Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that
was co-developed by
Sony and released in 1982. The format
was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but
was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats
were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data
storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD),
Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and
Enhanced Music CD. The first commercially available Audio CD player,
Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan.
Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and can
hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about
MiB of data. The
Mini CD has various diameters ranging from
60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for
CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio, or delivering device
At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store
much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would
typically hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much
storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to
commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and
CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had
been sold worldwide.
From the early 2000s CDs were increasingly being replaced by other
forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by
2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U.S. had dropped about
50% from their peak; however, they remained one of the primary
distribution methods for the music industry. In 2014, revenues from
digital music services matched those from physical format sales for
the first time.
Digital audio laser-disc prototypes
1.2 Collaboration and standardization
1.3 Initial launch and adoption
1.4 Further development and decline
1.5 Awards and accolades
2 Physical details
2.2 Disc shapes and diameters
3 Logical format
3.1 Audio CD
3.2 Super Audio CD
Video CD (VCD)
3.6 Super Video CD
3.7 Photo CD
3.9 CD-i Ready
Enhanced Music CD
Enhanced Music CD (CD+)
3.11 Vinyl Disc
5 Writable compact discs
5.1 Recordable CD
5.2 ReWritable CD
6 Copy protection
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing
the first system to record digital information on an optical
transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen
lamp. Russell's patent application was first filed in 1966, and
he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation,
Philips licensed Russell's patents (then held by a Canadian company,
Optical Recording Corp.) in the 1980s.
The compact disc is an evolution of
LaserDisc technology, where a
focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density
required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were
Sony independently in the late 1970s.
Although originally dismissed by
Philips Research management as a
trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for
LaserDisc format struggled. In 1979,
Philips set up a
joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc.
After a year of experimentation and discussion, the
Red Book CD-DA
standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in
1982, compact discs and their players were extremely popular. Despite
costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United
States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United
States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, and by 1992 CD sales surpassed
those of prerecorded music cassette tapes. The success of the
compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between
Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware.
The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase
any disc or player from any company, and allowed the CD to dominate
the at-home music market unchallenged.
Digital audio laser-disc prototypes
In 1974, L. Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started
a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc
with a diameter of 20 cm (7.9 in) and a sound quality
superior to that of the vinyl record. However, due to the
unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two
engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977,
Philips then established a laboratory with the mission of creating a
digital audio disc. The diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc
was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette.
Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within
Japan's national public broadcasting organization
NHK in 1970, became
general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971. His team developed
PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a
recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital
audio on an optical disc was easily made.
Sony first publicly
demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year
later, in September 1977,
Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that
could play 60 minutes of digital audio (44,100 Hz sampling rate
and 16-bit resolution) using MFM modulation. In September 1978,
the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a
150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear
resolution, and cross-interleaved error correction
code—specifications similar to those later settled upon for the
standard compact disc format in 1980. Technical details of Sony's
digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held
on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was
published on 1 March 1979. A week later, on 8 March,
demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press
conference called "
Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven,
Collaboration and standardization
Dutch inventor and
Philips chief engineer
Kees Schouhamer Immink
Kees Schouhamer Immink was
part of the team that produced the standard compact disc in 1980
Sony executive Norio Ohga, later CEO and chairman of Sony, and Heitaro
Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and
pushed further development despite widespread skepticism.
As a result, in 1979,
Philips set up a joint task force of
engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees
Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser
and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and
discussion, the task force produced the
CD-DA standard. First
published in 1980, the standard was formally adopted by the IEC as an
international standard in 1987, with various amendments becoming part
of the standard in 1996.
Philips coined the term compact disc in line with another audio
product, the Compact Cassette, and contributed the general
manufacturing process, based on video
LaserDisc technology. Philips
also contributed eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM), which offers a
certain resilience to defects such as scratches and fingerprints,
Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC.
