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The Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress
United States Congress
in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The compromise, drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay
Henry Clay
of Kentucky and brokered by Clay and Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, reduced sectional conflict. Controversy arose over the Fugitive Slave provision. The Compromise was greeted with relief, but each side disapproved of some of its specific provisions:

Texas
Texas
surrendered its claim to New Mexico
New Mexico
as well as its claims north of 36°30'. It retained the Texas
Texas
Panhandle, and the federal government took over the state's public debt. California was admitted as a free state, with its current boundaries. The South prevented adoption of the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
that would have outlawed slavery in the new territories,[1] and the new Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
were allowed, under popular sovereignty, to decide whether to allow slavery in their borders. In practice, these lands were generally unsuited to plantation agriculture, and their settlers were uninterested in slavery. The slave trade, but not slavery altogether, was banned in the District of Columbia. A more stringent Fugitive Slave Law was enacted.

The Compromise became possible after the sudden death of President Zachary Taylor, who, although a slave owner, wanted to exclude slavery from the Southwest. Whig leader Henry Clay
Henry Clay
designed a compromise, which failed to pass in early 1850 because of opposition by both pro-slavery southern Democrats, led by John C. Calhoun, and anti-slavery northern Whigs. Upon Clay's instruction, Douglas then divided Clay's bill into several smaller pieces and narrowly won their passage, over the opposition of radicals on both sides.

Contents

1 Background 2 Various proposals

2.1 Final proposed compromise

3 Division of Whigs 4 Debate and results 5 Implications 6 Issues

6.1 Texas 6.2 New Mexico
New Mexico
and Utah Territories 6.3 California 6.4 Fugitive Slave Law 6.5 End of slave trade in District of Columbia

7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Background[edit]

  Free states in early 1850   Slave states (without Texas' claims to New Mexico)   Territories (later state borders, Gadsden Purchase)    Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
Line 36°30'

Soon after the start of the Mexican War, when the extent of the contested territories was still unclear, the question of whether to allow slavery in those territories polarized the Northern and the Southern United States
Southern United States
in the most bitter sectional conflict until then. A state the size of Texas
Texas
attracted interest from both state residents and pro-slavery and anti-slavery camps on a national scale. Texas
Texas
claimed land north of the 36°30' demarcation line for slavery, set by the 1820 Missouri Compromise. The Texas
Texas
Annexation resolution had required that if any new states were formed out of Texas' lands, those north of the Missouri Compromise line would become free states.[2] According to historian Mark Stegmaier, "The Fugitive Slave Act, the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, the admission of California as a free state, and even the application of the formula of popular sovereignty to the territories were all less important than the least remembered component of the Compromise of 1850—the statute by which Texas
Texas
relinquished its claims to much of New Mexico
New Mexico
in return for federal assumption of the debts."[3] Stegmaier also refers to "the principal Southern demand for a division of California at the line of 35° north latitude" and says that "Southern extremists made clear that a congressionally mandated division of California figured uppermost on their agenda."[4] During the deadlock of four years, the Second Party System
Second Party System
broke up, Mormon pioneers
Mormon pioneers
settled Utah, the California Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
settled northern California, and New Mexico
New Mexico
under a federal military government turned back Texas's attempt to assert control over territory Texas
Texas
claimed as far west as the Rio Grande. The eventual compromise preserved the Union but only for another decade. Various proposals[edit]

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Events leading to the American Civil War

Slavery Northwest Ordinance Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Battle of Negro Fort Missouri Compromise Tariff of 1828 Nat Turner's slave rebellion Nullification Crisis The Amistad Prigg v. Pennsylvania Texas
Texas
annexation Mexican–American War Wilmot Proviso Manifest destiny Underground Railroad Nashville Convention Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
of 1850 Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas–Nebraska Act Ostend Manifesto Bleeding Kansas Caning of Charles Sumner Dred Scott v. Sandford The Impending Crisis of the South Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry 1860 presidential election Crittenden Compromise Secession
Secession
of Southern States Star of the West Corwin Amendment Battle of Fort Sumter

v t e

Proposals in 1846 to 1850 on the division of the Southwest included the following:

The Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
banning slavery in any new territory to be acquired from Mexico, not including Texas, which had been annexed the previous year. It passed the House in August 1846 and February 1847 but not the Senate. Later, an effort failed to attach the proviso to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Extension of the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
line was proposed by failed amendments to the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
by William W. Wick
William W. Wick
and then Stephen Douglas to extend the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
line (36°30' parallel north) west to the Pacific (south of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California) to allow the possibility of slavery in most of present-day New Mexico
New Mexico
and Arizona, and Southern California. That line was again proposed by the Nashville Convention of June 1850. Popular sovereignty, developed by Lewis Cass
Lewis Cass
and Douglas as the position of the Democratic Party, was to let each territory decide itself whether to allow slavery. William L. Yancey's "Alabama Platform", endorsed by the Alabama and the Georgia legislatures and by Democratic state conventions in Florida and Virginia, called for no restrictions on slavery in the territories by the federal government or territorial governments before statehood, opposition to any candidates supporting either the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
or popular sovereignty, and federal legislation to overrule Mexican anti-slavery laws. Two free states were proposed by Zachary Taylor, who served as President from March 1849 to July 1850. As President, he proposed that the entire area become two free states, called California and New Mexico but much larger than the ones today. None of the area would be left as an unorganized or organized territory, which would avoid the question of slavery in the territories. Changing Texas's borders was proposed by Senator Thomas Hart Benton in December 1849 or January 1850. Texas's western and northern boundaries would be the 102nd meridian west
102nd meridian west
and the 34th parallel north. Two southern states were proposed by Senator John Bell, with the assent of Texas, in February 1850. New Mexico
New Mexico
would get all Texas
Texas
land north of the 34th parallel north, including today's Texas
Texas
Panhandle, while the area to the south, including the southeastern part of today's New Mexico, would be divided at the Colorado
Colorado
River of Texas into two Southern states, balancing the admission of California and New Mexico
New Mexico
as free states.[5] The first draft of the compromise of 1850 had Texas's northwestern boundary be a straight, diagonal line from the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
20 miles north of El Paso
El Paso
to the Red River ( Mississippi
Mississippi
watershed) at the 100th meridian west, the southwestern corner of today's Oklahoma.

Final proposed compromise[edit]

"The United States Senate, A.D. 1850" (engraving by Peter F. Rothermel): Henry Clay
Henry Clay
takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Vice President Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
presides as John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(to the right of the Speaker's chair) and Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
(seated to the left of Clay) look on.

On January 29, 1850, Whig Senator Henry Clay
Henry Clay
gave a speech for compromise on the issues dividing the Union. However, Clay's specific proposals for achieving a compromise, including his idea for Texas's boundary, were not adopted in a single bill.[6] Upon Clay's urging, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, Democrat of Illinois, divided Clay's bill into several smaller bills and passed each separately. When he instructed Douglas, Clay was nearly dead and unable to guide the congressional debate any further. The Compromise came to coalesce around a plan dividing Texas
Texas
at its present-day boundaries, creating territorial governments with "popular sovereignty", without the Wilmot Proviso, for New Mexico
New Mexico
and Utah, admitting California as a free state, abolishing the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and enacting a new fugitive slave law. The Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
was formally proposed by Clay and guided to passage by Douglas over Northern Whig and Southern Democrat opposition. It was enacted September 1850 with the following terms:

California admitted as a free state. Utah Territory
Utah Territory
and New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
organized with slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty. Texas
Texas
dropped its claim to land north of the 32nd parallel north
32nd parallel north
and west of the 103rd meridian west
103rd meridian west
in favor of New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory, and north of the 36°30' parallel north
36°30' parallel north
and east of the 103rd meridian west which became unorganized territory. Texas's boundaries were set at their present form. Senator James Pearce
James Pearce
of Maryland drafted the final proposal[7] in which Texas
Texas
ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.[8][9] El Paso, where Texas
Texas
had established county government, was left in Texas. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
but not slavery itself. The Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
was strengthened.

