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Conditional access (abbreviated CA) or conditional access system (abbreviated CAS) is the protection of content by requiring certain criteria to be met before granting access to the content. The term is commonly used in relation to digital television systems.

Contents

1 In Digital Video Broadcasting 2 Conditional access in North America 3 Conditional access systems

3.1 Analog systems 3.2 Digital systems

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

In Digital Video Broadcasting[edit] Under the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) standard, conditional access system (CAS) standards are defined in the specification documents for DVB-CA (conditional access), DVB-CSA (the common scrambling algorithm) and DVB-CI (the Common Interface). These standards define a method by which one can obfuscate a digital-television stream, with access provided only to those with valid decryption smart-cards. The DVB specifications for conditional access are available from the standards page on the DVB website. This is achieved by a combination of scrambling and encryption. The data stream is scrambled with a 48-bit secret key, called the control word. Knowing the value of the control word at a given moment is of relatively little value, as under normal conditions, content providers will change the control word several times per minute. The control word is generated automatically in such a way that successive values are not usually predictable; the DVB specification recommends using a physical process for that. In order for the receiver to unscramble the data stream, it must be permanently informed about the current value of the control word. In practice, it must be informed slightly in advance, so that no viewing interruption occurs. Encryption is used to protect the control word during transmission to the receiver: the control word is encrypted as an entitlement control message (ECM). The CA subsystem in the receiver will decrypt the control word only when authorised to do so; that authority is sent to the receiver in the form of an entitlement management message (EMM). The EMMs are specific to each subscriber, as identified by the smart card in his receiver, or to groups of subscribers, and are issued much less frequently than ECMs, usually at monthly intervals. This being apparently not sufficient to prevent unauthorized viewing, TPS has lowered this interval down to about 12 minutes. This can be different for every provider, BSkyB uses a term of 6 weeks. When Nagravision 2 was hacked, Digital+ started sending a new EMM every three days to make unauthorized viewing more cumbersome. The contents of ECMs and EMMs are not standardized and as such they depend on the conditional access system being used. The control word can be transmitted through different ECMs at once. This allows the use of several conditional access systems at the same time, a DVB feature called simulcrypt, which saves bandwidth and encourages multiplex operators to cooperate. DVB Simulcrypt is widespread in Europe; some channels, like the CNN International Europe from the Hot Bird satellites, can use 7 different CA systems in parallel. The decryption cards are read, and sometimes updated with specific access rights, either through a conditional-access module (CAM), a PC card-format card reader meeting DVB-CI standards, or through a built-in ISO/IEC 7816 card reader, such as that in the Sky Digibox. Several companies provide competing CA systems; ABV , VideoGuard, Irdeto, Nagravision, Conax, Viaccess, Cisco, Mediaguard (a.k.a. SECA) are among the most commonly used CA systems. Due to the common usage of CA in DVB systems, many tools to aid in or even directly circumvent encryption exist. CAM emulators and multiple-format CAMs exist which can either read several card formats or even directly decrypt a compromised encryption scheme. Most multiple format CAMs and all CAMs that directly decrypt a signal are based on reverse engineering of the CA systems. A large proportion of the systems currently in use for DVB encryption have been opened to full decryption at some point, including Nagravision, Conax, Viaccess, Mediaguard (v1) as well as the first version of VideoGuard. Conditional access in North America[edit] In Canadian and United States cable systems, the standard for conditional access is provided with CableCARDs whose specification was developed by the cable company consortium CableLabs. Cable companies in the US are required by the Federal Communications Commission to support CableCARDs; standards now exist for two way communication (M-card) but satellite television has its own standards. Next generation approaches in the United States eschew such physical cards and employ schemes using downloadable software for conditional access such as DCAS. The main appeal of such approaches is that the access control may be upgraded dynamically in response to security breaches without requiring expensive exchanges of physical conditional-access modules. Another appeal is that it may be inexpensively incorporated into non-traditional media display devices such as portable media players. Conditional access systems[edit] Conditional access systems include: Analog systems[edit]

EuroCrypt Nagravision Videocipher VideoCrypt

Digital systems[edit]

CA ID Name Developed by Introduced (year) Security Notes

0x4AEB Abel Quintic Abel DRM Systems 2009 Secure

0x4AF0 ABV CAS ABV International Pte. Ltd 2003 Secure (Farncombe Certified) CA,DRM,Middleware & Turnkey Solution Provider For DTH, DVBT/T2,DVBC, OTT, IPTV, VOD,Catchup TV,Audience Measurement System, EAD etc.