The Compact Disc Story, told by a former member of the task force,
gives background information on the many technical decisions made,
including the choice of the sampling frequency, playing time, and disc
diameter. The task force consisted of around four to eight
persons, though according to Philips, the compact disc was
"invented collectively by a large group of people working as a
Initial launch and adoption
Philips established the Polydor Pressing Operations plant in
Langenhagen near Hannover, Germany, and quickly passed a series of
The first test pressing was of a recording of Richard Strauss's Eine
Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony) played by the Berlin Philharmonic
and conducted by Herbert von Karajan, who had been enlisted as an
ambassador for the format in 1979.
The first public demonstration was on the
BBC television programme
Tomorrow's World in 1981, when the Bee Gees' album Living Eyes (1981)
The first commercial compact disc was produced on 17 August 1982. It
was The Visitors (1981) by ABBA.
The first 50 titles were released in
Japan on 1 October 1982, the
very first of which was a rerelease of the
Billy Joel album 52nd
The first CD played on
Radio was in October 1982 on
Scotland (Jimmy Mack programme, Followed by Ken Bruce and Eddie Mair
BBC Scotland), with the first CD played on UK independent radio
station shortly after (
Radio Forth, Jay Crawford Show). The CD was
Dire Straits, Love over Gold. 
The Japanese launch was followed in March 1983 by the introduction of
CD players and discs to Europe and North America (where CBS
Records released sixteen titles). This 1983 event is often seen as
the "Big Bang"[by whom?] of the digital audio revolution. The new
audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the
early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities, and its
handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players
gradually came down, and with the introduction of the portable Discman
the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music
markets. One of the first CD markets was devoted to reissuing popular
music whose commercial potential was already proven. An advantage of
the format was the ability to produce and market boxed sets and
multi-volume collections. The first artist to sell a million
copies on CD was Dire Straits, with their 1985 album Brothers in
Arms. The first major artist to have his entire catalogue
converted to CD was David Bowie, whose 15 studio albums were made
RCA Records in February 1985, along with four greatest
hits albums. On February 26, 1987, the first four UK albums by The
Beatles were released in mono on compact disc. In 1988, 400
million CDs were manufactured by 50 pressing plants around the
Further development and decline
Sony CD Walkman D-E330
The CD was planned to be the successor of the vinyl record for playing
music, rather than primarily as a data storage medium. From its
origins as a musical format, CDs have grown to encompass other
applications. In 1983, following the CD's introduction, Immink and
Braat presented the first experiments with erasable compact discs
during the 73rd AES Convention. In June 1985, the
CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990,
CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by both
Philips. Recordable CDs were a new alternative to tape for
recording music and copying music albums without defects introduced in
compression used in other digital recording methods. Other newer video
formats such as
Blu-ray use the same physical geometry as CD,
Blu-ray players are backward compatible with audio
By the early 2000s, the
CD player had largely replaced the audio
cassette player as standard equipment in new automobiles, with 2010
being the final model year for any car in the United States to have a
factory-equipped cassette player. With the increasing popularity
of portable digital audio players, such as mobile phones, and solid
state music storage, CD players are being phased out of automobiles in
favor of minijack auxiliary inputs, wired connection to USB devices
Meanwhile, with the advent and popularity of Internet-based
distribution of files in lossily-compressed audio formats such as MP3,
sales of CDs began to decline in the 2000s. For example, between 2000
and 2008, despite overall growth in music sales and one anomalous year
of increase, major-label CD sales declined overall by 20%,
although independent and DIY music sales may be tracking better
according to figures released 30 March 2009, and CDs still continue to
sell greatly. As of 2012, CDs and DVDs made up only 34 percent of
music sales in the United States. By 2015[update], only 24% of
music in the United States was purchased on physical media, ⅔ of
this consisting of CDs; however, in the same year in Japan, over
80% of music was bought on CDs and other physical formats.
Despite the rapidly declining sales year-over-year, the pervasiveness
of the technology remained for a time, with companies placing CDs in
pharmacies, supermarkets, and filling station convenience stores
targeting buyers least able to utilize Internet-based
distribution. However, in 2018,
Best Buy announced plans to end CD
sales in its stores on July 1, 2018, with
Target Corporation planning
to only offer CDs on a consignment basis.
Awards and accolades
Philips received praise for the development of the compact
disc from professional organizations. These awards include
Grammy Award for
Sony and Philips, 1998.