Division of Whigs[edit] Most Northern Whigs, led by William Henry Seward, who delivered his famous "Higher Law" speech during the controversy, opposed the Compromise as well because it would apply the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
to the western territories and because of the pressing of ordinary citizens into duty on slave-hunting patrols. That provision was inserted by Democratic Virginia Senator James M. Mason
James M. Mason
to entice border-state Whigs, who faced the greatest danger of losing slaves as fugitives but were lukewarm on general sectional issues related to the South on Texas's land claims.[10] Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
avoided the issue as the Whig candidate during the 1848 US presidential election but then as President, he attempted to sidestep the entire controversy by pushing to admit California and New Mexico as free states immediately to avoid the entire territorial process and the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
question. Taylor was one of the few Southerners to support that idea.[11] Northern Democrats and Southern Whigs supported the Compromise. Southern Whigs, many of whom were from the border states, supported the stronger fugitive slave law. Debate and results[edit]

An animation showing slave and free states and territories, 1789–1861

On April 17, a "Committee of Thirteen" agreed on the border of Texas as part of Clay's plan. The dimensions were later changed. That same day, during debates on the measures in the Senate, Vice President Fillmore and Senator Benton verbally sparred, with Fillmore charging that the Missourian was "out of order," During the heated debates, Compromise floor leader Henry S. Foote
Henry S. Foote
of Mississippi
Mississippi
drew a pistol on Benton. In early June, nine slaveholding Southern states sent delegates to the Nashville Convention to determine their course of action if the compromise passed. While some delegates preached secession, the moderates ruled and proposed a series of compromises, including extending the dividing line designated by the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
of 1820 to the Pacific Coast. The various bills were initially combined into one "omnibus" bill. Despite Clay's efforts, it failed in a crucial vote on July 31, opposed by southern Democrats and by northern Whigs. He announced on the Senate floor the next day that he intended to pass each individual part of the bill. The 73-year-old Clay, however, was physically exhausted as the effects of tuberculosis, which would eventually kill him, began to take their toll. Clay left the Senate to recuperate in Newport, Rhode Island, and Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
wrote the separate bills and guided them through the Senate.[12] The situation had been changed by the sudden death of Taylor and the accession of Vice President Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
to the presidency, on July 9, 1850. Fillmore, anxious to find a quick solution to the conflict in Texas
Texas
over the border with New Mexico, which threatened to become armed conflict between Texas
Texas
militia and the federal soldiers, reversed the administration's position late in July and threw its support to the compromise measures.[13] The Northern Democrats held together and supported each of the bills and gained enough Whigs or Southern Democrats to pass all of them. They were signed by Fillmore between September 9 and September 20, 1850.

California was admitted as a free state. It passed the House 150–56.[14][15] It passed the Senate 34–18.[16] The slave trade was abolished (the sale of slaves, not the institution of slavery) in the District of Columbia. The Territory of Utah
Territory of Utah
was organized under the rule of popular sovereignty. It passed the House 97–85.[17] The Territory of New Mexico
New Mexico
was organized under the rule of popular sovereignty. It passed the House 108–97.[18] It passed the Senate 30–20.[19] A harsher Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
was passed by the Senate 27–12,[20] and by the House 109–76.[21] Texas
Texas
gave up much of the western land it claimed and received compensation of $10,000,000 to pay off its national debt.

Clay was still given much of the credit for success. It quieted the controversy between Northerners and Southerners over the expansion of slavery and delayed secession and civil war for another decade. Senator Henry S. Foote
Henry S. Foote
of Mississippi, who had suggested the creation of the Committee of Thirteen, later said, "Had there been one such man in the Congress of the United States as Henry Clay
Henry Clay
in 1860–'61 there would, I feel sure, have been no civil war."[22] Implications[edit]

