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COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician.

Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily.

Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a disease. Non-invasive and minimally invasive medical procedures usually favor fewer complications in comparison to invasive ones.

Disorders that are concomitant but are not caused by the other disorder are comorbidities . This conceptual dividing line is sometimes blurred by the complexity of the causation or the lack of definite information about it. The terms sequela and complication are often synonymous , although complication connotes that the resultant condition complicates the management of the causative condition (makes it more complex and challenging).

CONTENTS

* 1 Examples of complications * 2 Causes * 3 Related topics * 4 References * 5 Further reading

EXAMPLES OF COMPLICATIONS

* Generalized septicemia (infection of the blood) may occur as a complication of an infected wound or abscess * Allergic shock can be a reaction to several kinds of anesthetics , as a complication in a surgery * Fractured ribs and sternum may be a complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts in people suffering severe osteoporosis * Puerperal fever may be a common complication of childbirth and used to kill a large proportion of mothers before the advent of antisepsis and antibiotics * Diabetes mellitus may present a series of complications in an advanced or more severe stage, such as gangrene , diabetic foot , blindness , infections , etc. * Thrombosis
Thrombosis
in the heart or brain , causing stroke or acute myocardial infarction can be complications of blood coagulation disorders, phlebitis (inflammation of the veins ), endocarditis and artificial heart valves * Eczema vaccinatum
Eczema vaccinatum
is a rare and severe complication of smallpox vaccination in people with eczema * Hepatotoxic dementia is a possible complication of hepatitis and liver cirrhosis * Mental retardation is a common complication of untreated hydrocephalus * A paradoxical reaction to a drug; that is, a reaction that is the opposite to the intended purpose of the drug. An example is benzodiazepines , a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic , anticonvulsant , and muscle relaxant effects; paradoxically they may also create hyperactivity, anxiety, convulsions etc. in susceptible individuals. * Erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence which may follow prostatectomy . * Suicide
Suicide
is a common complication of many disorders and conditions that consistently affect a person's life negatively, such as major depressive disorder , schizophrenia , or substance abuse

CAUSES

There may be financial pressures which act in opposition to preventing complications. A United States study found that hospitals make more money per patient when patients have complications.

RELATED TOPICS

* Adverse effect (medicine) * Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals * Diagnosis
Diagnosis
* Iatrogenesis * Nocebo * Placebo (origins of technical term) * Prognosis * Sequela * Late effect

REFERENCES

* ^ Paradoxical Reactions to Benzodiazepines * ^ Mayo Clinic Staff. "Open prostatectomy risks". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 31 October 2014. * ^ Silva, LA; Andriolo, RB; Atallah, ÁN; da Silva, EM (Sep 27, 2014). " Surgery for stress urinary incontinence due to presumed sphincter deficiency after prostate surgery.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 9: CD008306. PMID 25261861 . doi :10.1002/14651858.CD008306.pub3 . * ^ Eappen, S.; Lane, B. H.; Rosenberg, B.; Lipsitz, S. A.; Sadoff, D.; Matheson, D.; Berry, W. R.; Lester, M.; Gawande, A. A. (2013). "Relationship Between Occurrence of Surgical Complications and Hospital Finances". JAMA. 309 (15): 1599–1606. PMID 23592104 . doi :10.1001/jama.2013.2773 .

FURTHER READING

* Coventry, Brendon J . Surgery: Complications, Risks and Consequences. Book series, seven volumes. Springer (2014). * Mulholland, Michael W. position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Complication_(medicine) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

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