0x4AFC Panaccess Panaccess Systems GmbH 2010 Secure (Farncombe Certified) CA for DVB-S/S2, DVB-T/T2, DVB-C, DVB-IP, OTT, VOD, Catchup etc.

0x4B19 RCAS or RIDSYS cas RIDSYS, INDIA 2012 Secure

0x4B30, 0x4B31 ViCAS Vietnam Multimedia Corporation (VTC) Unknown Secure(Farncombe Certified)

0x4800 Accessgate Telemann Unknown

0x4A20 AlphaCrypt AlphaCrypt Unknown

N/A B-CAS ARIB STD-B25 (Multi-2) Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) 2000

CA for ISDB. Used in Japan only

0x1702, 0x1722, 0x1762 reserved for various non-BetaResearch CA systems Formally owned by BetaTechnik/Beta Research (subsidiary of KirchMedia). Handed over to TV operators to handle with their CA systems. Unknown

0x1700 – 0x1701, 0x1703 – 0x1721, 0x1723 – 0x1761, 0x1763 – 0x17ff, 0x5601 – 0x5604 VCAS DVB Verimatrix Inc. Unknown

0x2600 BISS European Broadcasting Union Unknown Compromised

0x4900 China Crypt CrytoWorks (China) (Irdeto) Unknown

0x22F0 Codicrypt Scopus Network Technologies (now part of Harmonic) Unknown Secure

0x4AEA Cryptoguard Cryptoguard AB 2008 Secure

0x0B00 Conax Contego Conax AS Unknown Secure

0x0B00 Conax CAS 5 Conax AS Unknown Compromised Pirate cards has existed

0x0B00 Conax CAS 7.5 Conax AS Unknown Secure

0x0B00, 0x0B01, 0x0B02, 0x0BAA Conax CAS 7 Conax AS Unknown Compromised Cardsharing

0x0B01, 0x0B02, 0x0B03, 0x0B04, 0x0B05, 0x0B06, 0x0B07 Conax CAS 3 Conax AS Unknown Compromised Pirate cards has existed

0x4AE4 CoreCrypt CoreTrust(Korea) 2000 S/W & H/W Security CA for IPTV, Satellite, Cable TV and Mobile TV

0x4347 CryptOn CryptOn Unknown

0x0D00, 0x0D02, 0x0D03, 0x0D05, 0x0D07, 0x0D20 Cryptoworks Philips CryptoTec Unknown Partly compromised (older smartcards)

0x4ABF CTI-CAS Beijing Compunicate Technology Inc. Unknown

0x0700 DigiCipher 2 Jerrold/GI/Motorola 4DTV 1997 Compromised DVB-S2 compatible, used for retail BUD dish service and for commercial operations as source programming for cable operators. Despite the Programming Center shut down its consumer usage of DigiCipher 2 (as 4DTV) on August 24, 2016, it is still being used for cable headends across the United States, as well as on Shaw Direct in Canada.

0x4A70 DreamCrypt Dream Multimedia 2004

Proposed conditional access system used for Dreambox receivers.

0x4A10 EasyCas Easycas Unknown

0x2719,0xEAD0 InCrypt Cas S-Curious Research & Technology Pvt. Ltd., Equality Consultancy Services Unknown

0x0464 EuroDec Eurodec Unknown

0x5448 Gospell VisionCrypt GOSPELL DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. Unknown Secure

0x5501 Griffin Nucleus Systems, Ltd. Unknown

0x5581 Bulcrypt Bulcrypt 2009

Used in Bulgaria and Serbia

0x0606 Irdeto 1 Irdeto 1995 Compromised

0x0602, 0x0604, 0x0606, 0x0608, 0x0622, 0x0626, 0x0664, 0x0614 Irdeto 2 Irdeto 2000

0x0692 Irdeto 3 Irdeto 2010 Secure

0x4AA1 KeyFly SIDSA Unknown Partly compromised (v. 1.0)

0x0100 Seca Mediaguard 1 SECA Unknown Compromised

0x0100 Seca Mediaguard 2 (v1+) SECA Unknown Partly compromised (MOSC available)