Map of free and slave states c. 1856

The Compromise proved widely popular politically, and both parties committed themselves in their platforms to the finality of the Compromise on sectional issues. The strongest opposition in the South occurred in the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, but Unionists soon prevailed, spearheaded by Georgians Alexander Stephens, Robert Toombs, and Howell Cobb
Howell Cobb
and the creation of the Georgia Platform. The peace was broken only by the divisive Kansas–Nebraska Act
Kansas–Nebraska Act
of 1854 introduced by Stephen Douglas, which had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
and led directly to the formation of the Republican Party, whose capture of the national government in 1860 led directly to the secession crisis of 1860–1861. Many historians argue that the Compromise played a major role in postponing the American Civil War for a decade, while the Northwest was growing more wealthy and more populous and was being brought into closer relations with the Northeast.[23] During that decade, the Whig Party had completely broken down, to be replaced with the new Republican Party dominant in the North and the Democrats in the South.[24] Others argue that the Compromise only made more obvious the pre-existing sectional divisions and laid the groundwork for future conflict. They view the Fugitive Slave Law as helping to polarize the US, as shown in the enormous reaction to Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Law aroused feelings of bitterness in the North. Furthermore, the Compromise of 1850 led to a breakdown in the spirit of compromise in the United States in the antebellum period, directly before the Civil War. The Compromise exemplifies that spirit, but the deaths of influential senators who worked on the compromise, primarily Henry Clay
Henry Clay
and Daniel Webster, contributed to the feeling of increasing disparity between the North and South. The delay of hostilities for ten years allowed the free economy of the northern states to continue to industrialize. The southern states, largely based on slave labor and cash crop production, lacked the ability to industrialize heavily.[25] By 1860, the northern states had added many more miles of railroad, steel production, modern factories, and population to the advantages already possessed in 1850. The North was better able to supply, equip, and man its armed forces, which would prove decisive in the later stages of the war. Issues[edit] Three major types of issues were addressed by the Compromise of 1850: a variety of boundary issues, the status of territory issues, and the issue of slavery. While capable of analytical distinction, the boundary and territory issues were actually included in the overarching issue of slavery. Pro-slavery and anti-slavery interests were each concerned with both the amount of land on which slavery was permitted and with the number of States in the slave or free camps. Since Texas
Texas
was a slave state, not only the residents of that state but also both camps on a national scale had an interest in the size of Texas. The general solution that was adopted by the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
was to transfer a considerable part of the territory claimed by the state to the federal government; to organize two new territories formally, the Territory of New Mexico
New Mexico
and the Territory of Utah, which expressly would be allowed to locally determine whether they would become slave or free territories, to add another free state to the Union (California), to adopt a severe measure to recover slaves who had escaped to a free state or free territory (the Fugitive Slave Law); and to abolish the slave trade in the District of Columbia. Texas[edit]

Proposals for Texas
Texas
northwestern boundary

The independent Republic of Texas
Texas
won the decisive Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836) against Mexico and captured Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. He signed the Treaties of Velasco, which recognized the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as the boundary of the Republic of Texas. The treaties were then repudiated by the government of Mexico, which insisted that it was sovereign over Texas
Texas
and promised to reclaim the lost territories. To the extent that there was a de facto recognition, Mexico treated the Nueces River
Nueces River
as its northern boundary control. A huge, largely-unsettled area was between the two rivers. Neither Mexico nor the Republic of Texas
Texas
had the military strength to assert its territorial claim. On December 29, 1845, the Republic of Texas
Texas
was annexed to the United States and became the 28th state. Texas
Texas
was staunchly committed to slavery, with its constitution making illegal for the legislature to free slaves. With the annexation, the United States inherited the territorial claims of the former Republic of Texas
Texas
against Mexico. The territorial claim to the area between the Nueces River
Nueces River
and the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
and Mexican resistance to it both led to the Mexican–American War. On February 2, 1848, the war was concluded by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Among its provisos was the recognition by Mexico of the area between the Nueces River
Nueces River
and the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as part of the United States. The Republic of Texas
Texas
had claimed ownership of the eastern half of present-day New Mexico, along with sections of Colorado, Kansas
Kansas
and Wyoming, but Texas
Texas
had never effectively controlled the area, which was dominated by hostile Indian tribes (see Comancheria). However, the federal government now controlled the area after 1846. The Compromise of 1850 solved the problem by setting the present boundaries of Texas, in return for $10 million in federal bonds paid to the State of Texas.[26] The state was heavily burdened with debt, which had been contracted during its struggles as the Republic of Texas. The federal government agreed to pay $10 million of bonds in return for the transfer of a large portion of the claimed area of the state to the territory of the federal government and for the relinquishment of various claims of Texas
Texas
had on the federal government. (The bonds bore interest at the rate of 5%, which interest was collectible by Texas
Texas
every six months, and the principal was redeemable at the end of fourteen years.)[27] The Constitution (Article IV, Section 3) does not permit Congress unilaterally to reduce the territory of any state, so the first part of the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
had to take the form of an offer to the Texas
Texas
State Legislature, rather than a unilateral enactment. This ratified the bargain and, in due course, the transfer of a large swath of land from the state of Texas
Texas
to the federal government was accomplished. Texas
Texas
was allowed to keep the following portions of the disputed land: south of the 32nd parallel and south of the 36°30' parallel north
36°30' parallel north
and east of the 103rd meridian west. The rest of the disputed land was transferred to the Federal Government. New Mexico
New Mexico
and Utah Territories[edit]

