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The Info List - Complex-toothed Flying Squirrel





The complex-toothed flying squirrel (Trogopterus xanthipes) occurs in the southern Chinese provinces Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan. The common name refers to the teeth, which differ from those of other species of flying squirrels.

Contents

1 Description 2 Conservation 3 Biology and Reproduction 4 Taxonomy 5 Medical and commercial interest 6 References

Description[edit] Trogopterus xanthipes looks much like other flying squirrels, but with a characteristic tuft of black hair below the base of the ear. The fur is generally grey-brown, but white beneath. There is a slight reddish tinge to the face and the tail. The overall length is about 60 cm, of which the tail is about half. Conservation[edit] The conservation status of the complex-toothed flying squirrel is near threatened because the population is shrinking as a result of habitat loss and excessive hunting for food and traditional Chinese medicine.[1] Biology and Reproduction[edit] T. xanthipes builds its nests in cliffs, usually around 30 m above the ground. They live in mountainous terrain in altitudes of 1300 to 1500 m above sea level, or even up to 2750 m according to some sources. Their activity pattern is nocturnal; they leave their nests at night to search for food such as nuts, fruits, and leaves. They become sexually mature at about 22 months. A litter may comprise up to four young, and gestation lasts for roughly 80 to 90 days.[1] Captive specimens have been reported to live for ten to twelve years.[4] Taxonomy[edit] Though five species of the genus Trogopterus have been described, current opinion favours including them all in the same species: Trogopterus xanthipes. The hairy-footed flying squirrel (Belomys pearsoni) is closely related, and may be added to the genus Trogopterus.[5] Medical and commercial interest[edit] The species is collected as a meat animal, and also is captured for collection of the fecal matter, which is valued in traditional Chinese medicine as "five spirits grease" (五靈脂, wǔ líng zhī). It is used in the treatment of ulcers in the duodenum. Recent research has attempted to establish whether the fecal matter includes components of possible medical interest. Antithrombotic flavonoids have been reported.[6] Various diterpenoids, both known and unknown, have been evaluated for cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines,[7] and so have various neolignans classed as trogopterins. Although none of the compounds showed clinically significant activity against important tumor cell lines, some did produce detectable cytotoxic effects, suggesting a source of lignans with cytotoxic activity.[8] References[edit]

^ a b c Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Trogopterus xanthipes. The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species 2008: e.T22297A9369610. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T22297A9369610.en. Downloaded on 29 May 2016. ^ Milne-Edwards, Alphonse (1867). "Observations sur quelques mammifères du nord de la Chine". Annales des sciences naturelles, Zoologie et palèontologie. 5th series. 8: 376.  ^ Jackson, Stephen M.; Thorington, Richard W. Jr. (2012). Gliding Mammals: Taxonomy of Living and Extinct Species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 638. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 72. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.638.1 .  ^ Nowak, Ronald. Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press 1999. [1] ^ Stephen Matthew Jackson; Peter Schouten (2012). Gliding Mammals of the World. Csiro Publishing. pp. 186–. ISBN 978-0-643-09260-0.  ^ Yang, NY; Tao, WW; Duan, JA (2010). "Antithrombotic flavonoids from the faeces of Trogopterus xanthipes". Nat. Prod. Res. 24 (19): 1843–1849. doi:10.1080/14786419.2010.482057.  ^ Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Hua-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Tong-Hua; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Su, Jia; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian (2010). "Diterpenoids from the Feces of Trogopterus xanthipes". J. Nat. Prod. 73 (5): 865–869. doi:10.1021/np900814s.  ^ Baek, Soyoon; Xia, Xuikui; Sun Min, Byung; Park, Chanil (2014). "Trogopterins A–C: Three new neolignans from feces of Trogopterus xanthipes". Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 10: 2955–2962. doi:10.3762/bjoc.10.313. 

