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Condoleezza "Condi" Rice (/ˌkɒndəˈliːzə/; born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as well as the second African-American Secretary of State (after Colin Powell), and the second female Secretary of State (after Madeleine Albright). Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term, making her the first woman to serve in that position. Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up while the South was racially segregated. She obtained her bachelor's degree from the University of Denver
University of Denver
and her master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She worked at the State Department
State Department
under the Carter administration
Carter administration
and then pursued an academic fellowship at Stanford University, where she later served as provost from 1993 to 1999. On December 17, 2000, she left her position and joined the Bush administration as National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
during the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and German reunification. Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy
Transformational Diplomacy
directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy faced challenges as Hamas
Hamas
captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U.S. support. She has logged more miles traveling than any other Secretary of State. While in the position, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.[1] In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University
Stanford University
as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.[2][3] In September 2010, she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy.[4] She is currently on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC.[5][6]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Early education 1.2 High school and university education 1.3 Early political views

2 Academic career

2.1 Provost promotion 2.2 Balancing school budget 2.3 Special
Special
interest issues 2.4 Return to Stanford

3 Role in Nuclear Strategy 4 Music 5 Private sector 6 Early political career 7 National Security Advisor (2001–2005)

7.1 Terrorism 7.2 Subpoenas 7.3 Iraq 7.4 Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques

8 Secretary of State (2005–2009) 9 Post–Bush administration

9.1 College Football Playoff Selection Committee 9.2 Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on successor

10 Political positions

10.1 Terrorist activity 10.2 Abortion 10.3 Female empowerment advocacy 10.4 Immigration 10.5 Gun Issues 10.6 Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues 10.7 Confederate monuments

11 Discrimination 12 Legacy 13 Criticism

13.1 Criticism from Human Rights Watch 13.2 Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer 13.3 Conservative criticism 13.4 Views within the black community

14 Family and personal life 15 Honorary degrees 16 Honors 17 See also 18 Published works 19 Notes 20 References 21 Further reading

21.1 Academic studies 21.2 Popular books and commentary

22 External links

Early life Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, the only child of Angelena (née Ray) Rice, a high school science, music, and oratory teacher, and John Wesley Rice, Jr., a high school guidance counselor, Presbyterian minister,[7][8] and dean of students at Stillman College, a historically black college in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.[9] Her name, Condoleezza, derives from the music-related term con dolcezza, which in Italian means, "with sweetness". Rice has roots in the American South going back to the pre-Civil War era, and some of her ancestors worked as sharecroppers for a time after emancipation. Rice discovered on the PBS
PBS
series Finding Your Roots[10] that she is of 51% African, 40% European, and 9% Asian or Native American genetic descent, while her mtDNA is traced back to the Tikar people
Tikar people
of Cameroon.[11] In her 2017 book, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom, she writes, "My great-great-grandmother Zina on my mother's side bore five children by different slave owners" and "My great-grandmother on my father's side, Julia Head, carried the name of the slave owner and was so favored by him that he taught her to read."[12] Rice grew up in the Titusville[13] neighborhood of Birmingham, and then Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at a time when the South was racially segregated. The Rices lived on the campus of Stillman College.[9] Early education Rice began to learn French, music, figure skating and ballet at the age of three.[14] At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist.[15] While Rice ultimately did not become a professional pianist, she still practices often and plays with a chamber music group. She accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
playing Johannes Brahms' Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall
Constitution Hall
in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
Awards.[16][17] High school and university education In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado, and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father was then serving as an assistant dean. Rice initially majored in Music, and after her sophomore year, she went to the Aspen Music Festival and School. There, she later said, she met students of greater talent than herself, and she doubted her career prospects as a pianist. She began to consider an alternative major.[15][18] She attended an International Politics course taught by Josef Korbel, which sparked her interest in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and international relations. Rice later described Korbel (who is the father of Madeleine Albright, then a future U.S. Secretary of State), as a central figure in her life.[19] In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, and was awarded a B.A., cum laude, in political science by the University of Denver. While at the University of Denver
University of Denver
she was a member of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter.[20] She obtained a master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1975. She first worked in the State Department
State Department
in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. She would also study Russian at Moscow State University in the summer of 1979, and intern with the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California.[21] In 1981, at age 26, she received her Ph.D. in political science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation centered on military policy and politics in what was then the communist state of Czechoslovakia.[22] From 1980 to 1981, she was a fellow at Stanford University's Arms Control and Disarmament Program, having won a Ford Foundation
Ford Foundation
Dual Expertise Fellowship in Soviet Studies and International Security.[21] The award granted a year-long fellowship at Harvard University, Stanford University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology or University of California, Los Angeles. Rice contacted both Harvard and Stanford, but states that Harvard ignored her.[21] Her fellowship at Stanford began her academic affiliation with the University and time in Northern California. Early political views Rice was a Democrat until 1982, when she changed her political affiliation to Republican, in part because she disagreed with the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter,[23][24] and because of the influence of her father, who was Republican. As she told the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father joined our party because the Democrats in Jim Crow
Jim Crow
Alabama
Alabama
of 1952 would not register him to vote. The Republicans did."[25] Academic career

Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
during a 2005 interview on ITV in London

Rice was hired by Stanford University
Stanford University
as an assistant professor of political science (1981–1987). She was promoted to associate professor in 1987, a post she held until 1993. She was a specialist on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and gave lectures on the subject for the Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC Berkeley Professor
Professor
George W. Breslauer in the mid-1980s. At a 1985 meeting of arms control experts at Stanford, Rice's performance drew the attention of Brent Scowcroft, who had served as National Security Advisor under Gerald Ford.[26] With the election of George H. W. Bush, Scowcroft returned to the White House
White House
as National Security Adviser in 1989, and he asked Rice to become his Soviet expert on the United States National Security Council. According to R. Nicholas Burns, President Bush was "captivated" by Rice, and relied heavily on her advice in his dealings with Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and Boris Yeltsin.[26] Because she would have been ineligible for tenure at Stanford if she had been absent for more than two years, she returned there in 1991. She was taken under the wing of George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(Ronald Reagan's Secretary of State from 1982 to 1989), who was a fellow at the Hoover Institution. Shultz included Rice in a "luncheon club" of intellectuals who met every few weeks to discuss foreign affairs.[26] In 1992, Shultz, who was a board member of Chevron Corporation, recommended Rice for a spot on the Chevron board. Chevron was pursuing a $10 billion development project in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and, as a Soviet specialist, Rice knew the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. She traveled to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
on Chevron's behalf and, in honor of her work, in 1993, Chevron named a 129,000-ton supertanker SS Condoleezza Rice.[26] During this period, Rice was also appointed to the boards of Transamerica Corporation
Transamerica Corporation
(1991) and Hewlett-Packard (1992). At Stanford, in 1992, Rice volunteered to serve on the search committee to replace outgoing president Donald Kennedy. The committee ultimately recommended Gerhard Casper, the Provost of the University of Chicago. Casper met Rice during this search, and was so impressed that in 1993, he appointed her as Stanford's Provost, the chief budget and academic officer of the university in 1993[26] and she also was granted tenure and became full professor.[27] Rice was the first female, first African-American, and youngest Provost in Stanford's history.[28] She was also named a senior fellow of the Institute for International Studies, and a senior fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover Institution. Provost promotion Former Stanford President Gerhard Casper
Gerhard Casper
said the university was "most fortunate in persuading someone of Professor
Professor
Rice's exceptional talents and proven ability in critical situations to take on this task. Everything she has done, she has done well; I have every confidence that she will continue that record as provost."[29] Acknowledging Rice's unique character, Casper told the New Yorker in 2002 that it "would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that she was a woman, the fact that she was black and the fact that she was young weren't in my mind."[30] Balancing school budget As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the university's multibillion-dollar budget. The school at that time was running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she promised that the budget would be balanced within "two years." Coit Blacker, Stanford's deputy director of the Institute for International Studies, said there "was a sort of conventional wisdom that said it couldn't be done... that [the deficit] was structural, that we just had to live with it." Two years later, Rice announced that the deficit had been eliminated and the university was holding a record surplus of over $14.5 million.[31] Special
Special
interest issues Rice drew protests when, as Provost, she departed from the practice of applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and unsuccessfully sought to consolidate the university's ethnic community centers.[32] Return to Stanford During a farewell interview in early December 2008, Rice indicated she would return to Stanford and the Hoover Institution, "back west of the Mississippi where I belong," but beyond writing and teaching did not specify what her role would be.[33] Rice's plans for a return to campus were elaborated in an interview with the Stanford Report in January 2009.[34] She returned to Stanford as a political science professor and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution
Hoover Institution
on March 1, 2009.[35] As of 2012 she is on the Political Science faculty as a professor of political science and on the faculty of the Graduate School of Business as the Denning Professor
Professor
in Global Business and the Economy, in addition to being the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.[36] Role in Nuclear Strategy In 1986, Rice was appointed special assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
to work on nuclear strategic planning as part of a Council on Foreign Relations fellowship. In 2005, Rice assumed office as Secretary of State. Rice played a big responsibility in trying to stop the nuclear threat from North Korea
North Korea
and Iran.[37] North Korea North Korea
North Korea
signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
in 1985, but in 2002 revealed they were operating a secret nuclear weapons program that violated the 1994 agreement. The 1994 agreement between the United States and North Korea
North Korea
included North Korea
North Korea
agreeing to freeze and eventually dismantle its graphite moderated nuclear reactors, in exchange for international aid which would help them to build two new light-water nuclear reactors. In 2003, North Korea
North Korea
officially withdrew from the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Rice played a key role in the idea of “six-party talks” that brought China, Japan, Russia, and South Korea into discussion with North Korea
North Korea
and the United States.[38] During these discussions, Rice gave strong talks to urge North Korea to dismantle their nuclear power program. In 2005, North Korea
North Korea
agreed to give up its entire nuclear program in exchange for security guarantees and economic benefits to ensure its survival.[37] Despite the agreement in 2005, in 2006, North Korea
North Korea
test fires long range missiles. The UN Security Council
UN Security Council
demanded North Korea
North Korea
suspend the program. In 2007, Rice was involved in another nuclear agreement with North Korea
North Korea
(Pyongyang). Rice, other negotiators for the United States and four other nations (six-party talks) reached a deal with North Korea. In this deal North Korea
North Korea
agreed to close its main nuclear reactor in exchange for $400 million in fuel and aid.[37] India In 2008, Indian prime minister announced the Agreement for Cooperation between the United States and India involving peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As Secretary of State, Rice was involved in the negation of this agreement.[37] Music

Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
and Rice after performing together at the 2001 National Medal of Arts and National Humanities Medal Awards, April 22, 2002

Rice has played piano in public since she was a young girl. At the age of 15, she played Mozart with the Denver
Denver
Symphony, and while Secretary of State she played regularly with a chamber music group in Washington.[16] She does not play professionally, but has performed at diplomatic events at embassies, including a performance for Queen Elizabeth II,[39][40] and she has performed in public with cellist Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
and singer Aretha Franklin.[41] In 2005, Rice accompanied Charity Sunshine Tillemann-Dick, a 21-year-old soprano, for a benefit concert for the Pulmonary Hypertension Association at the Kennedy Center in Washington.[42][43] She performed briefly during her cameo appearance in the "Everything Sunny All the Time Always" episode of 30 Rock. She has stated that her favorite composer is Johannes Brahms, because she thinks Brahms's music is "passionate but not sentimental." On a complementary note, on Friday, April 10, 2009, on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, she stated that her favorite band is Led Zeppelin. As Secretary of State, Rice was ex officio a member of the Board of Trustees of the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Center for the Performing Arts. As the end of their tenures approached in January 2009, outgoing President Bush appointed her to a six-year term as a general trustee, filling a vacancy on the board. Private sector Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Chevron honored Rice by naming an oil tanker Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
after her, but controversy led to its being renamed Altair Voyager.[44] She also served on the board of directors for the Carnegie Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation, and other organizations. In 1992, Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school program created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California.[45] After her tenure as secretary of state, Rice was approached in February 2009 to fill an open position as a Pac-10
Pac-10
Commissioner,[46] but chose instead to return to Stanford University
Stanford University
as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In 2014 Rice joined the Ban Bossy
Ban Bossy
campaign as a spokesperson advocating leadership roles for girls.[47][48][49] Early political career In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, Rice served as special assistant to the director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. From 1989 through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H. W. Bush's administration as director, and then senior director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special
Special
Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Rice wrote what would become known as the "Chicken Kiev speech" in which Bush advised the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's parliament, against independence. She also helped develop Bush's and Secretary of State James Baker's policies in favor of German reunification. She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, as the one who "tells me everything I know about the Soviet Union."[50] In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford, although she continued to serve as a consultant on the former Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that year, California Governor
California Governor
Pete Wilson
Pete Wilson
appointed her to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw new state legislative and congressional districts in the state. In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-Integrated Training in the Military. During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential election campaign, Rice took a one-year leave of absence from Stanford University
Stanford University
to serve as his foreign policy advisor. The group of advisors she led called itself The Vulcans
The Vulcans
in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would later go on to give a noteworthy speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention. The speech asserted that "... America's armed forces are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."[25][51] National Security Advisor (2001–2005)

Rice, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
speak about the Middle East on June 24, 2002

On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford.[52] She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess", reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.[53] On January 18, 2003, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reported that Rice was involved in crafting Bush's position on race-based preferences. Rice has stated that "while race-neutral means are preferable", race can be taken into account as "one factor among others" in university admissions policies.[54] Terrorism During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA
CIA
Director George Tenet
George Tenet
to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on American targets. On July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"[55] held at the White House
White House
at Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential threat of an impending al Qaeda attack. Rice responded by asking Tenet to give a presentation on the matter to Secretary Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
and Attorney General John Ashcroft.[56] Rice characterized the August 6, 2001, President's Daily Brief
President's Daily Brief
Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US
Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US
as historical information. Rice indicated "It was information based on old reporting."[57] Sean Wilentz of Salon magazine
Salon magazine
suggested that the PDB contained current information based on continuing investigations, including that Bin Laden wanted to "bring the fighting to America."[58] On September 11, 2001, Rice was scheduled to outline a new national security policy that included missile defense as a cornerstone and played down the threat of stateless terrorism.[59]

President Bush addresses the media at the Pentagon on September 17, 2001

When asked in 2006 about the July 2001 meeting, Rice asserted she did not recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met repeatedly with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats. Moreover, she stated that it was "incomprehensible" to her that she had ignored terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks.[55] In 2003, Rice received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[60] In August 2010, Rice received the U.S. Air Force Academy's 2009 Thomas D. White National Defense Award for contributions to the defense and security of the United States.[61] Subpoenas In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House
White House
claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify[62] so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy. In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that Iraq
Iraq
sought yellowcake uranium from Niger.[63] Iraq

Cheney, Rice and Rumsfeld participate in a video conference with President Bush and Iraqi PM Maliki.

Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We Know Iraq
Iraq
Is Lying".[64] In a January 10, 2003, interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, Rice made headlines by stating regarding Iraqi president Saddam Hussein's nuclear capabilities: "The problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."[65] In October 2003, Rice was named to run the Iraq
Iraq
Stabilization Group, to "quell violence in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan and to speed the reconstruction of both countries."[66] By May 2004, The Washington Post reported that the council had become virtually nonexistent.[67] Leading up to the 2004 presidential election, Rice became the first National Security Advisor to campaign for an incumbent president. She stated that while: "Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the actual attacks on America, Saddam Hussein's Iraq
Iraq
was a part of the Middle East that was festering and unstable, [and] was part of the circumstances that created the problem on September 11."[68] After the invasion, when it became clear that Iraq
Iraq
did not have nuclear WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax", "deception" and "demagogic scare tactic".[69][70] Dana Milbank
Dana Milbank
and Mike Allen wrote in The Washington Post: "Either she missed or overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to put caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she made public claims that she knew to be false".[71] Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques A Senate Intelligence Committee
Senate Intelligence Committee
reported that on July 17, 2002, Rice met with CIA
CIA
director George Tenet
George Tenet
to personally convey the Bush administration's approval of the proposed waterboarding of alleged Al Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. "Days after Dr Rice gave Mr Tenet her approval, the Justice Department approved the use of waterboarding in a top secret August 1 memo."[72] Waterboarding
Waterboarding
is considered to be torture by a wide range of authorities, including legal experts,[73][74][75][76] war veterans,[77][78] intelligence officials,[79] military judges,[80] human rights organizations,[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder,[89] and many senior politicians, including U.S. President Barack Obama.[90] In 2003 Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
and Attorney General John Ashcroft met with the CIA
CIA
again and were briefed on the use of waterboarding and other methods including week-long sleep deprivation, forced nudity and the use of stress positions. The Senate report says that the Bush administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA program was lawful and reflected administration policy".[72] The Senate report also "suggests Miss Rice played a more significant role than she acknowledged in written testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee submitted in the autumn."[72] At that time, she had acknowledged attending meetings to discuss the CIA
CIA
interrogations, but she claimed that she could not recall the details, and she "omitted her direct role in approving the programme in her written statement to the committee."[91] In a conversation with a student at Stanford University
Stanford University
in April 2009, Rice stated that she did not authorize the CIA
CIA
to use the enhanced interrogation techniques. Rice said, "I didn't authorize anything. I conveyed the authorization of the administration to the agency that they had policy authorization, subject to the Justice Department's clearance. That's what I did."[92] She added, "We were told, nothing that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture. And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it did not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against Torture."[92] Secretary of State (2005–2009) Main article: Condoleezza Rice's tenure as Secretary of State

Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching are, from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George W. Bush.

Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
visits Governor General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean
Michaëlle Jean
in Ottawa, Ontario.

On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85–13.[93] The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825,[93] came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq
Iraq
and in the war on terrorism."[94] Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Saddam's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd
Robert Byrd
voted against Rice's appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."[95] As Secretary of State, Rice championed the expansion of democratic governments and other American values: “American values are universal.”[96] “An international order that reflects our values is the best guarantee of our enduring national interest…” [97] Rice stated that the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001 were rooted in "oppression and despair" and so, the US must advance democratic reform and support basic rights throughout the greater Middle East.[98] Rice also reformed and restructured the department, as well as US diplomacy as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the goal that Rice describes as "work[ing] with our many partners around the world... [and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic, well-governed states that will respond to the needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system."[99]

Rice with Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal

As Secretary of State, Rice traveled heavily and initiated many diplomatic efforts on behalf of the Bush administration;[100] she holds the record for most miles logged in the position.[101] Her diplomacy relied on strong presidential support and is considered to be the continuation of style defined by former Republican secretaries of state Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
and James Baker.[100]

Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
speaks with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
during her April 2005 trip to Russia.

Post–Bush administration After the end of the Bush Administration, Rice returned to academia and joined the Council on Foreign Relations.[102] She appeared as herself in 2011 on the NBC
NBC
sitcom 30 Rock
30 Rock
in the fifth-season episode "Everything Sunny All the Time Always", in which she engages in a classical-music duel with Jack Donaghy
Jack Donaghy
(Alec Baldwin). Within the world of the show, Donaghy had had a relationship with Rice during the show's first season. It was announced on March 19, 2013, that Rice is writing a book to be published in 2015 by Henry Holt & Company.[103] In August 2015, High Point University
High Point University
announced that Rice would serve as their commencement speaker in, May 7, 2016.[104] On Saturday, May 7, 2016, Rice spoke to nearly 10,000 people in attendance at High Point University's commencement ceremony. Her commencement address was highlighted by The Huffington Post,[105] Fortune,[106] Business Insider.,[107] NBC
NBC
News, Time, and USA Today.

Rice with President Donald Trump, March 31, 2017

In May 2017, Rice said that alleged Russian hacking of DNC emails should “absolutely not” delegitimize Donald Trump’s presidency.[108] College Football Playoff Selection Committee In October 2013, Rice was selected to be one of the 13 inaugural members of the College Football Playoff, Playoff, Postseason, Selection Committee.[109] Her appointment caused a minor controversy in the sport.[110] In October 2014, she revealed that she watched "14 or 15 games every week live on TV on Saturdays and recorded games on Sundays."[111] Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on successor There had been previous speculation that Rice would run for the Republican nomination in the 2008 primaries, which she ruled out on Meet the Press. On February 22, 2008, Rice played down any suggestion that she may be on the Republican vice presidential ticket, saying, "I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office in the United States."[112] During an interview with the editorial board of The Washington Times
The Washington Times
on March 27, 2008, Rice said she was "not interested" in running for vice president.[113] In a Gallup poll
Gallup poll
from March 24 to 27, 2008, Rice was mentioned by eight percent of Republican respondents to be their first choice to be John McCain's Republican vice presidential running mate, slightly behind Mike Huckabee
Mike Huckabee
and Mitt Romney.[114] Republican strategist Dan Senor said on ABC's This Week on April 6, 2008, that "Condi Rice has been actively, actually in recent weeks, campaigning for" the vice presidential nomination. He based this assessment on her attendance of Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax Reform conservative leader's meeting on March 26, 2008.[115] In response to Senor's comments, Rice's spokesperson denied that Rice is seeking the vice presidential nomination, saying, "If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it."[116] In August 2008, the speculation about a potential McCain-Rice ticket finally ended when then-Governor Sarah Palin
Sarah Palin
of Alaska was selected as McCain's running-mate. In early December 2008, Rice praised President-elect Barack Obama's selection of New York Senator Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
to succeed her as Secretary of State, saying "she's terrific". Rice, who has spoken to Clinton since her selection, said Clinton "is someone of intelligence and she'll do a great job".[117] Political positions Terrorist activity Rice's policy as Secretary of State viewed counter-terrorism as a matter of being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember that in this war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal activity where you can allow somebody to commit the crime and then you go back and you arrest them and you question them. If they succeed in committing their crime, then hundreds or indeed thousands of people die. That's why you have to prevent, and intelligence is the long pole in the tent in preventing attacks."[118]

Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Rangin Dadfar Spanta
Rangin Dadfar Spanta
to discuss anti-terrorism efforts

Rice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence community's inability to cooperate and share information, which she believes is an integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one year after Osama bin Laden told Time "[h]ostility toward America is a religious duty,"[51] and a year before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rice warned on WJR
WJR
Detroit: "You really have to get the intelligence agencies better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind of split responsibility, of course, between the CIA
CIA
and foreign intelligence and the FBI
FBI
and domestic intelligence." She then added: "There needs to be better cooperation because we don't want to wake up one day and find out that Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
has been successful on our own territory."[119] Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In a speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of democracy."[120]

Rice chats with a member of the Saudi Royal Family after welcoming the new King Salman of Saudi Arabia, January 27, 2015