New Mexico
New Mexico
proposed boundary before Compromise of 1850

The Utah Territory
Utah Territory
is shown in blue and outlined in black. The boundaries of the provisional State of Deseret
State of Deseret
are shown with a dotted line.

The first law of the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
also organized the Territory of New Mexico. The second law, also enacted September 9, 1850, organized the Territory of Utah. Some of the land had been claimed by the Republic of Texas. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made no mention of the claims of the Republic of Texas; Mexico simply agreed to a Mexico-U.S. border
Mexico-U.S. border
south of both the "Mexican Cession" and the Republic of Texas
Texas
claims.[28] Before the Compromise of 1850, the disputed land had been claimed but never controlled by the state of Texas. Of importance in 1850 was land included in present-day eastern New Mexico. From the Mexican Cession, the New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
received most of the present-day state of Arizona, most of the western part of the present-day state of New Mexico, and the southern tip of present-day Nevada (south of the 37th parallel). From Texas, the territory received most of present-day eastern New Mexico, a portion of present-day Colorado
Colorado
(east of the crest of the Rocky Mountains, west of the 103rd meridian, and south of the 38th parallel). From the Mexican Cession, the Utah Territory
Utah Territory
received present-day Utah, most of present-day Nevada (everything north of the 37th parallel), a major part of present-day Colorado
Colorado
(everything west of the crest of the Rocky Mountains), and a small part of present-day Wyoming. That included the newly founded colony at Salt Lake, of Brigham Young. From Texas, the Utah Territory
Utah Territory
received most of present-day eastern New Mexico
New Mexico
and some of present-day Colorado
Colorado
that is east of the crest of the Rocky Mountains. A key provision of each of the laws respectively organizing the Territory of New Mexico
New Mexico
and the Territory of Utah
Territory of Utah
was that slavery would be decided by local option, called popular sovereignty. That was an important repudiation of the idea behind the failure to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. California[edit]

Map of Mexico. S. Augustus Mitchell, Philadelphia, 1847. New California is depicted with a northeastern border at the meridian leading north of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
headwaters.