0x0100 Seca Mediaguard 3 SECA 2008

0x1800, 0x1801, 0x1810, 0x1830 Nagravision Nagravision 2003 Compromised

0x1801 Nagravision Carmageddon Nagravision Unknown Combination of Nagravision with BetaCrypt

0x1702, 0x1722, 0x1762, 0x1801 Nagravision Aladin Nagravision Unknown

0x1801 Nagravision 3 - Merlin Nagravision 2007 Secure

0x1801 Nagravision - ELK Nagravision Circa 2008 IPTV

0x4A02 Tongfang Tsinghua Tongfang Company Unknown Secure

0x4AD4 OmniCrypt Widevine Technologies 2004

0x0E00 PowerVu Scientific Atlanta 1998 Compromised Professional system widely used by cable operators for source programming

0x0E00 PowerVu+ Scientific Atlanta Unknown

0x1000 RAS (Remote Authorisation System) Tandberg Television Unknown

Professional system, not intended for consumers.

0x4AC1 Latens Systems Latens 2002

0xA101 RosCrypt-M NIIR 2006

0x4A60, 0x4A61, 0x4A63 SkyCrypt/Neotioncrypt/Neotion SHL AtSky/Neotion[1] 2003

Unknown T-crypt Tecsys Unknown

0x4A80 ThalesCrypt Thales Broadcast & Multimedia[2] Unknown

Viaccess modification. Was developed after TPS-Crypt was compromised.[3]

0x0500 TPS-Crypt France Telecom Unknown Compromised Viaccess modification used with Viaccess 2.3

0x0500 Viaccess PC2.3, or Viaccess 1 France Telecom Unknown

0x0500 Viaccess PC2.4, or Viaccess 2 France Telecom 2002

0x0500 Viaccess PC2.5, or Viaccess 2 France Telecom Unknown

0x0500 Viaccess PC2.6, or Viaccess 3 France Telecom 2005

0x0500 Viaccess PC3.0 France Telecom Unknown

0x0500 Viaccess PC4.0 France Telecom 2008

Unknown Viaccess PC5.0 France Telecom 2011 Secure

Unknown Viaccess PC6.0 France Telecom Unknown

0x0930, 0x0942 Cisco VideoGuard 1 NDS (now part of Cisco) 1994 Partly compromised (older smartcards)

0x0911, 0x0960 Cisco VideoGuard 2 NDS (now part of Cisco) 1999 Secure

0x0919, 0x0961, 0x09AC Cisco VideoGuard 3 NDS (now part of Cisco) 2004 Secure

0x0927, 0x0963, 0x093b, 0x09CD Cisco VideoGuard 4 NDS (now part of Cisco) 2009 Secure

0x4AD0, 0x4AD1 X-Crypt XCrypt Inc.

Secure

0x4AE0, 0x4AE1, 0x7be1 DRE-Crypt Cifra 2004 Secure

Unknown PHI CAS RSCRYPTO 2016 Secure

See also[edit]

Access control, the same principle applied outside of television. B-CAS CableCARD Card sharing Compression Networks Digicipher 2 Digital rights management Pirate decryption PowerVu Smart card Television encryption Viaccess Videocipher VideoGuard Pairing Smartcard

References[edit]

^ "Skycrypt". 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-08-28.  ^ http://www.afterdawn.com/glossary/term.cfm/thalescrypt ^ "TPSCrypt". 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 

External links[edit]

CAS history in Spanish CA ID list on dvbservices.com

v t e

Broadcast encryption and digital rights management

Conditional access

CableCARD Conditional access system Renewable security

DVB

Common Interface CSA Conditional-access module DVB-CPCM FTV Syndication

Smart cards and encryption

ABV BISS Cisco Videoscape Conax Cryptoworks Digicipher HDCP KeyFly Nagravision Panaccess PowerVu RAS SECA Mediaguard Viaccess VideoGuard

Digital video disc

Content Scramble System (CSS) Advanced Access Content System (AACS) BD+

DRM

Authorized domain B-CAS Broadcast flag Hardware restriction

Data security

Card sharing FTA Pirate decryption

Analogue broadcast encoding

EuroCrypt Videocipher VideoCrypt

See also free-to-view

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