Condoleezza "Condi" Rice (/ˌkɒndəˈliːzə/; born November 14,
1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as
the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold
that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice
was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as well as
the second African-American
Secretary of State (after Colin Powell),
and the second female
Secretary of State (after Madeleine Albright).
Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first
term, making her the first woman to serve in that position.
Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up while the South was
racially segregated. She obtained her bachelor's degree from the
University of Denver
University of Denver and her master's degree in political science from
the University of Notre Dame. She worked at the
State Department under
Carter administration and then pursued an academic fellowship at
Stanford University, where she later served as provost from 1993 to
1999. On December 17, 2000, she left her position and joined the Bush
administration as National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern
Europe Affairs Advisor to President
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush during the
dissolution of the
Soviet Union and German reunification.
Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the
Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the
number of responsible democratic governments in the world and
especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy faced challenges as
Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and
influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained
authoritarian systems with U.S. support. She has logged more miles
traveling than any other Secretary of State. While in the position,
she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of
In March 2009, Rice returned to
Stanford University as a political
science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow
on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In September 2010,
she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of
Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the
She is currently on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena
Capital Management, LLC.
1 Early life
1.1 Early education
1.2 High school and university education
1.3 Early political views
2 Academic career
2.1 Provost promotion
2.2 Balancing school budget
Special interest issues
2.4 Return to Stanford
3 Role in Nuclear Strategy
5 Private sector
6 Early political career
7 National Security Advisor (2001–2005)
7.4 Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques
Secretary of State (2005–2009)
9 Post–Bush administration
9.1 College Football Playoff Selection Committee
9.2 Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on successor
10 Political positions
10.1 Terrorist activity
10.3 Female empowerment advocacy
10.5 Gun Issues
10.6 Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues
10.7 Confederate monuments
13.1 Criticism from Human Rights Watch
13.2 Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer
13.3 Conservative criticism
13.4 Views within the black community
14 Family and personal life
15 Honorary degrees
17 See also
18 Published works
21 Further reading
21.1 Academic studies
21.2 Popular books and commentary
22 External links
Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, the only child of Angelena (née
Ray) Rice, a high school science, music, and oratory teacher, and John
Wesley Rice, Jr., a high school guidance counselor, Presbyterian
minister, and dean of students at Stillman College, a
historically black college in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Her name,
Condoleezza, derives from the music-related term con dolcezza, which
in Italian means, "with sweetness". Rice has roots in the American
South going back to the pre-Civil War era, and some of her ancestors
worked as sharecroppers for a time after emancipation. Rice discovered
PBS series Finding Your Roots that she is of 51% African,
40% European, and 9% Asian or Native American genetic descent, while
her mtDNA is traced back to the
Tikar people of Cameroon. In her
2017 book, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom, she
writes, "My great-great-grandmother Zina on my mother's side bore five
children by different slave owners" and "My great-grandmother on my
father's side, Julia Head, carried the name of the slave owner and was
so favored by him that he taught her to read." Rice grew up in the
Titusville neighborhood of Birmingham, and then Tuscaloosa,
Alabama, at a time when the South was racially segregated. The Rices
lived on the campus of Stillman College.
Rice began to learn French, music, figure skating and ballet at the
age of three. At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes with
the goal of becoming a concert pianist. While Rice ultimately did
not become a professional pianist, she still practices often and plays
with a chamber music group. She accompanied cellist
Yo-Yo Ma playing
Johannes Brahms' Violin Sonata in D Minor at
Constitution Hall in
April 2002 for the
National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts Awards.
High school and university education
In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's
Academy, an all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village,
Colorado, and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the
University of Denver, where her father was then serving as an
Rice initially majored in Music, and after her sophomore year, she
went to the Aspen Music Festival and School. There, she later said,
she met students of greater talent than herself, and she doubted her
career prospects as a pianist. She began to consider an alternative
major. She attended an International Politics course taught by
Josef Korbel, which sparked her interest in the
Soviet Union and
international relations. Rice later described Korbel (who is the
father of Madeleine Albright, then a future U.S. Secretary of State),
as a central figure in her life.
In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society,
and was awarded a B.A., cum laude, in political science by the
University of Denver. While at the
University of Denver
University of Denver she was a
member of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter. She obtained a
master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame
in 1975. She first worked in the
State Department in 1977, during the
Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and
Cultural Affairs. She would also study Russian at Moscow State
University in the summer of 1979, and intern with the RAND Corporation
in Santa Monica, California. In 1981, at age 26, she received her
Ph.D. in political science from the
Josef Korbel School of
International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation
centered on military policy and politics in what was then the
communist state of Czechoslovakia.
From 1980 to 1981, she was a fellow at Stanford University's Arms
Control and Disarmament Program, having won a
Ford Foundation Dual
Expertise Fellowship in
Soviet Studies and International Security.