In January 2005, during Bush's second inaugural ceremonies, Rice first used the term "outposts of tyranny" to refer to countries Rice thought to threaten world peace and human rights. This term has been called a descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil", used to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which she said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea. Abortion Rice said "If you go back to 2000 when I helped the president in the campaign. I said that I was, in effect, kind of libertarian on this issue. And meaning by that, that I have been concerned about a government role in this issue. I am a strong proponent of parental choice—of parental notification. I am a strong proponent of a ban on late-term abortion. These are all things that I think unite people and I think that that's where we should be. I've called myself at times mildly pro-choice."[121] She would not want the federal government "forcing its views on one side or the other."[122] Rice said she believes President Bush "has been in exactly the right place" on abortion, "which is we have to respect the culture of life and we have to try and bring people to have respect for it and make this as rare a circumstance as possible" However, she added that she has been "concerned about a government role" but has "tended to agree with those who do not favor federal funding for abortion, because I believe that those who hold a strong moral view on the other side should not be forced to fund" the procedure.[122] Female empowerment advocacy In March 2014 Rice joined and appeared in video spots for the Ban Bossy campaign, a television and social media campaign designed to ban the word "bossy" from general use because of its harmful effect on young girls. Several video spots with other notable spokespersons including Beyoncé, Jennifer Garner
Jennifer Garner
and others were produced along with a web site providing school training material, leadership tips, and an online pledge form to which visitors can promise not to use the word.[47][48][49] Immigration Condoleeza Rice supported the comprehensive immigration plan backed by the Bush administration and shared that it was among her regrets that it did not pass through Congress.[123] In 2014, Rice criticized the Obama administration from seeking to approve immigration reforms through executive action.[124] In February 2017 Rice publicly announced her opposition to the Trump administration's travel ban.[123] Gun Issues Rice says that she became a "Second Amendment absolutist" due to her experience of growing up in Birmingham and facing threats from the KKK.[124] "Rice’s fondness for the Second Amendment began while watching her father sit on the porch with a gun, ready to defend his family against the Klan’s night riders."[125] Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues While Rice does not support same-sex marriage, she does support civil unions. In 2010, Rice stated that she believed "marriage is between a man and a woman ... But perhaps we will decide that there needs to be some way for people to express their desire to live together through civil union.”[126] When asked to select a view on a survey, Rice selected a response that said "Same-sex couples should be allowed to form civil unions, but not marry in the traditional sense."[127] Confederate monuments In May 2017, Rice said she was opposed to the removal of Confederate monuments and memorials or the renaming of buildings named after Confederate generals.[128] She argued, "If you forget your history, you’re likely to repeat it. [...] When you start wiping out your history, sanitizing your history to make you feel better, it’s a bad thing."[129] Discrimination Rice experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk proudly in public and to use the facilities at home rather than subject herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town. As Rice recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to allow the limits and injustices of their time to limit our horizons."[130]

President Bush signing bill for Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
statue at Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C.

However, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered discrimination on account of her race, which included being relegated to a storage room at a department store instead of a regular dressing room, being barred from going to the circus or the local amusement park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being given bad food at restaurants.[131] Also, while Rice was mostly kept by her parents from areas where she might face discrimination, she was very aware of the civil rights struggle and the problems of Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws in Birmingham. A neighbor, Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and say things like, 'Did you see what Bull Connor
Bull Connor
did today?' She was just a little girl and she did that all the time. I would have to read the newspaper thoroughly because I wouldn't know what she was going to talk about."[131] Rice herself said of the segregation era: "Those terrible events burned into my consciousness. I missed many days at my segregated school because of the frequent bomb threats."[131] During the violent days of the Civil Rights Movement, Reverend Rice armed himself and kept guard over the house while Condoleezza practiced the piano inside. According to J. L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice called local civil rights leader Fred Shuttlesworth
Fred Shuttlesworth
and his followers "uneducated, misguided Negroes."[132][133] Also, Reverend Rice instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have to prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to be "twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.[134] Rice said "My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so well prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were revered in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow from racism. I would be able to confront white society on its own terms."[135] While the Rices supported the goals of the civil rights movement, they did not agree with the idea of putting their child in harm's way.[131] Rice was eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was killed in the bombing of the primarily black Sixteenth Street Baptist Church by white supremacists on September 15, 1963. Rice has commented upon that moment in her life:

I remember the bombing of that Sunday School at 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham in 1963. I did not see it happen, but I heard it happen, and I felt it happen, just a few blocks away at my father's church. It is a sound that I will never forget, that will forever reverberate in my ears. That bomb took the lives of four young girls, including my friend and playmate, Denise McNair. The crime was calculated to suck the hope out of young lives, bury their aspirations. But those fears were not propelled forward, those terrorists failed.[136]

Rice states that growing up during racial segregation taught her determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good" as non-minorities.[137] Segregation also hardened her stance on the right to bear arms; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration had been mandatory, her father's weapons would have been confiscated by Birmingham's segregationist director of public safety, Bull Connor,[138] leaving them defenseless against Ku Klux Klan nightriders.[131] Legacy

Rice greets U.S. military personnel at the American Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, on May 15, 2005.

Rice has appeared four times on the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the world's 100 most influential people. Rice is one of only nine people in the world whose influence has been considered enduring enough to have made the list—first compiled in 1999 as a retrospective of the 20th century and made an annual feature in 2004—so frequently. However, the list contains people who have the influence to change for better or for worse, and Time has also accused her of squandering her influence, stating on February 1, 2007, that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to recognize the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined."[139] In its March 19, 2007 issue it followed up stating that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."[140] In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the world by Forbes
Forbes
magazine and number two in 2006 (following the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel).[141] Criticism

This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material. (October 2015)

Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy.

Criticism from Human Rights Watch Citing her role in authorizing the use of so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques", Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
called for the investigation of Rice "for conspiracy to torture as well as other crimes."[142] Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer California
California
Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer
Barbara Boxer
has also criticized Rice in relation to the war in Iraq. During Rice's confirmation hearing for US Secretary of State in January 2005, Boxer stated, "I personally believe—this is my personal view—that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."[143] On January 11, 2007, Boxer, during a debate over the war in Iraq, said, "Now, the issue is who pays the price, who pays the price? I'm not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old, and my grandchild is too young. You're not going to pay a particular price, as I understand it, within immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families, and I just want to bring us back to that fact." The New York Post
New York Post
and White House
White House
Press Secretary Tony Snow
Tony Snow
called Boxer's statement an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism."[144] Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn't have children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They're getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn't say. I'm saying, she's like me, we do not have families who are in the military."[145] Conservative criticism According to The Washington Post
The Washington Post
in late July 2008, former Undersecretary of State and U.N. Ambassador John R. Bolton
John R. Bolton
was referring to Rice and her allies in the Bush Administration whom he believes have abandoned earlier hard-line principles when he said: "Once the collapse begins, adversaries have a real opportunity to gain advantage. In terms of the Bush presidency, this many reversals this close to the end destroys credibility... It appears there is no depth to which this administration will not sink in its last days."[146] Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
repeatedly criticized Rice after their terms in office ended. In his book Known and Unknown: A Memoir, he portrayed her as a young, inexperienced academic who did not know her place.[147] In 2011 she finally responded, saying that Rumsfeld "doesn't know what he's talking about."[148] In his book In My Time, Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
suggested that Rice had misled the president about nuclear diplomacy with North Korea, saying she was naïve. He called her advice on the issue "utterly misleading." He also chided Rice for clashing with White House
White House
advisers on the tone of the president's speeches on Iraq
Iraq
and said that she, as the Secretary of State, ruefully conceded to him that the Bush administration should not have apologized for a claim the president made in his 2003 State of the Union address, on Saddam's supposed search for yellowcake uranium. She "came into my office, sat down in the chair next to my desk, and tearfully admitted I had been right," Cheney wrote. Rice responded: "It certainly doesn't sound like me, now, does it?", saying that she viewed the book as an "attack on my integrity."[149] Rice has also been criticized by other conservatives. Stephen Hayes of the Weekly Standard
Weekly Standard
accused her of jettisoning the Bush Doctrine, including the Iraq
Iraq
War troop surge of 2007.[150] Other conservatives criticized her for her approach to Russia policy and other issues.[151] Views within the black community

Rice's approval ratings from January 2005 to September 2006

Rice's ratings decreased following a heated battle for her confirmation as Secretary of State and following Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
in August 2005. Rice's rise within the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration initially drew a largely positive response from many in the black community. In a 2002 survey, then National Security Advisor Rice was viewed favorably by 41% of black respondents, but another 40% did not know Rice well enough to rate her and her profile remained comparatively obscure.[152] As her role increased, some black commentators began to express doubts concerning Rice's stances and statements on various issues. In 2005, Washington Post
Washington Post
columnist Eugene Robinson asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so radically different from that of most black Americans?"[153]

Rice and Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer
Alexander Downer
participate in a news conference at the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, May 23, 2007.

