CONDENSATION is the change of the physical state of matter from gas
phase into liquid phase , and is the reverse of evaporation . The word
most often refers to the water cycle . It can also be defined as the
change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact
with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the
atmosphere . When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into
the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition (or
Sublimation (phase transition)
* 1 Initiation
* 2 Reversibility scenarios
* 3 Most common scenarios
* 4 How condensation is measured
* 5 Applications of condensation
* 6 Biological adaptation
A few distinct reversibility scenarios emerge here with respect to the nature of the surface.
* absorption into the surface of a liquid (either of the same substance or one of its solvents)—is reversible as evaporation . * adsorption (as dew droplets) onto solid surface at pressures and temperatures higher than the species' triple point —also reversible as evaporation. * adsorption onto solid surface (as supplemental layers of solid) at pressures and temperatures lower than the species' triple point —is reversible as sublimation .
MOST COMMON SCENARIOS
HOW CONDENSATION IS MEASURED
Psychrometry measures the rates of condensation through evaporation into the air moisture at various atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Water is the product of its vapor condensation—condensation is the process of such phase conversion.
APPLICATIONS OF CONDENSATION
Because condensation is a naturally occurring phenomenon, it can often be used to generate water in large quantities for human use. Many structures are made solely for the purpose of collecting water from condensation, such as air wells and fog fences . Such systems can often be used to retain soil moisture in areas where active desertification is occurring—so much so that some organizations educate people living in affected areas about water condensers to help them deal effectively with the situation.
It is also a crucial process in forming particle tracks in a cloud chamber . In this case, ions produced by an incident particle act as nucleation centers for the condensation of the vapor producing the visible "cloud" trails.
Furthermore, condensation is a critical step in many industrial processes, such as power generation, water desalination, thermal management, refrigeration, and air conditioning.
Numerous living beings use water made accessible by condensation. A few examples of these are the Australian thorny devil , the darkling beetles of the Namibian coast, and the coast redwoods of the West Coast of the United States .
CONDENSATION IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Interstructure condensation may be caused by thermal bridges , insufficient or lacking insulation, damp proofing or insulated glazing .
Air well (condenser)
* ^ A B IUPAC ,
Compendium of Chemical Terminology , 2nd ed. (the
"Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "condensation
in atmospheric chemistry".
* ^ FogQuest - Fog Collection / Water Harvesting Projects - Welcome
* ^ Enright, Ryan (23 Jul 2014). "Dropwise
* v * t * e
States of matter (list )
* Magnetically ordered
* Antiferromagnet * Ferrimagnet * Ferromagnet
Equation of state
Macroscopic quantum phenomena
Order and disorder (physics)
* Superheated vapor