The award granted a year-long fellowship at Harvard University,
Stanford University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology or University of California, Los Angeles. Rice contacted
both Harvard and Stanford, but states that Harvard ignored her.
Her fellowship at Stanford began her academic affiliation with the
University and time in Northern California.
Early political views
Rice was a Democrat until 1982, when she changed her political
affiliation to Republican, in part because she disagreed with the
foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter, and
because of the influence of her father, who was Republican. As she
told the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father joined our
party because the Democrats in
Alabama of 1952 would not
register him to vote. The Republicans did."
Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London
Rice was hired by
Stanford University as an assistant professor of
political science (1981–1987). She was promoted to associate
professor in 1987, a post she held until 1993. She was a specialist on
Soviet Union and gave lectures on the subject for the
Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC Berkeley
Professor George W.
Breslauer in the mid-1980s.
At a 1985 meeting of arms control experts at Stanford, Rice's
performance drew the attention of Brent Scowcroft, who had served as
National Security Advisor under Gerald Ford. With the election of
George H. W. Bush, Scowcroft returned to the
White House as National
Security Adviser in 1989, and he asked Rice to become his Soviet
expert on the United States National Security Council. According to R.
Nicholas Burns, President Bush was "captivated" by Rice, and relied
heavily on her advice in his dealings with
Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris
Because she would have been ineligible for tenure at Stanford if she
had been absent for more than two years, she returned there in 1991.
She was taken under the wing of
George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz (Ronald Reagan's
Secretary of State from 1982 to 1989), who was a fellow at the Hoover
Institution. Shultz included Rice in a "luncheon club" of
intellectuals who met every few weeks to discuss foreign affairs.
In 1992, Shultz, who was a board member of Chevron Corporation,
recommended Rice for a spot on the Chevron board. Chevron was pursuing
a $10 billion development project in
Kazakhstan and, as a Soviet
specialist, Rice knew the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan
Nazarbayev. She traveled to
Kazakhstan on Chevron's behalf and, in
honor of her work, in 1993, Chevron named a 129,000-ton supertanker SS
Condoleezza Rice. During this period, Rice was also appointed to
the boards of
Transamerica Corporation (1991) and Hewlett-Packard
At Stanford, in 1992, Rice volunteered to serve on the search
committee to replace outgoing president Donald Kennedy. The committee
ultimately recommended Gerhard Casper, the Provost of the University
of Chicago. Casper met Rice during this search, and was so impressed
that in 1993, he appointed her as Stanford's Provost, the chief budget
and academic officer of the university in 1993 and she also was
granted tenure and became full professor. Rice was the first
female, first African-American, and youngest Provost in Stanford's
history. She was also named a senior fellow of the Institute for
International Studies, and a senior fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover
Former Stanford President
Gerhard Casper said the university was "most
fortunate in persuading someone of
Professor Rice's exceptional
talents and proven ability in critical situations to take on this
task. Everything she has done, she has done well; I have every
confidence that she will continue that record as provost."
Acknowledging Rice's unique character, Casper told the New Yorker in
2002 that it "would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that
she was a woman, the fact that she was black and the fact that she was
young weren't in my mind."
Balancing school budget
As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the
university's multibillion-dollar budget. The school at that time was
running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she promised
that the budget would be balanced within "two years." Coit Blacker,
Stanford's deputy director of the Institute for International Studies,
said there "was a sort of conventional wisdom that said it couldn't be
done... that [the deficit] was structural, that we just had to live
with it." Two years later, Rice announced that the deficit had been
eliminated and the university was holding a record surplus of over
Special interest issues
Rice drew protests when, as Provost, she departed from the practice of
applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and unsuccessfully
sought to consolidate the university's ethnic community centers.
Return to Stanford
During a farewell interview in early December 2008, Rice indicated she
would return to Stanford and the Hoover Institution, "back west of the
Mississippi where I belong," but beyond writing and teaching did not
specify what her role would be. Rice's plans for a return to
campus were elaborated in an interview with the Stanford Report in
January 2009. She returned to Stanford as a political science
professor and senior fellow at the
Hoover Institution on March 1,
2009. As of 2012 she is on the Political Science faculty as a
professor of political science and on the faculty of the Graduate
School of Business as the Denning
Professor in Global Business and the
Economy, in addition to being the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior
Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.
Role in Nuclear Strategy
In 1986, Rice was appointed special assistant to the Director of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff to work on nuclear strategic planning as part of
a Council on
Foreign Relations fellowship. In 2005, Rice assumed
office as Secretary of State. Rice played a big responsibility in
trying to stop the nuclear threat from
North Korea and Iran.
