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The Royal Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
(Dutch: Koninklijk
Koninklijk
Concertgebouw, pronounced [ˌkoːnɪnklək kɔnˈsɛrt.xəˌbʌu̯]) is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Dutch term "concertgebouw" literally translates into English as "concert building". On 11 April 2013, on occasion of the building's 125th anniversary, Queen Beatrix bestowed the Royal Title "Koninklijk" upon the building, as she did previously (in 1988) to the Royal Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
Orchestra.[2] Because of its highly regarded acoustics, the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
is considered one of the finest concert halls in the world, along with places such as Boston's Symphony Hall[3][4] and the Musikverein
Musikverein
in Vienna.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Organ 3 Names of composers in the Main Hall 4 In popular culture 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The architect of the building was Adolf Leonard van Gendt (nl),[6] who was inspired by the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
in Leipzig, built two years earlier (and destroyed in 1943). Construction began in 1883 in a pasture that was then outside the city, in Nieuwer-Amstel, a municipality that in 1964 became Amstelveen.[7] A total of 2,186 piles of length twelve to thirteen metres (40 to 43 ft) were sunk into the soil.[citation needed] The hall opened on 11 April 1888 with an inaugural concert, in which an orchestra of 120 musicians and a chorus of 500 singers participated, performing works of Wagner, Handel, Bach, and Beethoven. The resident orchestra of the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
is the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra ( Koninklijk
Koninklijk
Concertgebouworkest), which gave its first concert in the hall on 3 November 1888, as the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
Orchestra (Concertgebouworkest). For many decades the Netherlands
Netherlands
Philharmonic Orchestra and the Radio Filharmonisch Orkest have also been regular performers in the Concertgebouw.[citation needed]

The Main Hall (Grote Zaal) of the Concertgebouw

The Main Hall (Grote Zaal) seats 1,974,[1] and is 44 metres (144 ft) long, 28 metres (92 ft) wide, and 17 metres (56 ft) high.[8] Its reverberation time is 2.8 seconds without audience, 2.2 seconds with, making it ideal for the late Romantic repertoire such as Mahler. Although this characteristic makes it largely unsuited for amplified music, groups such as Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
and The Who
The Who
did perform there in the 1960s. It hosts not only orchestral and operatic performances, but also jazz and world music.[citation needed] A smaller, oval-shaped venue, the Recital Hall (Kleine Zaal), is located behind the Main Hall. The Recital Hall is 20 metres (66 ft) long and 15 metres (50 ft) wide.[8] Its more intimate space is well-suited for chamber music and Lieder. The Recital Hall has 437 seats.[1] When the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
was built, acoustics were something of a black art. As in shipbuilding, designers drew upon what had worked in the past without entirely understanding the underlying science. When the building was completed, the acoustics were not perfect, and a lot of effort went into fine-tuning the aural ambience. During later restorations, particular care has been taken not to alter the materials used for interior decoration with this in mind. In the 1980s, the hall embarked on extensive fund-raising for renovations after the hall was found to be slowly sinking into the ground. Pi de Bruijn was the architect for the contemporary annex to the original hall.[9] Today, some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over 700,000, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.[10] As of February 2014[update], the managing director of the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
is Simon Reinink and the artistic director is Anneke Hogenstijn.[11] Organ[edit]

The organ in the Main Hall of the Concertgebouw

The organ was built in 1890 by the organ builder Michael Maarschalkerweerd from Utrecht, and was renovated in the years 1990 to 1993 by the organ builder Flentrop. It has 60 registers on three divisions and pedal.[12]

I Hauptwerk C–g3

Prestant 16’

Bourdon 16’

Prestant 8’

Bourdon 8’

Flûte harmonique 8’

Violoncello 8’

Prestant 4’

Flûte octaviante 4’

Quint harm. 22/3’

Quint 22/3’

Octav harm. 2’

Octav 2’

Terz harm. 13/5’

Mixtur IV–VI

Mixtur III–IV

Cornet V 8’

Bariton 16’

Trompet harm. 8’

Trompet 8’

Trompet 4’

II Schwellwerk C–g3

Quintadeen 16’

Flûte harm. 8’

Hohlflöte 8’

Viola di Gamba 8’