In August 2005, American musician, actor, and social activist Harry Belafonte, who serves on the Board of TransAfrica, referred to blacks in the Bush administration as "black tyrants."[154] Belafonte's comments received mixed reactions.[152] Rice dismissed these criticisms during a September 14, 2005 interview when she said, "Why would I worry about something like that? ... The fact of the matter is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to tell me how to be black."[155] Notable black commentators have defended Rice, including Mike Espy,[156] Andrew Young, C. Delores Tucker
C. Delores Tucker
(chair of the National Congress of Black Women),[157] Clarence Page,[158] Colbert King,[159] Dorothy Height
Dorothy Height
(chair and president emerita of the National Council of Negro Women)[159] and Kweisi Mfume
Kweisi Mfume
(former Congressman and former CEO of the NAACP).[160] Family and personal life Rice has never married and has no children.[144] In the 1970s, she dated and was briefly engaged to professional American football player Rick Upchurch. She left him because, according to her biographer Marcus Mabry, "She knew the relationship wasn't going to work."[161] Her mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer at age 61 in August 1985, when Condoleeza was 30.[162] In July 1989, her father, John Wesley Rice, married Clara Bailey,[163] to whom he remained married until his death, in December 2000, aged 77.[164] He was a Presbyterian minister, high school guidance counsellor, and a football and basketball coach, before becoming an administrator at the University of Denver
Denver
where his daughter earned an undergraduate degree and later a PhD in International Studies.[165] From 2003 to 2017 Rice co-owned a home in Palo Alto, California
California
with Randy Bean. According to public records, the two initially purchased the home with a third investor, Stanford University
Stanford University
professor Coit D. Blacker, who later sold his line of credit to the two women. The co-owned property was first made known to the public in Glenn Kessler's 2007 book The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and the Creation of the Bush Legacy, sparking rumors about the nature of Rice and Bean's relationship. Kessler has stated he “did not know if this meant there was something more to the relationship between the women beyond a friendship.”[166][167][168][169] On August 20, 2012, it was announced that Rice was one of the first two women to be admitted as members to Augusta National Golf Club
Augusta National Golf Club
(the other is South Carolina financier Darla Moore).[170] In 2014, Rice was named as one of ESPNW's Impact 25.[171] Honorary degrees Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
has received honorary degrees from many universities, including the following:

Honorary degrees

State Date School Degree

Georgia 1991 Morehouse College Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
(LL.D)

 Alabama 1994 University of Alabama Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)

 Indiana 1995 University of Notre Dame Doctorate

 District of Columbia 2002 National Defense University Doctor of National Security Affairs

 Mississippi 2003 Mississippi College School of Law Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
(LL.D)

 Kentucky 2004 University of Louisville Doctor of Public Service

 Michigan Spring 2004 Michigan State University Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) [172]

 Massachusetts May 22, 2006 Boston College Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
(LL.D) [173]

 Alabama April 14, 2008 Air University Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters
(D. Litt) [174]

 North Carolina 2010 Johnson C. Smith University Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
(LL.D) [175]

 Texas May 12, 2012 Southern Methodist University Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
(LL.D) [176]

 Virginia May 2015 College of William and Mary Doctor of Public Service
Doctor of Public Service
[177]

[178][179] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Honors

Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun, 2017

See also

List of female United States Cabinet Secretaries

Published works

Rice, Condoleezza (1984). The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Czechoslovak Army: Uncertain Allegiance. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-06921-2 Rice, Condoleezza & Dallin, Alexander (eds.) (1986). The Gorbachev Era. Stanford Alumni Association, trade paperback (1986), ISBN 0-916318-18-4; Garland Publishing, Incorporated, hardcover (1992), 376 pages, ISBN 0-8153-0571-0. Rice, Condoleezza with Zelikow, Philip D. Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft. Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. hardcover (1995), 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35324-2; trade paperback, 1997, 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35325-0. Rice, Condoleezza, "Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest Foreign Affairs" in Foreign Affairs, 2000. Rice, Condoleezza, with Kiron K. Skinner, Serhiy Kudelia, and Bruce Bueno de Mesquita. The Strategy of Campaigning: Lessons from Ronald Reagan and Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(2007), paperback, 356 pages, ISBN 978-0-472-03319-5. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Rice, Condoleezza, Extraordinary, Ordinary People: A Memoir of Family (2010) Crown Archetype, ISBN 978-0-307-58787-9 Rice, Condoleezza, No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington (2011) Crown Archetype, ISBN 978-0-307-58786-2 Rice, Condoleezza, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom (2017) Twelve, 496 pages, ISBN 978-1455540181.