North Korea signed the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1985, but
in 2002 revealed they were operating a secret nuclear weapons program
that violated the 1994 agreement. The 1994 agreement between the
United States and
North Korea included
North Korea agreeing to freeze
and eventually dismantle its graphite moderated nuclear reactors, in
exchange for international aid which would help them to build two new
light-water nuclear reactors. In 2003,
North Korea officially withdrew
from the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Rice played a key role in the idea
of “six-party talks” that brought China, Japan, Russia, and South
Korea into discussion with
North Korea and the United States.
During these discussions, Rice gave strong talks to urge North Korea
to dismantle their nuclear power program. In 2005,
North Korea agreed
to give up its entire nuclear program in exchange for security
guarantees and economic benefits to ensure its survival. Despite
the agreement in 2005, in 2006,
North Korea test fires long range
UN Security Council
UN Security Council demanded
North Korea suspend the
program. In 2007, Rice was involved in another nuclear agreement with
North Korea (Pyongyang). Rice, other negotiators for the United States
and four other nations (six-party talks) reached a deal with North
Korea. In this deal
North Korea agreed to close its main nuclear
reactor in exchange for $400 million in fuel and aid.
In 2008, Indian prime minister announced the Agreement for Cooperation
between the United States and India involving peaceful uses of nuclear
energy. As Secretary of State, Rice was involved in the negation of
Yo-Yo Ma and Rice after performing together at the 2001 National Medal
of Arts and National Humanities Medal Awards, April 22, 2002
Rice has played piano in public since she was a young girl. At the age
of 15, she played Mozart with the
Denver Symphony, and while Secretary
of State she played regularly with a chamber music group in
Washington. She does not play professionally, but has performed at
diplomatic events at embassies, including a performance for Queen
Elizabeth II, and she has performed in public with cellist
Yo-Yo Ma and singer Aretha Franklin. In 2005, Rice accompanied
Charity Sunshine Tillemann-Dick, a 21-year-old soprano, for a benefit
concert for the Pulmonary Hypertension Association at the Kennedy
Center in Washington. She performed briefly during her cameo
appearance in the "Everything Sunny All the Time Always" episode of 30
Rock. She has stated that her favorite composer is Johannes Brahms,
because she thinks Brahms's music is "passionate but not sentimental."
On a complementary note, on Friday, April 10, 2009, on The Tonight
Show with Jay Leno, she stated that her favorite band is Led Zeppelin.
As Secretary of State, Rice was ex officio a member of the Board of
Trustees of the
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. As the
end of their tenures approached in January 2009, outgoing President
Bush appointed her to a six-year term as a general trustee, filling a
vacancy on the board.
Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on
January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President
George W. Bush. Chevron honored Rice by naming an oil tanker
Condoleezza Rice after her, but controversy led to its being renamed
She also served on the board of directors for the Carnegie
Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation,
Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation,
and other organizations.
In 1992, Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school
program created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East
Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California. After her tenure as
secretary of state, Rice was approached in February 2009 to fill an
open position as a
Pac-10 Commissioner, but chose instead to
Stanford University as a political science professor and the
Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the
In 2014 Rice joined the
Ban Bossy campaign as a spokesperson
advocating leadership roles for girls.
Early political career
In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on
Foreign Relations, Rice served as special assistant to the director of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
From 1989 through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall
and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President
George H. W. Bush's administration as director, and then senior
director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security
Council, and a
Special Assistant to the President for National
Security Affairs. In this position, Rice wrote what would become known
as the "Chicken Kiev speech" in which Bush advised the Verkhovna Rada,
Ukraine's parliament, against independence. She also helped develop
Secretary of State James Baker's policies in favor of
German reunification. She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, as the one who "tells me everything I
know about the Soviet Union."
In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford, although
she continued to serve as a consultant on the former Soviet Bloc for
numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that
Pete Wilson appointed her to a bipartisan
committee that had been formed to draw new state legislative and
congressional districts in the state.
In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on
Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.
During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential election campaign, Rice took
a one-year leave of absence from
Stanford University to serve as his
foreign policy advisor. The group of advisors she led called itself
The Vulcans in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a
hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would later
go on to give a noteworthy speech at the 2000 Republican National
Convention. The speech asserted that "... America's armed forces
are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."
National Security Advisor (2001–2005)
Secretary of State Colin Powell, and
Secretary of Defense Donald
Rumsfeld listen to President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush speak about the Middle
East on June 24, 2002
On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and
stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was the first
woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior
Princess", reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.
On January 18, 2003,
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that Rice was
involved in crafting Bush's position on race-based preferences. Rice
has stated that "while race-neutral means are preferable", race can be
taken into account as "one factor among others" in university
During the summer of 2001, Rice met with
George Tenet to
discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on
American targets. On July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he
referred to as an "emergency meeting" held at the
White House at
Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential
threat of an impending al Qaeda attack. Rice responded by asking Tenet
to give a presentation on the matter to Secretary
Donald Rumsfeld and
Attorney General John Ashcroft. Rice characterized the August 6,
President's Daily Brief
President's Daily Brief
Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US
Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US as
historical information. Rice indicated "It was information based on
Sean Wilentz of
Salon magazine suggested that the
PDB contained current information based on continuing investigations,
including that Bin Laden wanted to "bring the fighting to
America." On September 11, 2001, Rice was scheduled to outline a
new national security policy that included missile defense as a
cornerstone and played down the threat of stateless terrorism.