Voix Céleste 8’

Flûte octaviante 4’

Quint 22/3’

Flageolet harm. 2’

Terz 13/5’

Piccolo 1’

Plein-jeu harm. IV-VI

Bombarde 16’

Trompet 8’

Basson-Hobo 8’

Vox humana 8’

Trompet harm. 4’

Tremulant

III Schwell-Positiv C–g3

Zachtgedekt 16’

Prestant 8’

Rohrflöte 8’

Salicional 8’

Unda Maris 8’

Octav 4’

Fluit-dolce 4’

Violine 4’

Waldflöte 2’

Maarschalkje 11/3’

Mixtur II–V

Trompet harm. 8’

Klarinet 8’

Tremulant

Pedalwerk C–g1

Gedeckt Subbas 32’

Prinzipalbass 16’

Subbass 16’

Violon 16’

Quintbass 102/3’

Flöte 8’

Violoncello 8’

Corni-dolce 4’

Basson 16’

Trombone 8’

Trompet 4’

Couplers: II/I (also as Suboktavkoppel), III/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P

Names of composers in the Main Hall[edit] In the Main Hall, the surnames of the following 46 composers are displayed on the balcony ledges and on the walls:[13]

Bernard Zweers Anton Bruckner Gustav Mahler César Franck Alphons Diepenbrock Claude Debussy Cornelis Dopper Richard Strauss Julius Röntgen Béla Bartók Antonín Dvořák George Frideric Handel

Jean-Baptiste Lully Domenico Scarlatti Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Luigi Cherubini Carl Maria von Weber Hector Berlioz Frédéric Chopin Franz Liszt Richard Wagner Charles Gounod Carl Reinecke Cornelis Schuyt

Jacob Obrecht Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Orlando di Lasso Johannes Wanning Jacobus Clemens non Papa Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Igor Stravinsky Johan Wagenaar Max Reger Maurice Ravel Willem Pijper Franz Schubert

Felix Mendelssohn Robert Schumann Johannes Verhulst Niels Gade Anton Rubinstein Louis Spohr Ludwig van Beethoven Johannes Brahms Joseph Haydn Johann Sebastian Bach

In popular culture[edit]

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The Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
is mentioned, along with Madison Square Garden, the Hollywood Bowl, and the Rainbow Theatre, in the song "Rock Show" from the 1975 Wings album Venus and Mars. Kris Debruyne, a Belgian singer, mentions the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
in his song "Amsterdam". Gallery[edit]

Architectural drawings of the design, dated 1888

The Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
in 1902

The Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
at night, 2008

A piano quintet concert in the Main Hall, July 2010

Lyre on top of Concertgebouw

See also[edit]

Royal Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
Orchestra History of Amsterdam List of concert halls List of tourist attractions in Amsterdam

References[edit]

^ a b c "Concert halls". Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
NV. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ "Koninklijke status voor Het Concertgebouw". Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
NV. Retrieved 11 April 2013.  ^ April 11, 1888: Concertgebouw, Home of Nearly Perfect Acoustics, Opens ^ R.W. Apple, Jr., Apple's America (North Point Press, 2005), ISBN 0-86547-685-3. ^ Tapio Lahti and Henrik Möller. "Concert Hall Acoustics and the Computer". ARK – The Finnish Architectural Review. Archived from the original on 2007-03-22.  ^ " Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
(rijksmonument #288)". Monumentenregister (in Dutch). Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ Drawing of the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
in the fields[permanent dead link], at the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
City Archives ^ a b "Het Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
– Capaciteit Zalen" (PDF). Concertgebouw NV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ Paul L. Montgomery (13 April 1988). "Dutch Hail Concertgebouw's 100th". New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2007.  ^ "Facts & Figures". Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
NV. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ "Jaarverslag 2012" [Annual Report 2012] (PDF) (in Dutch). Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
NV. 2013-04-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ Information on Organ ^ "Reader De eregalerijen in het concertgebouw" (PDF). Vrienden Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
& Koninklijk
Koninklijk
Concertgebouworkest. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 

External links[edit]