IEEE Milestone award, 2009, for
Philips only with the citation: "On 8
March 1979, N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken demonstrated for the
international press a Compact Disc Audio Player. The demonstration
showed that it is possible by using digital optical recording and
playback to reproduce audio signals with superb stereo quality. This
Philips established the technical standard for digital
optical recording systems."
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Diagram of CD layers.
A polycarbonate disc layer has the data encoded by using bumps.
A shiny layer reflects the laser.
A layer of lacquer protects the shiny layer.
Artwork is screen printed on the top of the disc.
A laser beam reads the CD and is reflected back to a sensor, which
converts it into electronic data
A CD is made from 1.2 millimetres (0.047 in) thick, polycarbonate
plastic and weighs
15–20 grams.[better source needed] From the
center outward, components are: the center spindle hole (15 mm),
the first-transition area (clamping ring), the clamping area (stacking
ring), the second-transition area (mirror band), the program (data)
area, and the rim. The inner program area occupies a radius from 25 to
A thin layer of aluminium or, more rarely, gold is applied to the
surface, making it reflective. The metal is protected by a film of
lacquer normally spin coated directly on the reflective layer. The
label is printed on the lacquer layer, usually by screen printing or
CD data is represented as tiny indentations known as "pits", encoded
in a spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. The
areas between pits are known as "lands". Each pit is approximately
100 nm deep by 500 nm wide, and varies from 850 nm to
3.5 µm in length. The distance between the tracks, the
pitch, is 1.6 µm.
A motor within the
CD player spins the disc to a scanning velocity of
1.2–1.4 m/s (constant linear velocity) – equivalent to
approximately 500 RPM at the inside of the disc, and approximately 200
RPM at the outside edge. (A disc played from beginning to end slows
its rotation rate during playback.)
Comparison of various optical storage media
The program area is 86.05 cm2 and the length of the recordable
(86.05 cm2 / 1.6 µm) = 5.38 km.
With a scanning speed of 1.2 m/s, the playing time is 74 minutes,
MiB of data on a CD-ROM. A disc with data packed slightly
more densely is tolerated by most players (though some old ones fail).
Using a linear velocity of 1.2 m/s and a narrower track pitch of
1.5 µm increases the playing time to 80 minutes, and data
capacity to 700 MiB.
The pits in a CD are 500 nm wide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and
150 nm deep
A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength (near infrared)
semiconductor laser housed within the CD player, through the bottom of
the polycarbonate layer. The change in height between pits and lands
results in a difference in the way the light is reflected. By
measuring the intensity change with a photodiode, the data can be read
from the disc. In order to accommodate the spiral pattern of data, the
semiconductor laser is placed on a swing arm within the disc tray of
any CD player. This swing arm allows the laser to read information
from the centre to the edge of a disc, without having to interrupt the
spinning of the disc itself.
Philips CDM210 CD Drive
The pits and lands do not directly represent the zeros and ones of
binary data. Instead, non-return-to-zero, inverted encoding is used: a
change from pit to land or land to pit indicates a one, while no
change indicates a series of zeros. There must be at least two and no
more than ten zeros between each one, which is defined by the length
of the pit. This in turn is decoded by reversing the eight-to-fourteen
modulation used in mastering the disc, and then reversing the
cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, finally revealing the raw
data stored on the disc. These encoding techniques (defined in the Red
Book) were originally designed for CD Digital Audio, but they later
became a standard for almost all CD formats (such as CD-ROM).
CDs are susceptible to damage during handling and from environmental
exposure. Pits are much closer to the label side of a disc, enabling
defects and contaminants on the clear side to be out of focus during
playback. Consequently, CDs are more likely to suffer damage on the
label side of the disc. Scratches on the clear side can be repaired by
refilling them with similar refractive plastic or by careful
polishing. The edges of CDs are sometimes incompletely sealed,
allowing gases and liquids to corrode the metal reflective layer and
to interfere with the focus of the laser on the pits. The fungus
Geotrichum candidum has been found—under conditions of high heat and
humidity—to consume the polycarbonate plastic and aluminium found in
Disc shapes and diameters
Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks
(not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end.
* Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or
The digital data on a CD begins at the center of the disc and proceeds
toward the edge, which allows adaptation to the different size formats
available. Standard CDs are available in two sizes. By far, the most
common is 120 millimetres (4.7 in) in diameter, with a 74- or
80-minute audio capacity and a 650 or 700
data capacity. This capacity was reportedly specified by Sony
Norio Ohga in May 1980 so as to be able to contain the
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on one disc. This is a myth
according to Kees Immink, as the code format had not yet been decided
in May 1980. The adoption of EFM one month later would have
allowed a playing time of 97 minutes for 120 mm diameter or 74
minutes for a disc as small as 100 mm. The 120 mm
diameter has been adopted by subsequent formats, including Super Audio
CD, DVD, HD DVD, and
Blu-ray Disc. The 80 mm diameter discs
("Mini CDs") can hold up to 24 minutes of music or 210 MiB.
CD-ROM Data Capacity
80x54 mm – 80x64 mm
"Business card" size
Main article: Compact Disc Digital Audio
The logical format of an audio CD (officially Compact Disc Digital
Audio or CD-DA) is described in a document produced in 1980 by the
format's joint creators,
Sony and Philips. The document is known
colloquially as the
CD-DA after the colour of its cover. The
format is a two-channel 16-bit PCM encoding at a 44.1 kHz
sampling rate per channel. Four-channel sound was to be an allowable
option within the
Red Book format, but has never been implemented.
Monaural audio has no existing standard on a
Red Book CD; thus, mono
source material is usually presented as two identical channels in a
Red Book stereo track (i.e., mirrored mono); an
however, can have audio file formats with mono sound.
CD-Text is an extension of the
Red Book specification for audio CD
that allows for storage of additional text information (e.g., album
name, song name, artist) on a standards-compliant audio CD. The
information is stored either in the lead-in area of the CD, where
there is roughly five kilobytes of space available, or in the subcode
channels R to W on the disc, which can store about 31 megabytes.
Compact Disc + Graphics
Compact Disc + Graphics is a special audio compact disc that contains
graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. The disc can
be played on a regular audio CD player, but when played on a special
CD+G player, it can output a graphics signal (typically, the CD+G
player is hooked up to a television set or a computer monitor); these
graphics are almost exclusively used to display lyrics on a television
set for karaoke performers to sing along with. The
CD+G format takes
advantage of the channels R through W. These six bits store the
CD + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG) is an improved
variant of the
Compact Disc + Graphics
Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format. Like CD+G, CD+EG
CD-ROM features to display text and video information
in addition to the music being played. This extra data is stored in
subcode channels R-W. Very few, if any, CD+EG discs have been
Super Audio CD
Main article: Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD (SACD) is a high-resolution read-only optical audio
disc format that was designed to provide higher fidelity digital audio
reproduction than the
Red Book. Introduced in 1999, it was developed
Sony and Philips, the same companies that created the
SACD was in a format war with DVD-Audio, but neither has replaced
audio CDs. The SACD standard is referred to the Scarlet Book standard.
Titles in the SACD format can be issued as hybrid discs; these discs
contain the SACD audio stream as well as a standard audio CD layer
which is playable in standard CD players, thus making them backward
MIDI is a format used to store music-performance data, which upon
playback is performed by electronic instruments that synthesize the
audio. Hence, unlike the original
Red Book CD-DA, these recordings are
not digitally sampled audio recordings. The CD-
MIDI format is defined
as an extension of the original
Main article: CD-ROM
For the first few years of its existence, the CD was a medium used
purely for audio. However, in 1988, the Yellow Book
was established by
Sony and Philips, which defined a non-volatile
optical data computer data storage medium using the same physical
format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM
Video CD (VCD)
Main article: Video CD
Video CD (VCD, View CD, and Compact Disc digital video) is a standard
digital format for storing video media on a CD. VCDs are playable in
VCD players, most modern
DVD-Video players, personal
computers, and some video game consoles.
VCD standard was created in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and
JVC and is referred to as the White Book standard.