President Bush addresses the media at the Pentagon on September 17,
When asked in 2006 about the July 2001 meeting, Rice asserted she did
not recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met
repeatedly with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats. Moreover,
she stated that it was "incomprehensible" to her that she had ignored
terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks.
In 2003, Rice received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest
Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out
annually by Jefferson Awards.
In August 2010, Rice received the U.S. Air Force Academy's 2009 Thomas
D. White National Defense Award for contributions to the defense and
security of the United States.
In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission
on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The
White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional
separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush
agreed to allow her to testify so long as it did not create a
precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United
States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the
commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration
in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She
thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on
matters of policy.
In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a
House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that
Iraq sought yellowcake
uranium from Niger.
Cheney, Rice and Rumsfeld participate in a video conference with
President Bush and Iraqi PM Maliki.
Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After Iraq
delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United
Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York
Times entitled "Why We Know
Iraq Is Lying". In a January 10, 2003,
interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, Rice made headlines by stating
regarding Iraqi president Saddam Hussein's nuclear capabilities: "The
problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how
quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the smoking
gun to be a mushroom cloud."
In October 2003, Rice was named to run the
Iraq Stabilization Group,
to "quell violence in
Iraq and Afghanistan and to speed the
reconstruction of both countries." By May 2004, The Washington
Post reported that the council had become virtually nonexistent.
Leading up to the 2004 presidential election, Rice became the first
National Security Advisor to campaign for an incumbent president. She
stated that while: "Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the actual
attacks on America, Saddam Hussein's
Iraq was a part of the Middle
East that was festering and unstable, [and] was part of the
circumstances that created the problem on September 11."
After the invasion, when it became clear that
Iraq did not have
nuclear WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax",
"deception" and "demagogic scare tactic".
Dana Milbank and
Mike Allen wrote in The Washington Post: "Either she missed or
overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to put
caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she made
public claims that she knew to be false".
Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques
Senate Intelligence Committee
Senate Intelligence Committee reported that on July 17, 2002, Rice
George Tenet to personally convey the Bush
administration's approval of the proposed waterboarding of alleged Al
Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. "Days after Dr Rice gave Mr Tenet her
approval, the Justice Department approved the use of waterboarding in
a top secret August 1 memo."
Waterboarding is considered to be
torture by a wide range of authorities, including legal
experts, war veterans, intelligence
officials, military judges, human rights
organizations, U.S. Attorney General
Eric Holder, and many senior politicians, including U.S. President
In 2003 Rice, Vice President
Dick Cheney and Attorney General John
Ashcroft met with the
CIA again and were briefed on the use of
waterboarding and other methods including week-long sleep deprivation,
forced nudity and the use of stress positions. The Senate report says
that the Bush administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA
program was lawful and reflected administration policy".
The Senate report also "suggests Miss Rice played a more significant
role than she acknowledged in written testimony to the Senate Armed
Services Committee submitted in the autumn." At that time, she had
acknowledged attending meetings to discuss the
CIA interrogations, but
she claimed that she could not recall the details, and she "omitted
her direct role in approving the programme in her written statement to
In a conversation with a student at
Stanford University in April 2009,
Rice stated that she did not authorize the
CIA to use the enhanced
interrogation techniques. Rice said, "I didn't authorize anything. I
conveyed the authorization of the administration to the agency that
they had policy authorization, subject to the Justice Department's
clearance. That's what I did." She added, "We were told, nothing
that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture.
And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it did
not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against
Secretary of State (2005–2009)
Main article: Condoleezza Rice's tenure as Secretary of State
Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during
her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching are,
from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George
Condoleezza Rice visits Governor General of Canada,
Michaëlle Jean in
On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On
January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of
85–13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination
Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who,
according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the
Bush administration accountable for their failures in
Iraq and in the
war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted
irresponsibly in equating Saddam's regime with Islamist terrorism and
some could not accept her previous record. Senator
Robert Byrd voted
against Rice's appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the
President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants
As Secretary of State, Rice championed the expansion of democratic
governments and other American values: “American values are
universal.” “An international order that reflects our values
is the best guarantee of our enduring national interest…” 
Rice stated that the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks in 2001 were rooted in
"oppression and despair" and so, the US must advance democratic reform
and support basic rights throughout the greater Middle East. Rice
also reformed and restructured the department, as well as US diplomacy
as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the goal that Rice
describes as "work[ing] with our many partners around the world...
