Nets store
open in Coney".
^ "Forgotten Tour 10, Coney Island, Brooklyn".
^ "Roller Coasters, Theme Parks, Thrill Rides".
^ a b Barbara La Rocco, Going Coastal New York City, Going Coastal,
Inc., 2004, page 137.
^ a b "
Beach Open Water Swimmers
^ "NY1 Exclusive: A Look at the New
Coney Island Amphitheater".
Ny1.com. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
^ "UPDATED: Construction Begins on Controversial Seaside Amphitheater
". Theconeyislandblog.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
Coney Island on the Ball –
Beach volleyball is hitting New York
...& the boardwalk is the place to be". NY Daily News. Retrieved
^ The Planet, D (May 1, 2011). "Coney Island — Park, Ferris
Wheel, Sight seeing". Retrieved June 2, 2014.
^ Tartar, Andre. "Teacher Exodus at
Coney Island School Where
Principal Banned ‘God Bless the USA’." New York Magazine. August
19, 2012. Retrieved on October 17, 2012.
^ "PS 90, New York
City Schools portal". November 20, 2014.
^ "Home." PS 100 The
Coney Island School. Retrieved on October 17,
^ a b c d Scharfenberg, David. "Safety Belts On? Renewal Has Its
Hazards." The New York Times. November 19, 2006. "Coney Island, which
has a residential population of about 53,000, is bounded by the Belt
Parkway to the north, Ocean Parkway to the east and the Atlantic Ocean
to the south." – Map, Archive
^ Hughes, C. J. "Waterfront Living That Doesn’t Break the Bank." The
New York Times. April 30, 2010. p.2. Retrieved on October 15, 2012.
^ "Home." I.S. 303 Herbert S. Eisenberg. Retrieved on October 17,
2012. "501 West Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11224"
^ "Home." Abraham Lincoln High School. Retrieved on October 17, 2012.
"2800 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, NY 11235"
^ "Teachers Boycott Hs To Protest An Arrest." New York Daily News.
Wednesday May 3, 2007. Retrieved on October 11, 2012.
Coney Island Library."
Brooklyn Public Library. Retrieved on
October 17, 2012.
^ DNAinfoNewYork. "Proposed Routes for NYC's Expanded Ferry Service".
Scribd. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
Citywide Ferry Service
Citywide Ferry Service to Launch in June 2017, Official Says".
DNAinfo New York. March 3, 2016. Archived from the original on
September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
^ "New York City's Ferry Service Set to Launch in 2017". NBC New York.
Retrieved 9 May 2016.
^ List of mentions at Google Books.
^ "Coney Island: The People's Playground," by Michael Immerso.
^ Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: the people's playground
(illustrated ed.). Rutgers University Press. p. 176.
^ Rabinovitz, Lauren (2004). "The
Coney Island Comedies". In Charlie
Keil, Shelley Stamp. American cinema's transitional era: audiences,
institutions, practices (illustrated ed.). University of California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24027-8.
Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York: A retroactive Manifesto for
Manhattan (Academy Editions, London, 1978; republished, The Monacelli
Press, 1994 — a large part of the book focuses on Coney Island
John F. Kasson, Amusing The Million:
Coney Island at the Turn of the
Century (Hill and Wang, New York, 1978; Distributed in Canada by
Douglas and McIntyre Ltd.)
Charles Denson, Coney Island: Lost and Found (Ten Speed Press, 2002)
Coney Island, a 1991 documentary film by
Ric Burns for American
Townsend Percy (1880), Percy's Pocket dictionary of Coney Island, New
York: E. Leypoldt, OCLC 5926329
J. Perkins Tracy (1887), The tourists companion and guide to Coney
Island, Fort Hamilton, Bath Beach, Sheepshead Bay, Rockaway
Far Rockaway, New York: Austin Publishing Co.
The Comprehensive History of
Coney Island at Heart of Coney Island
Coney Island History Articles
Bland as Sand: Developers Stalk Coney Island, The Indypendent
Gritty and Trashy... That’s Why I Love It, The Indypendent
Bruce, Jeannette. "Where The Fun Was," Sports Illustrated, August 28,
Coney Island History Project
"Coney Island". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911.
New York portal
City in Environment - Evolution Coney Island
The future of Southern Brooklyn, including
Coney Island -
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Brooklyn/
Coney Island and Brighton
Media related to Coney Island,
Brooklyn at Wikimedia Commons
Coney Island attractions and neighborhoods
Drop the Dip*
Flip Flap Railway*
Loop the Loop*
A Trip to the Moon*
Wonder Wheel Amusement Park
Luna Park (1903–1944)*
Luna Park (2010)
Sea Lion Park*
Other visitor attractions
Coney Island Velodrome*
hot dog contest
New York Aquarium
Shoot the Freak*
Sheepshead Bay (nearby)
Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue
West Eighth Street–New York Aquarium
* Asterisks indicate former attractions.
Coney Island in popular culture
Neighborhoods in the New York
City borough of Brooklyn
Columbia Street Waterfront District
East New York
Farragut (East Brooklyn)
Farragut Houses (NW Brooklyn)
Pacific Park/Atlantic Yards
Prospect Lefferts Gardens
Prospect Park South
History of Brooklyn