Dutch Rijksmonument
Rijksmonument
288

Media related to Concertgebouw, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
at Wikimedia Commons Official website Archive of the Concertgebouw[permanent dead link] at the Amsterdam City Archives

v t e

Music venues in the Netherlands

Amsterdam

Concertgebouw AFAS Live ArenA Ziggo Dome Paradiso Melkweg Bitterzoet Bimhuis Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ OCCII OT301 De Nieuwe Anita Zaal 100 Pakhuis Wilhelmina Studio 80 Sugar Factory Winston Kingdom The Cave Jaap Edenhal (closed)

Rotterdam

Ahoy De Doelen Rotown WORM Baroeg Roodkapje De Player Poortgebouw Maassilo Waterfront

The Hague

Koninklijke Schouwburg Paard van Troje De Supermarkt Asta 330 Live Zeebelt Cremers Statenhal
Statenhal
(closed)

Utrecht

TivoliVredenburg De Helling
De Helling
(formerly Tivoli De Helling) EKKO db's Studio Kargadoor ACU RASA De Flits Muziekcentrum Vredenburg
Muziekcentrum Vredenburg
(closed) Tivoli Oudegracht (closed) Central Studios
Central Studios
(closed)

Other cities

Alkmaar: Victorie Almelo: Sub Rosa
Sub Rosa
(closed), NAXT Stage Amersfoort: De Kelder Amstelveen: P60 Apeldoorn: De Gigant Arnhem: Luxor, Willemeen, Gelderdome, Rijnhal
Rijnhal
(closed) Bergen op Zoom : Gebouw-T Breda: Mezz Castricum: De Bakkerij Den Bosch: W2, Brabanthallen, De Toonzaal Deventer: Burgerweeshuis Dordrecht: Bibelot Drachten: Poppodium Iduna Eindhoven: Effenaar, Dynamo, Muziekgebouw Frits Philips, Klokgebouw, The Rambler (closed) Emmeloord: De Klos Enschede: Atak Gouda: So What Groningen: Oosterpoort, Vera, Simplon Haarlem: Patronaat Heerlen : Nieuwe Nor, Parkstad Limburg Theaters Helmond : Plato
Plato
(closed) Hengelo: Metropool Heerhugowaard : Waerdse Tempel Hilversum: De Vorstin Hoogeveen: De Tamboer Hoorn: Manifesto, Troll (closed) Horst: Zopo
Zopo
(closed) Kaatsheuvel: Apollo
Apollo
(closed) Katwijk: Scum Kerkrade: The Rock Temple Lage Vuursche: In The Woods Leeuwarden: Romein, Schaaf, Asteriks Leiden: LVC, De Nobel, Qbus, Groenoordhallen
Groenoordhallen
(closed) Lierop: Nirwana Luttenberg: Elkerlyc
Elkerlyc
(closed) Maastricht: Muziekgieterij Middelburg: De Spot Nijmegen: Doornroosje, Extrapool, Merleyn, Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
de Vereeniging (closed) Noord-Scharwoude: De Koog
De Koog
(closed) Rijssen: Lucky & Co Roermond: ECI Cultuurfabriek Sneek: Het Bolwerk Terneuzen: De PIT Tilburg: 013, Cul de Sac, Café Little Devil, Batcave Uden : De Pul Veenendaal: Escape Venlo: Grenswerk, Perron 55 Weert: De Bosuil Zeist: De Peppel Zoetermeer : De Boerderij Zwolle: Hedon, IJsselhallen

Music festivals

Active Arrow Rock Festival (Biddinghuizen) Best Kept Secret (Hilvarenbeek) Down the Rabbit Hole (Beuningen) Eindhoven Metal Meeting (Eindhoven) FortaRock Festival (Nijmegen) Lowlands Festival
Lowlands Festival
(Biddinghuizen) Neurotic Deathfest (013, Tilburg) Pinkpop Festival
Pinkpop Festival
(Landgraaf) ProgPower Europe
ProgPower Europe
(Baarlo) Roadburn Festival
Roadburn Festival
(013, Tilburg) Stonehenge Festival (Steenwijk)

Former Dynamo Open Air (Eindhoven, Nuenen, Nijmegen; 1989-2005) Fields of Rock (Nijmegen; 2002-2007) Waldrock (Burgum; 1991-2009)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 172970914 LCCN: n960743

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