[and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic, well-governed states
that will respond to the needs of their people and conduct themselves
responsibly in the international system."
Rice with Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal
As Secretary of State, Rice traveled heavily and initiated many
diplomatic efforts on behalf of the Bush administration; she
holds the record for most miles logged in the position. Her
diplomacy relied on strong presidential support and is considered to
be the continuation of style defined by former Republican secretaries
Henry Kissinger and James Baker.
Condoleezza Rice speaks with
Vladimir Putin during her April 2005 trip
After the end of the Bush Administration, Rice returned to academia
and joined the Council on Foreign Relations.
She appeared as herself in 2011 on the
30 Rock in the
fifth-season episode "Everything Sunny All the Time Always", in which
she engages in a classical-music duel with
Jack Donaghy (Alec
Baldwin). Within the world of the show, Donaghy had had a relationship
with Rice during the show's first season.
It was announced on March 19, 2013, that Rice is writing a book to be
published in 2015 by Henry Holt & Company.
In August 2015,
High Point University
High Point University announced that Rice would serve
as their commencement speaker in, May 7, 2016. On Saturday, May
7, 2016, Rice spoke to nearly 10,000 people in attendance at High
Point University's commencement ceremony. Her commencement address was
highlighted by The Huffington Post, Fortune, Business
NBC News, Time, and USA Today.
Rice with President Donald Trump, March 31, 2017
In May 2017, Rice said that alleged Russian hacking of DNC emails
should “absolutely not” delegitimize Donald Trump’s
College Football Playoff Selection Committee
In October 2013, Rice was selected to be one of the 13 inaugural
members of the College Football Playoff, Playoff, Postseason,
Selection Committee. Her appointment caused a minor controversy
in the sport. In October 2014, she revealed that she watched "14
or 15 games every week live on TV on Saturdays and recorded games on
Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on successor
There had been previous speculation that Rice would run for the
Republican nomination in the 2008 primaries, which she ruled out on
Meet the Press. On February 22, 2008, Rice played down any suggestion
that she may be on the Republican vice presidential ticket, saying, "I
have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing
is running for elected office in the United States." During an
interview with the editorial board of
The Washington Times
The Washington Times on March
27, 2008, Rice said she was "not interested" in running for vice
president. In a
Gallup poll from March 24 to 27, 2008, Rice was
mentioned by eight percent of Republican respondents to be their first
choice to be John McCain's Republican vice presidential running mate,
Mike Huckabee and Mitt Romney.
Dan Senor said on ABC's This Week on April 6,
2008, that "Condi Rice has been actively, actually in recent weeks,
campaigning for" the vice presidential nomination. He based this
assessment on her attendance of Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax
Reform conservative leader's meeting on March 26, 2008. In
response to Senor's comments, Rice's spokesperson denied that Rice is
seeking the vice presidential nomination, saying, "If she is actively
seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about
In August 2008, the speculation about a potential McCain-Rice ticket
finally ended when then-Governor
Sarah Palin of Alaska was selected as
In early December 2008, Rice praised President-elect Barack Obama's
selection of New York Senator
Hillary Clinton to succeed her as
Secretary of State, saying "she's terrific". Rice, who has spoken to
Clinton since her selection, said Clinton "is someone of intelligence
and she'll do a great job".
Rice's policy as
Secretary of State viewed counter-terrorism as a
matter of being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview
on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember that in this
war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal activity where you
can allow somebody to commit the crime and then you go back and you
arrest them and you question them. If they succeed in committing their
crime, then hundreds or indeed thousands of people die. That's why you
have to prevent, and intelligence is the long pole in the tent in
Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister
Rangin Dadfar Spanta
Rangin Dadfar Spanta to
discuss anti-terrorism efforts
Rice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence community's
inability to cooperate and share information, which she believes is an
integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one year after Osama
bin Laden told Time "[h]ostility toward America is a religious
duty," and a year before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rice
WJR Detroit: "You really have to get the intelligence
agencies better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the
United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind of
split responsibility, of course, between the
CIA and foreign
intelligence and the
FBI and domestic intelligence." She then added:
"There needs to be better cooperation because we don't want to wake up
one day and find out that
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden has been successful on our
Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not
only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and
condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In a
speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring America
from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We
must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by
supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of
Rice chats with a member of the Saudi Royal Family after welcoming the
new King Salman of Saudi Arabia, January 27, 2015
In January 2005, during Bush's second inaugural ceremonies, Rice first
used the term "outposts of tyranny" to refer to countries Rice thought
to threaten world peace and human rights. This term has been called a
descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil", used to describe Iraq,
Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which she
said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe,
Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea.