California was part the Mexican Cession. After the Mexican War, California was essentially run by military governors. President James K. Polk tried to get Congress to establish a territorial government in California officially, but the increasingly-sectional debates prevented that.[29] The South wanted to extend slave territory to Southern California
Southern California
and to the Pacific Coast, but the North did not. From late 1848, Americans and foreigners of many different countries rushed into California for the California Gold Rush, exponentially increasing the population. In response to growing demand for a better more representative government, a Constitutional Convention was held in 1849. The delegates unanimously outlawed slavery. They had no interest in extending the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
Line through California and splitting the state; the lightly-populated southern half never had slavery and was heavily Hispanic.[30] The third statute of the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
allowed California to be admitted to the Union, undivided, as a free state on September 9, 1850.[31] Fugitive Slave Law[edit] The fourth statute of the Compromise of 1850, enacted September 18, 1850, is informally known as the Fugitive Slave Law, or the Fugitive Slave Act. It bolstered the Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
of 1793. The new version of the Fugitive Slave Law required federal judicial officials in all states and federal territories, including in those states and territories in which slavery was prohibited, to assist with the return of escaped slaves to their masters actively in the states and territories permitting slavery. Any federal marshal or other official who did not arrest an alleged runaway slave was liable to a fine of $1000. Law enforcement everywhere in the US had a duty to arrest anyone suspected of being a fugitive slave on no more evidence than a claimant's sworn testimony of ownership. Suspected slaves could neither ask for a jury trial nor testify on their own behalf. In addition, any person aiding a runaway slave by providing food or shelter was to be subject to six months' imprisonment and a $1000 fine. Officers capturing a fugitive slave were entitled to a fee for their work. In addition to federal officials, the ordinary citizens of free states could be summoned to join a posse and be required to assist in the capture, custody, and/or transportation of the alleged escaped slave. The law was so rigorously pro-slavery as to prohibit the admission of the testimony of a person accused of being an escaped slave into evidence at the judicial hearing to determine the status of the accused escaped slave. Thus, if a freedman were claimed to be an escaped slave, they could not resist their return to slavery by truthfully telling their own actual history. The Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
was essential to meet Southern demands. In terms of public opinion in the North, the critical provision was that ordinary citizens were required to aid slave catchers. Many northerners deeply resented that requirement to help slavery personally. Resentment towards the Act continued to heighten tensions between the North and South, which were inflamed further by abolitionists such as Harriet Beecher Stowe. Her book, Uncle Tom's Cabin, stressed the horrors of recapturing escaped slaves and outraged Southerners.[32] End of slave trade in District of Columbia[edit] The fifth law, enacted on September 20, 1850, prohibited the slave trade but allowed slavery itself in the District of Columbia.[33] Southerners in Congress were unanimous in opposing that provision, which was seen as a concession to the abolitionists, but they were outvoted.[34] See also[edit]

Uncle Tom's Cabin – a reaction against the Fugitive Slave Law Kansas–Nebraska Act
Kansas–Nebraska Act
of 1854, which reopened the slavery issue

References[edit]

^ Michael Holt, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party (2003) p. 252 ^ Joint Resolution of Congress, Mar. 1, 1845 ^ Mark J. Stegmaier (1996). Texas, New Mexico, and the compromise of 1850: boundary dispute & sectional conflict. Kent State University Press.  ^ Stegmaier, p. 172 and p. 177 ^ W. J. Spillman (January 1904). "ADJUSTMENT OF THE TEXAS BOUNDARY IN 1850". Quarterly of the Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. 7.  ^ Remini, Robert. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1993) pp 730–61 ^ Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. "COMPROMISE OF 1850". The Handbook of Texas.  ^ Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
from the Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online ^ Cotton Culture from the Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online ^ John M. Taylor, William Henry Seward: Lincoln's right hand (1996) p. 85 ^ Elbert B. Smith, President Zachary Taylor: the hero president (2007) p. 238 ^ Eaton (1957) pp. 192–193. Remini (1991) pp. 756–759 ^ Michael Holt, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party (1999), pp. 529–530: "only rapid passage of the omnibus bill appeared to offer a timely escape from the crisis." ^ "TO PASS S. 169. (P.1772-1)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ Holman Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict (University of Kentucky Press, 1965), p. 160 ^ "ON PASSAGE S. 169". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "TO PASS S. 225 (9 STAT. 453, APP. 9/9/1850), AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT FOR UTAH. (P.1776-1)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "TO PASS S. 307. (P.1764-3)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "ON PASSAGE OF THE BILL S. 307. (P. 1555-3)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "ON ORDERING ENGROSSMENT AND 3RD READING OF THE BILL S. 23. (P. 1630-2)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "TO PASS S. 23. (P.1817-1)". GovTrack.us. 2014-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ Remini (1991) pp. 761–62 ^ Robert Remini,The House: A History of the House of Representatives (2006) p. 147 ^ Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s (1978). ^ Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Fruits of Merchant Capital (1983). ^ Mark J. Stegmaier, Texas, New Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850: Boundary Dispute and Sectional Crisis (1998) ^ Hamilton, Holman (1957). " Texas
Texas
Bonds and Northern Profits: A Study in Compromise, Investment, and Lobby Influence". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Organization of American Historians. 43 (4): 579–94. doi:10.2307/1902274. ISSN 0161-391X. JSTOR 1902274 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online: Compromise of 1850". Tshaonline.org. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ California and New Mexico: Message from the President of the United States. By United States. President (1849–1850 : Taylor), United States. War Dept (Ex. Doc 17 page 1) Google eBook ^ William Henry Ellison. A self-governing dominion, California, 1849–1860 (1950) online ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ Larry Gara, "The Fugitive Slave Law: A Double Paradox," Civil War History, September 1964, vol. 10#3, pp. 229–240 ^ David L. Lewis, District of Columbia: A Bicentennial History, (W.W. Norton, 1976), 54-56. ^ Damani Davis, "Slavery and Emancipation in the Nation'S Capital," Prologue, Spring 2010, vol. 42#1, pp. 52–59