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Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Sciurinae, Pteromyini (Flying squirrels) tribe)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Eoglaucomys

Kashmir flying squirrel
Kashmir flying squirrel
(Eoglaucomys fimbriatus)

Glaucomys (New World flying squirrels)

Southern flying squirrel
Southern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys volans) Northern flying squirrel
Northern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys sabrinus) Humboldt's flying squirrel
Humboldt's flying squirrel
(Glaucomys oregonensis)

Hylopetes

Particolored flying squirrel
Particolored flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
alboniger) Afghan flying squirrel
Afghan flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
baberi) Bartel's flying squirrel
Bartel's flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
bartelsi) Gray-cheeked flying squirrel
Gray-cheeked flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
lepidus) Palawan flying squirrel
Palawan flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
nigripes) Indochinese flying squirrel
Indochinese flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
phayrei) Jentink's flying squirrel
Jentink's flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
platyurus) Sipora flying squirrel
Sipora flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
sipora) Red-cheeked flying squirrel
Red-cheeked flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
spadiceus) Sumatran flying squirrel
Sumatran flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
winstoni)

Iomys

Javanese flying squirrel
Javanese flying squirrel
( Iomys
Iomys
horsfieldi) Mentawi flying squirrel
Mentawi flying squirrel
( Iomys
Iomys
sipora)

Petaurillus (Pygmy flying squirrels)

Lesser pygmy flying squirrel
Lesser pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus emiliae) Hose's pygmy flying squirrel
Hose's pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus hosei) Selangor pygmy flying squirrel
Selangor pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus kinlochii)

Petinomys

Basilan flying squirrel
Basilan flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
crinitus) Whiskered flying squirrel
Whiskered flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
genibarbis) Hagen's flying squirrel
Hagen's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
hageni) Siberut flying squirrel
Siberut flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
lugens) Arrow flying squirrel
Arrow flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
sagitta) Temminck's flying squirrel
Temminck's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
setosus) Vordermann's flying squirrel
Vordermann's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
vordermanni) Travancore flying squirrel
Travancore flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
fuscocapillus)

Aeretes

Groove-toothed flying squirrel
Groove-toothed flying squirrel
(Aeretes melanopterus)

Aeromys (Large black flying squirrels)

Black flying squirrel
Black flying squirrel
(Aeromys tephromelas) Thomas's flying squirrel
Thomas's flying squirrel
(Aeromys thomasi)

Belomys

Hairy-footed flying squirrel
Hairy-footed flying squirrel
(Belomys pearsonii)

Biswamoyopterus

Namdapha flying squirrel
Namdapha flying squirrel
(Biswamoyopterus biswasi) Laotian giant flying squirrel
Laotian giant flying squirrel
(Biswamoyopterus laoensis)

Eupetaurus

Woolly flying squirrel
Woolly flying squirrel
(Eupetaurus cinereus)

Petaurista

Red and white giant flying squirrel
Red and white giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
alborufus) Spotted giant flying squirrel
Spotted giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
elegans) Hodgson's giant flying squirrel
Hodgson's giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
magnificus) Bhutan giant flying squirrel
Bhutan giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
nobilis) Indian giant flying squirrel
Indian giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
philippensis) Chinese giant flying squirrel
Chinese giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
xanthotis) Japanese giant flying squirrel
Japanese giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
leucogenys) Red giant flying squirrel
Red giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
petaurista)

Pteromys (Old World flying squirrels)

Siberian flying squirrel
Siberian flying squirrel
(Pteromys volans) Japanese dwarf flying squirrel
Japanese dwarf flying squirrel
(Pteromys momonga)

Pteromyscus

Smoky flying squirrel
Smoky flying squirrel
(Pteromyscus pulverulentus)

Trogopterus

Complex-toothed flying squirrel
Complex-toothed flying squirrel
(Trogopterus xanthipes)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1397630 ADW: Trogopterus EoL: 1178638 GBIF: 2437459 ITIS: 632527 IUCN: 22297 MSW: 12400444

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