Rice said "If you go back to 2000 when I helped the president in the
campaign. I said that I was, in effect, kind of libertarian on this
issue. And meaning by that, that I have been concerned about a
government role in this issue. I am a strong proponent of parental
choice—of parental notification. I am a strong proponent of a ban on
late-term abortion. These are all things that I think unite people and
I think that that's where we should be. I've called myself at times
mildly pro-choice." She would not want the federal government
"forcing its views on one side or the other."
Rice said she believes President Bush "has been in exactly the right
place" on abortion, "which is we have to respect the culture of life
and we have to try and bring people to have respect for it and make
this as rare a circumstance as possible" However, she added that she
has been "concerned about a government role" but has "tended to agree
with those who do not favor federal funding for abortion, because I
believe that those who hold a strong moral view on the other side
should not be forced to fund" the procedure.
Female empowerment advocacy
In March 2014 Rice joined and appeared in video spots for the Ban
Bossy campaign, a television and social media campaign designed to ban
the word "bossy" from general use because of its harmful effect on
young girls. Several video spots with other notable spokespersons
Jennifer Garner and others were produced along
with a web site providing school training material, leadership tips,
and an online pledge form to which visitors can promise not to use the
Condoleeza Rice supported the comprehensive immigration plan backed by
the Bush administration and shared that it was among her regrets that
it did not pass through Congress. In 2014, Rice criticized the
Obama administration from seeking to approve immigration reforms
through executive action. In February 2017 Rice publicly
announced her opposition to the Trump administration's travel
Rice says that she became a "Second Amendment absolutist" due to her
experience of growing up in Birmingham and facing threats from the
KKK. "Rice’s fondness for the Second Amendment began while
watching her father sit on the porch with a gun, ready to defend his
family against the Klan’s night riders."
Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues
While Rice does not support same-sex marriage, she does support civil
unions. In 2010, Rice stated that she believed "marriage is between a
man and a woman ... But perhaps we will decide that there needs
to be some way for people to express their desire to live together
through civil union.” When asked to select a view on a survey,
Rice selected a response that said "Same-sex couples should be allowed
to form civil unions, but not marry in the traditional sense."
In May 2017, Rice said she was opposed to the removal of Confederate
monuments and memorials or the renaming of buildings named after
Confederate generals. She argued, "If you forget your history,
you’re likely to repeat it. [...] When you start wiping out your
history, sanitizing your history to make you feel better, it’s a bad
Rice experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's
discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk proudly
in public and to use the facilities at home rather than subject
herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town. As Rice
recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to allow the
limits and injustices of their time to limit our horizons."
President Bush signing bill for
Rosa Parks statue at Statuary Hall,
However, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered
discrimination on account of her race, which included being relegated
to a storage room at a department store instead of a regular dressing
room, being barred from going to the circus or the local amusement
park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being given bad food at
restaurants. Also, while Rice was mostly kept by her parents from
areas where she might face discrimination, she was very aware of the
civil rights struggle and the problems of
Jim Crow laws in Birmingham.
A neighbor, Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and
say things like, 'Did you see what
Bull Connor did today?' She was
just a little girl and she did that all the time. I would have to read
the newspaper thoroughly because I wouldn't know what she was going to
talk about." Rice herself said of the segregation era: "Those
terrible events burned into my consciousness. I missed many days at my
segregated school because of the frequent bomb threats."
During the violent days of the Civil Rights Movement, Reverend Rice
armed himself and kept guard over the house while Condoleezza
practiced the piano inside. According to J. L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice
called local civil rights leader
Fred Shuttlesworth and his followers
"uneducated, misguided Negroes." Also, Reverend Rice
instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have to
prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to be
"twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.
Rice said "My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so well
prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were revered
in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow from racism.
I would be able to confront white society on its own terms."
While the Rices supported the goals of the civil rights movement, they
did not agree with the idea of putting their child in harm's way.
Rice was eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was killed
in the bombing of the primarily black Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
by white supremacists on September 15, 1963. Rice has commented upon
that moment in her life:
I remember the bombing of that Sunday School at 16th Street Baptist
Church in Birmingham in 1963. I did not see it happen, but I heard it
happen, and I felt it happen, just a few blocks away at my father's
church. It is a sound that I will never forget, that will forever
reverberate in my ears. That bomb took the lives of four young girls,
including my friend and playmate, Denise McNair. The crime was
calculated to suck the hope out of young lives, bury their
aspirations. But those fears were not propelled forward, those
Rice states that growing up during racial segregation taught her
determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good" as
non-minorities. Segregation also hardened her stance on the right
to bear arms; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration had
been mandatory, her father's weapons would have been confiscated by
Birmingham's segregationist director of public safety, Bull
Connor, leaving them defenseless against Ku Klux Klan
Rice greets U.S. military personnel at the American Embassy in
Baghdad, Iraq, on May 15, 2005.