Notes

^ "Board of Directors". Millennium Challenge Corporation. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2009. The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board...  ^ "Condi Rice website at Stanford University". Fsi.stanford.edu. Retrieved May 27, 2009.  ^ Condoleezza Rice. "Condi Rice website at the Hoover Institution". Hoover.org. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2009.  ^ Gloeckler, Geoff. "Getting In Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
To Join Stanford B-School Faculty In September". Business Week. Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2010.  ^ "About - Dropbox". Dropbox. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ https://www.makenacap.com/team/dr-condoleezza-rice/ ^ "Condoleezza Rice". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved October 26, 2008.  ^ "The Unflappable Condi Rice". September 1, 2003. Retrieved March 8, 2012.  ^ a b Horton, Ebony (December 6, 2004). " Stillman College
Stillman College
educators recall Rice's ties to town". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved January 1, 2018. Rice moved from Titusville, near Birmingham, to Tuscaloosa in 1966 when her father, John Rice, became the dean of students at Stillman. The family resided on campus in a brick home behind Hay Residence Hall, while Rice, then 11, attended what is now Central High School.  ^ "Ancestry Testing Goes For Pinpoint Accuracy : Nature News & Comment". Nature. June 6, 2012.  ^ "Episode 7: Finding Your Roots
Finding Your Roots
with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., DNA". Your Genetic Genealogist.  "Dr. Gates' team also ordered an admixture test for Condoleeza. This DNA analysis revealed that her genetic makeup is 51% African, 40% European and 9% Native American or Asian", and "Condoleezza was surprised to learn that her mtDNA traced back to the Tikar people
Tikar people
of Cameroon" ^ Rice, Condoleezza (2017). Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 9781455540181.  ^ Emma Beck (February 28, 2005). "Growing up with Condoleezza Rice". BBC NEWS. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ Hawkins, B. Denise (September–October 2002). "Condoleezza Rice's Secret Weapon". Today's Christian. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.  ^ a b "Condoleezza Rice". Mad About Music. Mad About Music. 2005-01-02. WNYC. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved October 18, 2014.  ^ a b Tommasini, Anthony (April 9, 2006). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
on Piano". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ " Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
and Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
perform a duet". C-SPAN. 22 April 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ Chapman, Tamara (Summer 2010). "Facing Forward, Looking Back". University of Denver
University of Denver
Magazine. Retrieved September 1, 2010.  ^ Dobbs, Michael (December 28, 2000). "Josef Korbel's Enduring Foreign Policy Legacy; Professor
Professor
Mentored Daughter Albright and Student Rice". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2008.  ^ [1], additional text. ^ a b c Rice, Condoleezza (2010). Extraordinary Ordinary People: A Memoir of Family. Three Rivers Press. pp. 184–8. ISBN 978-0-307-88847-1.  ^ Rice, Condoleezza (1981). The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975. PhD dissertation. University of Denver.  ^ Balz, Dan (August 1, 2000). "The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2009.  ^ Becker, Maki (April 4, 2004). "20 Things You Probably Didn't Know About". Daily News. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008.  ^ a b Condoleezza, Rice (August 1, 2000). "Text: Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
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Condoleezza Rice
to be next Stanford provost" (Press release). Stanford University. May 19, 1993. Retrieved October 27, 2008.  ^ "Condoleezza Rice". New Yorker. October 14, 2002. p. 181.  ^ Robinson, James (June 9, 1999). "Velvet-glove forcefulness: Seven years of provostial challenges and achievements". Stanford Report. Stanford University. Retrieved October 27, 2008.  ^ Barabak, Mark Z. (January 16, 2005). "Not Always Diplomatic in Her First Major Post; Condoleezza Rice, about to become secretary of State, was a divisive figure while at Stanford". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 27, 2008.  ^ Stephanopoulos, George (December 7, 2008). "This Week (ABC TV series)". ABC News.  ^ Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
on returning to campus. Stanford Report, January 28, 2009. ^ Krieger, Lisa M. (March 1, 2009). "Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
returns to Stanford University". The Mercury News. Retrieved March 2, 2009.  ^ " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
faculty page". Stanford University. Retrieved May 17, 2012.  ^ a b c d Bumiller, Elisabeth (2007). Condoleezza Rice : an American life : a biography (1st ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 9781400065905.  ^ Mabry, Marcus (2007). Twice as good : Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and her path to power. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale. ISBN 9781594863622.  ^ Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
plays piano for the Queen, The Daily Telegraph, December 1, 2008 ^ Rice performs recital for the Queen, BBC News, December 2, 2008 ^ The Washington Post. Condoleezza Rice, Aretha Franklin: A Philadelphia show of a little R-E-S-P-E-C-T. July 29, 2010. ^ Epstein, Edward (June 12, 2005). "Lantos the master storyteller, communicator". San Francisco Chronicle.  ^ Watson, Roland (June 13, 2005). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
plays it again for Charity". The Times. London.  ^ Marinucci, Carla (May 5, 2001). "Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 13, 2008.  ^ " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
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Pac-10
commissioner". Associated Press. February 3, 2009. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.  ^ a b Jolie Lee (May 10, 2014). "Beyonce, Jennifer Garner, Jane Lynch join 'Ban Bossy" campaign. USA Today
USA Today
10 March 2014 Retrieved 8 Aug 2014". USAToday.com. Retrieved August 8, 2014.  ^ a b Peyser, Andrea (March 17, 2014). "Facebook COO Sandberg's ludicrous crusade against bossy". New York Post. Retrieved March 20, 2014.  ^ a b "Beyoncé, Jennifer Garner, Jane Lynch join prominent women in #BanBossy campaign". New York Daily News. March 10, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.  ^ Kettmann, Steve (May 20, 2000). "Bush's secret weapon". Salon.com. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ a b "Exclusive Interview: Conversation with Terror". Time. January 11, 1999. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Kuempel, George; Dodge, Robert (December 17, 2000). "Bush selects three key staff members". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 23, 2009.  ^ Serafin, Tatiana (November 2005). "#1 Condoleezza Rice". The Most Powerful Women. Forbes. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ "Rice says race can be 'one factor' in considering admissions". CNN. January 18, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ a b Shenon, Philip; Mark Mazzetti (October 2, 2006). "Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
Threat". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Landay, Jonathan S.; Warren P. Strobel; John Walcott; Matt Stearns; Drew Brown (October 2, 2006). "Rumsfeld, Ashcroft said to have received warning of attack". The McClatchy Company. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ "Excerpts from April 8, 2004 Testimony of Dr. Condoleezza Rice Before the 9/11 Commission
9/11 Commission
Pertaining to The President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001". National Security Archive. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Wilentz, Sean (April 13, 2004). "Don't know much about history". Salon.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Bever, Lindsey (April 1, 2004). "Top Focus Before 9/11 Wasn't on Terrorism". The Washington Post. [dead link] ^ "Past Winners". Jefferson Awards Foundation. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ Branum, Don (30 August 2010). "Dr. Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
receives 2009 TD White Award". US Air force. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Transcript of Rice's 9/11 commission statement". CNN. May 19, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ "Rice says Saddam questions answered". The Washington Times. April 26, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Rice, Condoleezza (January 23, 2003). "Why We Know Iraq
Iraq
Is Lying". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Blitzer, Wolf (January 10, 2003). "Search for the 'smoking gun'". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Sanger, David E. (October 6, 2003). " White House
White House
to Overhaul Iraq and Afghan Missions". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Dana Milbank, Stabilization Is Its Middle Name, The Washington Post, May 18, 2004, p. A17 ^ "Rice defends decision to go to war in Iraq". CNN. Associated Press. October 22, 2004. Archived from the original on November 17, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ "Report: No WMD stockpiles in Iraq". CNN. October 7, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ Morris, Roger (July 27, 2005). " Condoleezza Rice
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Iraq
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gave nod for 'torture' techniques". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved April 23, 2009.  ^ "Open Letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales". Human Rights Watch. April 5, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2009.  ^ Davis, Benjamin (October 8, 2007). "Endgame on Torture: Time to Call the Bluff". JURIST. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  ^ Wallach, Evan (2007). "Drop by Drop: Forgetting the History of Water Torture in U.S. Courts". The Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. 45 (2): 468–506. ISSN 0010-1931.  A rough draft is also available. ^ National Lawyers Guild, ed. "White Paper on the Law of Torture and Holding Accountable Those Who Are Complicit in Approving Torture of Persons in U.S. Custody" (PDF). National Lawyers Guild, International Association of Democratic Lawyers. Retrieved June 26, 2012. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "French Journalist Henri Alleg Describes His Torture Being Waterboarded by French Forces During Algerian War". Democracy
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Now!. November 5, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  ^ McCain, John (November 21, 2005). "Torture's Terrible Toll". Newsweek. Retrieved April 17, 2009.  ^ Grey, Stephen (2006). Ghost plane: the true story of the CIA
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torture program. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-312-36023-1. OCLC 70335397. As one former CIA official, once a senior official for the directorate of operations, told me: 'Of course it was torture. Try it and you'll see.' Another, also a former higher-up in the directorate of operations, told me: 'Yes, it's torture...'  ^ Bell, Nicole (November 2, 2007). "Retired JAGs Send Letter To Leahy: ' Waterboarding
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is inhumane, it is torture, and it is illegal.'". Crooks and Liars. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 2009.  ^ " CIA
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Whitewashing Torture". Human Rights Watch. November 21, 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2009.  ^ " Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Response to Cheney's 'No-Brainer' Comment" (Press release). Amnesty International. October 26, 2006. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 2009.  ^ "Torture can never, ever be accepted" Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. by Thomas Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights, Council of Europe ^ UK Commons report casts doubt on US denial of torture techniques Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. by Andrew Gilmore, JURIST, July 20, 2008 ^ UK 'must check' US torture denial, BBC News, July 19, 2008 ^ Torture and America's Crisis of Faith – The Senate's retreat from its initial demand that now-Attorney General Michael Mukasey denounce waterboarding is detrimental to the country's moral fabric. For the first time, torture bears an imprimatur of democratic approval by Jonathan Hafetz, The American Prospect, November 28, 2007 ^ White House