Sources[edit]

Bell, John Frederick. "Poetry's Place in the Crisis and Compromise of 1850." Journal of the Civil War Era 5#3 (2015): 399–421. Bordewich, Fergus M. America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas, and the Compromise That Preserved the Union (2012) excerpt and text search Foster, Herbert D. (1922). "Webster's Seventh of March Speech and the Secession
Secession
Movement, 1850". American Historical Review. 27 (2): 245–270. doi:10.2307/1836156.  Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler. Henry Clay: The Essential American (2010), major scholarly biography; 624 pp. Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850 (1964), the standard historical study Hamilton, Holman (1954). "Democratic Senate Leadership and the Compromise of 1850". The Mississippi
Mississippi
Valley Historical Review. 41 (3): 403–18. doi:10.2307/1897490. ISSN 0161-391X. JSTOR 1897490.  Holman Hamilton. Zachary Taylor, Soldier in the White House (1951). Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s (1978). Holt, Michael F. The Fate of Their Country: Politicians, Slavery Extension, and the Coming of the Civil War (2005). Johannsen, Robert W. Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
(1973) (ISBN 0195016203) William Aloysius Keleher (1951). Turmoil in New Mexico. Santa Fe: Rydal Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-0632-6.  Knupfer, Peter B. "Compromise and Statesmanship: Henry Clay's Union." in Knupfer, The Union As It Is: Constitutional Unionism and Sectional Compromise, 1787–1861 (1991), pp. 119–57. Morrison, Michael A. Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War (1997) (ISBN 0807823198) Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union (1947) v 2, highly detailed narrative Potter, David M. The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861 (1977), pp 90–120; Pulitzer Prize Remini, Robert. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1991) Remini, Robert. At the Edge of the Precipice: Henry Clay
Henry Clay
and the Compromise That Saved the Union (2010) 184 pages; the Compromise of 1850 Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850, vol. i. (1896). complegte text online Rozwenc, Edwin C. ed. The Compromise of 1850. (1957) convenient collection of primary and secondary documents; 102 pp. Russel, Robert R. (1956). "What Was the Compromise of 1850?". The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association. 22 (3): 292–309. doi:10.2307/2954547. ISSN 0022-4642. JSTOR 2954547 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Sewell, Richard H. Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States 1837–1860 New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Stegmaier, Mark J. (1996). Texas, New Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850: Boundary Dispute & Sectional Crisis. Kent State University Press.  Wiltse, Charles M. John C. Calhoun, Sectionalist, 1840–1850 (1951)

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Compromise Measures of 1850.

Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
and related resources from the Library of Congress Texas
Texas
Library and Archive Commission Page on 1850 Boundary Act  Smith, William Roy (1911). "Compromise Measures of 1850". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.).  Map of North America at the time of the Compromise of 185

.