Rice has appeared four times on the Time 100, Time magazine's list of
the world's 100 most influential people. Rice is one of only nine
people in the world whose influence has been considered enduring
enough to have made the list—first compiled in 1999 as a
retrospective of the 20th century and made an annual feature in
2004—so frequently. However, the list contains people who have the
influence to change for better or for worse, and Time has also accused
her of squandering her influence, stating on February 1, 2007, that
her "accomplishments as
Secretary of State have been modest, and even
those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to recognize the
extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined." In its March
19, 2007 issue it followed up stating that Rice was "executing an
unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."
In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the
Forbes magazine and number two in 2006 (following the
Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel).
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the
article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the
section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the
material. (October 2015)
Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by
Father William Leahy.
Criticism from Human Rights Watch
Citing her role in authorizing the use of so-called "enhanced
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch called for the
investigation of Rice "for conspiracy to torture as well as other
Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer
California Democratic Senator
Barbara Boxer has also criticized Rice
in relation to the war in Iraq. During Rice's confirmation hearing for
Secretary of State in January 2005, Boxer stated, "I personally
believe—this is my personal view—that your loyalty to the mission
you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the
On January 11, 2007, Boxer, during a debate over the war in Iraq,
said, "Now, the issue is who pays the price, who pays the price? I'm
not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old, and my
grandchild is too young. You're not going to pay a particular price,
as I understand it, within immediate family. So who pays the price?
The American military and their families, and I just want to bring us
back to that fact."
New York Post
New York Post and
White House Press Secretary
Tony Snow called
Boxer's statement an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless
female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for
feminism." Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it
was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good
decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn't have
children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They're
getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn't say. I'm
saying, she's like me, we do not have families who are in the
The Washington Post
The Washington Post in late July 2008, former
Undersecretary of State and U.N. Ambassador
John R. Bolton
John R. Bolton was
referring to Rice and her allies in the Bush Administration whom he
believes have abandoned earlier hard-line principles when he said:
"Once the collapse begins, adversaries have a real opportunity to gain
advantage. In terms of the Bush presidency, this many reversals this
close to the end destroys credibility... It appears there is no depth
to which this administration will not sink in its last days."
Secretary of Defense
Donald Rumsfeld repeatedly criticized Rice
after their terms in office ended. In his book Known and Unknown: A
Memoir, he portrayed her as a young, inexperienced academic who did
not know her place. In 2011 she finally responded, saying that
Rumsfeld "doesn't know what he's talking about."
In his book In My Time,
Dick Cheney suggested that Rice had misled the
president about nuclear diplomacy with North Korea, saying she was
naïve. He called her advice on the issue "utterly misleading."
He also chided Rice for clashing with
White House advisers on the tone
of the president's speeches on
Iraq and said that she, as the
Secretary of State, ruefully conceded to him that the Bush
administration should not have apologized for a claim the president
made in his 2003 State of the Union address, on Saddam's supposed
search for yellowcake uranium. She "came into my office, sat down in
the chair next to my desk, and tearfully admitted I had been right,"
Rice responded: "It certainly doesn't sound like me, now, does it?",
saying that she viewed the book as an "attack on my integrity."
Rice has also been criticized by other conservatives. Stephen Hayes of
Weekly Standard accused her of jettisoning the Bush Doctrine,
Iraq War troop surge of 2007. Other conservatives
criticized her for her approach to Russia policy and other
Views within the black community
Rice's approval ratings from January 2005 to September 2006
Rice's ratings decreased following a heated battle for her
Secretary of State and following
Hurricane Katrina in
August 2005. Rice's rise within the
George W. Bush
George W. Bush administration
initially drew a largely positive response from many in the black
community. In a 2002 survey, then National Security Advisor Rice was
viewed favorably by 41% of black respondents, but another 40% did not
know Rice well enough to rate her and her profile remained
comparatively obscure. As her role increased, some black
commentators began to express doubts concerning Rice's stances and
statements on various issues. In 2005,
Washington Post columnist
Eugene Robinson asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so
radically different from that of most black Americans?"
Rice and Australian Foreign Minister
Alexander Downer participate in a
news conference at the
Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi
Valley, California, May 23, 2007.
In August 2005, American musician, actor, and social activist Harry
Belafonte, who serves on the Board of TransAfrica, referred to blacks
in the Bush administration as "black tyrants." Belafonte's
comments received mixed reactions.
Rice dismissed these criticisms during a September 14, 2005 interview
when she said, "Why would I worry about something like that? ... The
fact of the matter is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to
tell me how to be black."
Notable black commentators have defended Rice, including Mike
Espy, Andrew Young,
C. Delores Tucker
C. Delores Tucker (chair of the National
Congress of Black Women), Clarence Page, Colbert King,
Dorothy Height (chair and president emerita of the National Council of
Negro Women) and
Kweisi Mfume (former Congressman and former CEO
of the NAACP).