White House
nears completion of new torture guidelines; Critics say administration's endorsement of 'enhanced interrogation' is 'immoral,' draw comparisons to Nazi war crimes By Arthur Bright, The Christian Science Monitor, May 31, 2007 ^ The U.S. Has a History of Using Torture. By Alfred W. McCoy. History News Network ^ Memmott, Mark (January 15, 2009). "Holder: Water-boarding is torture; president can't authorize it". USA Today. Retrieved July 1, 2009.  ^ "Raw Data: Transcript of Obama's News Conference". Fox News. April 29, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2009.  ^ Associated Press (April 22, 2009). "As Bush Adviser, Rice Gave OK to Waterboard". Fox News. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ a b Kessler, Glenn, "Rice Defends Use Of Enhanced Techniques", The Washington Post, May 1, 2009, p. 4. ^ a b Associated Press. "Rice sworn in as secretary of state". NBCNews.com. Retrieved January 29, 2013.  ^ Boxer, Barbara (January 27, 2005). "This is just the beginning". PAC for a Change. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.  ^ "Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State" (Press release). Robert Byrd. January 25, 2005. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010.  ^ Condoleezza, Rice (January 2000). "Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest". Foreign Affairs. p. 50.  ^ Rice, Condoleezza (July 2008). "Rethinking the National Interest". Foreign Affairs.  ^ "Princeton University's Celebration of the 75th Anniversary Of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs" (Press release). United States Department of State. September 30, 2005. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ "Transformational Diplomacy" (Press release). United States Department of State. January 18, 2006. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  "Georgetown University address" (Press release). United States Department of State. January 18, 2006. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.  ^ a b "Rice travel diplomacy year – up close and personal". Reuters. October 11, 2005. Retrieved September 11, 2009.  ^ Landler, Mark (January 4, 2013). "Scare Adds to Fears That Clinton's Work Has Taken Toll". The New York Times.  ^ "Membership Roster". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Kaufman, Leslie (March 19, 2013). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
to Write Book for Henry Holt". NY Times.  ^ High Point University. " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
To Serve As 2016 Commencement Speaker". High Point University. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Condoleeza Rice Tells Grads To Find People They Disagree WIth". The Huffington Post. May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.  ^ "8 Inspiring Women Leaders Share Their Best Advice For 2016 Grads". Fortune. May 25, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.  ^ "Instagram photo by Business Insider
Business Insider
• May 24, 2016 at 3:58pm UTC". Instagram. Retrieved May 27, 2016.  ^ "Condoleezza Rice: U.S. should ‘move on’ from Russian election interference". Yahoo News. May 9, 2017. ^ "College Football Playoff officially unveils 13-member selection committee". SI.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013.  ^ " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
discusses her role on the selection committee". SI.com. October 16, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014.  ^ Heather Dinich, Condi Rice talks committee ins, outs, ESPN, October 8, 2014 ^ "Rice says has no plan to run for vice president". Reuters. February 22, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008. I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office.  ^ "Transcript of Secretary Condoleezza Rice's Interview with the Washington Times Editorial
Editorial
Board". The Washington Times. United States Department of State. March 28, 2008. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008. Question: "And would you consider vice president?" Rice: "Not interested." ^ "Gallup Polls on GOP VP Preferences", Gallup, April 4, 2008. ^ "Dan Senor: Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
Is Pursuing the VP Spot". ABC News. April 6, 2008. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016.  ^ Kessler, Glenn (April 7, 2008). "Rice: Still Not Running for VP". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2008. McCormack dismissed both as perfectly ordinary. 'I think if you look back at her tenure, in terms of her activities, you will find all of these activities perfectly normal and consistent with the way she has done her job over the past three years or so,' he said. 'If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it.'  ^ Stephanopoulos, George (December 7, 2008). "Rice on Hillary: 'She's Terrific'". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.  ^ U.S. State Department
State Department
Interview on Fox News
Fox News
Sunday With Chris Wallace. December 18, 2005. Archived January 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rice Quotes Contradict Clarke Account Archived May 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. NewsMax. March 24, 2004. ^ U.S. State Department
State Department
Remarks With Senator Richard Lugar on the U.S. Department of State
Department of State
and the Challenges of the 21st century July 29, 2005. Retrieved June 26, 2012. ^ Allen, Mike (March 13, 2005). "'Mildly Pro-Choice' Rice Won't Rule Out Presidential Bid". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 22, 2017.  ^ a b 2008 run, abortion engage her politically The Washington Post, March 2005 ^ a b " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and Madeline Albright Say Trump's Immigration Ban Is a Bad Idea". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ a b "Rice warns Obama on immigration". POLITICO. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ Garner, Dwight (2010-10-12). "Condoleezza Rice's 'Extraordinary, Ordinary People'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ "Rice's stance on controversial issues". POLITICO. Retrieved 2017-01-25.  ^ " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
on Civil Rights". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2017-01-25.  ^ Jagannathan, Meera (May 8, 2017). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
argues tearing down slave owners' statues is 'sanitizing' history". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ "Condi Rice weighs in on Confederate history". The Dothan Eagle. May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ "Birmingham native Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
confirmation vote delayed as next U.S. Secretary of State" Birmingham Times January 20, 2005. ^ a b c d e "CNN Programs: People in the News". Retrieved June 25, 2010.  ^ Chestnut 2005. Chestnut, J. L., Jr. "Condi Rice's Disdain for the Civil Rights Movement." Black Commentator. Retrieved August 2, 2006. ^ Chestnut, J. L., Jr. Condi Rice's disdain for Civil Rights movement Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Catholic New Times, December 18, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2007. ^ Profile: Condoleezza Rice. BBC News. September 25, 2001. Retrieved August 2, 2006. ^ Russakoff, Dale Lessons of Might and Right: How Segregation and an Indomitable Family Shaped National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice Washington Post
Washington Post
Magazine Published September 9, 2001. Retrieved April 2, 2007. ^ Stan Correy. Condoleezza, Condoleezza. Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National, April 3, 2005. Retrieved July 26, 2006. ^ Derrick Z. Jackson. A lesson from Condoleezza Rice. November 20, 2002. Retrieved February 21, 2006. ^ Pepin, Gail (26 January 2011). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and Guns in the Civil Rights Movement". Uncommon Gunsense. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ "Rice's Toughest Mission", Time, February 1, 2007. ^ "Cheney In Twilight", Time, March 19, 2007. ^ MacDonald, Elizabeth and Chana R. Schoenberger."The World's Most Powerful Women", Forbes, September 1, 2006. ^ "No More Excuses: A Roadmap to Justice for CIA
CIA
Torture". hrw.org. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ "Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?". The Washington Post, January 22, 2005. ^ a b " White House
White House
Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange With Secretary Rice", Fox News, January 13, 2007. ^ "Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoint", The New York Times, January 12, 2007 ^ Eggen, Dan (July 20, 2008). "U.S. Talks With Iran Exemplify Bush's New Approaches". The Washington Post. p. A4. Retrieved July 21, 2008.  ^ Savage, Luiza (February 14, 2011). "Rumsfeld lashes out at John McCain, Condoleezza Rice, and others. Bush's former secretary of defence is still swinging". Retrieved April 5, 2012.  ^ Hartman, Rachel Rose (April 28, 2011). " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
fires back at 'grumpy' Donald Rumsfeld". The Ticket — Yahoo News. Retrieved June 26, 2012.  ^ Haq, Husna (1 September 2011). "Condi Rice fires back at Dick Cheney". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ Hayes, Stephen F. (October 9, 2006). "In the Driver's Seat". Weekly Standard. 13 (36). Retrieved May 27, 2009.  ^ Rosett, Claudia (August 12, 2008). "Georgia and the American Cowboy". National Review. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2009.  ^ a b Jonathon Tilove. For Black America, The Thrill of Powell and Rice Is Gone. Newhouse News Service, March 11, 2004. Retrieved June 26, 2011. ^ Eugene Robinson. What Rice Can't See. The Washington Post, October 25, 2005. ^ Marc Merano. Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Calls Black Republicans 'Tyrants'. Cybercast News Service, August 8, 2005. ^ Interview with Bill O'Reilly of the O'Reilly Factor on Fox News September 14, 2005. Retrieved June 26, 2012. ^ Mrs President. October 25, 2005. ^ Susan Jones. Black Democrats Don't Like Senate's Treatment of Rice. CNS News, January 26, 2005. ^ Page, Clarence (January 10, 2006). "Why Condi's star is rising". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2006.  ^ a b King, Colbert (January 22, 2005). "Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?". The Washington Post. p. A17. Retrieved August 29, 2006.  ^ Associated Press. NAACP: Calling Rice 'Aunt Jemima' is wrong. November 22, 2004. ^ Mabry, Marcus (May 1, 2007). Twice As Good: Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and Her Path to Power. Modern Times. ISBN 1-59486-362-8.  ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams.The Ancestors of Condoleezza Rice ^ John Wesley Rice Jr., 77, Father of Bush Adviser The New York Times. Published December 29, 2000. Retrieved January 20, 2009. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Condoleezza Rice". Retrieved March 8, 2010. [self-published source?] ^ "Give and Take with Condoleezza Rice"[permanent dead link], The Viking, May 12, 2009 ^ "Ex- Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
Selling Palo Alto Home for $2.35M", Realtor.com, January 25, 2017 ^ "Yes, Condi, it is Relevant", HuffPost, September 14, 2007 ^ Kessler, Glenn (September 4, 2007). 'The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy'. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 031236380X.  ^ "Condi's "Closest Female Friend"". The Gist, September 14, 2007 ^ "Augusta adds first woman members", ESPN.com, August 20, 2012 ^ "2014 espnW Impact 25". espnW. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "MSU Honorary Degree Recipients: Alphabetical List". msu.edu. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
to deliver Commencement address". bc.edu. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
to Receive Honorary Air University Degree". state.gov. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Johnson C. Smith University – Honorary Degrees". jcsu.edu. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Condoleezza Rice: Honorary Degree Citation". smu.edu. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Erin Zagursky (May 16, 2015). "W&M celebrates more than 2,500 new graduates". wm.edu. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ "Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State". archives.gov. August 4, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ https://politicalscience.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/cv_rice_april_2013.pdf