Family and personal life
Rice has never married and has no children. In the 1970s, she
dated and was briefly engaged to professional American football player
Rick Upchurch. She left him because, according to her biographer
Marcus Mabry, "She knew the relationship wasn't going to work."
Her mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer at age 61 in August
1985, when Condoleeza was 30. In July 1989, her father, John
Wesley Rice, married Clara Bailey, to whom he remained married
until his death, in December 2000, aged 77. He was a Presbyterian
minister, high school guidance counsellor, and a football and
basketball coach, before becoming an administrator at the University
Denver where his daughter earned an undergraduate degree and later
a PhD in International Studies.
From 2003 to 2017 Rice co-owned a home in Palo Alto,
Randy Bean. According to public records, the two initially purchased
the home with a third investor,
Stanford University professor Coit D.
Blacker, who later sold his line of credit to the two women. The
co-owned property was first made known to the public in Glenn
Kessler's 2007 book The Confidante:
Condoleezza Rice and the Creation
of the Bush Legacy, sparking rumors about the nature of Rice and
Bean's relationship. Kessler has stated he “did not know if this
meant there was something more to the relationship between the women
beyond a friendship.”
On August 20, 2012, it was announced that Rice was one of the first
two women to be admitted as members to
Augusta National Golf Club
Augusta National Golf Club (the
other is South Carolina financier Darla Moore).
In 2014, Rice was named as one of ESPNW's Impact 25.
Condoleezza Rice has received honorary degrees from many universities,
including the following:
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
University of Alabama
Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)
University of Notre Dame
District of Columbia
National Defense University
Doctor of National Security Affairs
Mississippi College School of Law
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
University of Louisville
Doctor of Public Service
Michigan State University
Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) 
May 22, 2006
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws (LL.D) 
April 14, 2008
Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters (D. Litt) 
Johnson C. Smith University
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws (LL.D) 
May 12, 2012
Southern Methodist University
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws (LL.D) 
College of William and Mary
Doctor of Public Service
Doctor of Public Service 
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun, 2017
List of female United States Cabinet Secretaries
Rice, Condoleezza (1984). The
Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army:
Uncertain Allegiance. Princeton University Press.
Rice, Condoleezza & Dallin, Alexander (eds.) (1986). The Gorbachev
Era. Stanford Alumni Association, trade paperback (1986),
ISBN 0-916318-18-4; Garland Publishing, Incorporated, hardcover
(1992), 376 pages, ISBN 0-8153-0571-0.
Rice, Condoleezza with Zelikow, Philip D. Germany Unified and Europe
Transformed: A Study in Statecraft.
Harvard University Press.
hardcover (1995), 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35324-2; trade paperback,
1997, 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35325-0.
Rice, Condoleezza, "Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest
Foreign Affairs" in Foreign Affairs, 2000.
Rice, Condoleezza, with Kiron K. Skinner, Serhiy Kudelia, and Bruce
Bueno de Mesquita. The Strategy of Campaigning: Lessons from Ronald
Boris Yeltsin (2007), paperback, 356 pages,
ISBN 978-0-472-03319-5. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Rice, Condoleezza, Extraordinary, Ordinary People: A Memoir of Family
(2010) Crown Archetype, ISBN 978-0-307-58787-9
Rice, Condoleezza, No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington
(2011) Crown Archetype, ISBN 978-0-307-58786-2
Rice, Condoleezza, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom
(2017) Twelve, 496 pages, ISBN 978-1455540181.
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'searching for a former clarity' album
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James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet
Popular books and commentary
Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S. Secretary Of State
(Journey to Freedom) Child's World ISBN 1-59296-231-9
Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security
Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience Franklin Watts
Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical Species (Verso)
Kessler, Glenn (2007). The Confidante:
Condoleezza Rice and the
Creation of the Bush Legacy. ISBN 978-0-312-36380-2
Kettmann, Steve. Bush's Secret Weapon Salon.com
Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann. (2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next
Great Presidential Race Regan Books ISBN 0-06-083913-9
Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor
and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies) Facts on File
Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader Biography
(Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane Publishers
ISBN 1-58415-145-5, middle school audience
Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The Best Millbrook
Press Lerner Books ISBN 0-7613-1927-1, middle school audience
Rice, Condoleezza (2010). Condoleezza Rice: A Memoir of My
Extraordinary, Ordinary Family and Me Ember ISBN 978-0385738804
Biography from the Stanford University
Biography from the Hoover Institution
Biography from the U.S. Department of State
YouTube: Ban Bossy – I'm not bossy, I'm the boss
Appearances on C-SPAN
Norwood, Arlisha. "Condoleezza Rice". National Women's History Museum.
Provost of Stanford University
John L. Hennessy
National Security Advisor
United States Secretary of State
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