References

"Smart, savvy, strong-willed Rice charts her own course". CNN. (2001) Cornwell, Rupert From the axis of evil to the outposts of tyranny. The Independent. (January 20, 2005) Marinucci, Carla. "Critics knock naming oil tanker Condoleezza". San Francisco Chronicle. (April 2001) Marinucci, Carla. "Security adviser Rice weighs run for governor". San Francisco Chronicle. (February 27, 2003) Nordlinger, Jay. "Star-in-waiting: meet George W.'s foreign-policy czarina". National Review. (August 30, 1999) Plotz, David. "Condoleezza Rice: George W. Bush's celebrity adviser". Slate. (May 12, 2000) Richter, Paul "Rice Reshaping Foreign Policy" Los Angeles Times. (March 15, 2005) Richter, Paul. "Under Rice, Powell's Policies Are Reborn". Los Angeles Times. (October 11, 2005) Sullivan, Andrew. Bush-Rice 2004?. London Sunday Times. (March 24, 2002) Against Me!, "From her lips to God's ears (The Energizer)" from the 'searching for a former clarity' album

Further reading Academic studies

John P. Burke; " Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
as NSC Advisor A Case Study of the Honest Broker Role" Presidential Studies Quarterly v 35 #3 pp 554+. James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (2004)

Popular books and commentary

Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S. Secretary Of State (Journey to Freedom) Child's World ISBN 1-59296-231-9 Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience Franklin Watts ISBN 0-531-12307-3 Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical Species (Verso) ISBN 978-1-85984-587-5 Kessler, Glenn (2007). The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and the Creation of the Bush Legacy. ISBN 978-0-312-36380-2 Kettmann, Steve. Bush's Secret Weapon Salon.com Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann. (2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race Regan Books ISBN 0-06-083913-9 Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies) Facts on File ISBN 0-8160-5480-0 Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader Biography (Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane Publishers ISBN 1-58415-145-5, middle school audience Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The Best Millbrook Press Lerner Books ISBN 0-7613-1927-1, middle school audience Rice, Condoleezza (2010). Condoleezza Rice: A Memoir of My Extraordinary, Ordinary Family and Me Ember ISBN 978-0385738804

External links

Biography from the Stanford University Biography from the Hoover Institution Biography from the U.S. Department of State YouTube: Ban Bossy – I'm not bossy, I'm the boss Appearances on C-SPAN Norwood, Arlisha. "Condoleezza Rice". National Women's History Museum. 2017.

Academic offices

Preceded by Gerald Lieberman Provost of Stanford University 1993–1999 Succeeded by John L. Hennessy

Political offices

Preceded by Sandy Berger National Security Advisor 2001–2005 Succeeded by Stephen Hadley

Preceded by Colin Powell United States Secretary of State 2005–2009 Succeeded by Hillary Clinton

Links to related articles

v t e

Assistants to the President for National Security Affairs

Cutler Anderson Jackson Cutler Gray Bundy Rostow Kissinger Scowcroft Brzezinski Allen Clark McFarlane Poindexter Carlucci Powell Scowcroft Lake Berger C. Rice Hadley Jones Donilon S. Rice Flynn Kellogg (Acting) McMaster Bolton

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United States Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

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Cabinet of President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–09)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Colin Powell
Colin Powell
(2001–05) Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
(2005–09)

Secretary of the Treasury

Paul H. O'Neill
Paul H. O'Neill
(2001–02) John W. Snow
John W. Snow
(2003–06) Henry Paulson
Henry Paulson
(2006–09)

Secretary of Defense

Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
(2001–06) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2006–09)

Attorney General

John Ashcroft
John Ashcroft
(2001–05) Alberto Gonzales
Alberto Gonzales
(2005–07) Michael Mukasey
Michael Mukasey
(2007–09)

Secretary of the Interior

Gale Norton
Gale Norton
(2001–06) Dirk Kempthorne
Dirk Kempthorne
(2006–09)

Secretary of Agriculture

Ann Veneman
Ann Veneman
(2001–05) Mike Johanns
Mike Johanns
(2005–07) Ed Schafer
Ed Schafer
(2008–09)

Secretary of Commerce

Donald Evans
Donald Evans
(2001–05) Carlos Gutierrez
Carlos Gutierrez
(2005–09)

Secretary of Labor

Elaine Chao
Elaine Chao
(2001–09)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Tommy Thompson
Tommy Thompson
(2001–05) Mike Leavitt
Mike Leavitt
(2005–09)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Mel Martinez
Mel Martinez
(2001–03) Alphonso Jackson
Alphonso Jackson
(2003–08) Steve Preston
Steve Preston
(2008–09)

Secretary of Transportation

Norman Mineta
Norman Mineta
(2001–06) Mary E. Peters
Mary E. Peters
(2006–09)

Secretary of Energy

Spencer Abraham
Spencer Abraham
(2001–05) Samuel Bodman
Samuel Bodman
(2005–09)

Secretary of Education

Rod Paige
Rod Paige
(2001–05) Margaret Spellings
Margaret Spellings
(2005–09)

Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Anthony Principi
Anthony Principi
(2001–05) Jim Nicholson (2005–07) James Peake
James Peake
(2007–09)

Secretary of Homeland Security

Tom Ridge
Tom Ridge
(2003–05) Michael Chertoff
Michael Chertoff
(2005–09)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–09)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

Andrew Card
Andrew Card
(2001–06) Joshua Bolten
Joshua Bolten
(2006–09)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Christine Todd Whitman
Christine Todd Whitman
(2001–03) Mike Leavitt
Mike Leavitt
(2003–05) Stephen L. Johnson
Stephen L. Johnson
(2005–09)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

Mitch Daniels
Mitch Daniels
(2001–03) Joshua Bolten
Joshua Bolten
(2003–06) Rob Portman
Rob Portman
(2006–07) Jim Nussle
Jim Nussle
(2007–09)

Director of National Drug Control Policy

John P. Walters
John P. Walters
(2001–09)

Trade Representative

Robert Zoellick
Robert Zoellick
(2001–05) Rob Portman
Rob Portman
(2005–06) Susan Schwab
Susan Schwab
(2006–09)

v t e

Stanford University
Stanford University
provosts

Douglas M. Whitaker Frederick Terman Richard Wall Lyman William F. Miller Gerald J. Lieberman Donald Kennedy Albert M. Hastorf James N. Rosse Gerald J. Lieberman Condoleezza Rice John L. Hennessy John Etchemendy Persis Drell

v t e

National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

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