Overall picture quality is intended to be comparable to
VCD video can sometimes be lower quality than VHS
VCD exhibits block artifacts rather than analog noise and
does not deteriorate further with each use.
352x240 (or SIF) resolution was chosen because it is half the vertical
and half the horizontal resolution of NTSC video. 352x288 is similarly
one quarter PAL/SECAM resolution. This approximates the (overall)
resolution of an analog
VHS tape, which, although it has double the
number of (vertical) scan lines, has a much lower horizontal
Super Video CD
Main article: Super Video CD
Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for
storing video media on standard compact discs. S
VCD was intended as a
VCD and an alternative to
DVD-Video and falls somewhere
between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality.
VCD has two thirds the resolution of DVD, and over 2.7 times the
resolution of VCD. One
CD-R disc can hold up to 60 minutes of standard
quality SVCD-format video. While no specific limit on S
length is mandated by the specification, one must lower the video bit
rate, and therefore quality, to accommodate very long videos. It is
usually difficult to fit much more than 100 minutes of video onto one
VCD without incurring significant quality loss, and many hardware
players are unable to play video with an instantaneous bit rate lower
than 300 to 600 kilobits per second.
Main article: Photo CD
Photo CD is a system designed by
Kodak for digitizing and storing
photos on a CD. Launched in 1992, the discs were designed to hold
nearly 100 high-quality images, scanned prints and slides using
special proprietary encoding. Photo CDs are defined in the Beige Book
and conform to the
CD-ROM XA and
CD-i Bridge specifications as well.
They are intended to play on CD-i players,
Photo CD players and any
computer with suitable software (irrespective of operating system).
The images can also be printed out on photographic paper with a
Kodak machine. This format is not to be confused with Kodak
Picture CD, which is a consumer product in
Philips Green Book specifies a standard for interactive multimedia
compact discs designed for CD-i players (1993). CD-i discs can contain
audio tracks which can be played on regular CD players, but CD-i discs
are not compatible with most
CD-ROM drives and software. The CD-i
Ready specification was later created to improve compatibility with
audio CD players, and the
CD-i Bridge specification was added to
create CD-i compatible discs that can be accessed by regular CD-ROM
Main article: CD-i Ready
Philips defined a format similar to CD-i called CD-i Ready, which puts
CD-i software and data into the pregap of track 1. This format was
supposed to be more compatible with older audio CD players.
Enhanced Music CD
Enhanced Music CD (CD+)
Main article: Blue Book (CD standard)
Enhanced Music CD, also known as CD Extra or CD Plus, is a format
which combines audio tracks and data tracks on the same disc by
putting audio tracks in a first session and data in a second session.
It was developed by
Philips and Sony, and it is defined in the Blue
Main article: VinylDisc
Vinyl Disc is the hybrid of a standard audio CD and the vinyl record.
The vinyl layer on the disc's label side can hold approximately three
minutes of music.
Main article: CD manufacturing
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Individual pits are visible on the micrometre scale
Replicated CDs are mass-produced initially using a hydraulic press.
Small granules of heated raw polycarbonate plastic are fed into the
press. A screw forces the liquefied plastic into the mold cavity. The
mold closes with a metal stamper in contact with the disc surface. The
plastic is allowed to cool and harden. Once opened, the disc substrate
is removed from the mold by a robotic arm, and a 15 mm diameter
center hole (called a stacking ring) is created. The time it takes to
"stamp" one CD is usually two to three seconds.
This method produces the clear plastic blank part of the disc. After a
metallic reflecting layer (usually aluminium, but sometimes gold or
other metal) is applied to the clear blank substrate, the disc goes
under a UV light for curing and it is ready to go to press. To prepare
to press a CD, a glass master is made, using a high-powered laser on a
device similar to a CD writer. The glass master is a positive image of
the desired CD surface (with the desired microscopic pits and lands).
After testing, it is used to make a die by pressing it against a metal
The die is a negative image of the glass master: typically, several
are made, depending on the number of pressing mills that are to make
the CD. The die then goes into a press, and the physical image is
transferred to the blank CD, leaving a final positive image on the
disc. A small amount of lacquer is applied as a ring around the center
of the disc, and rapid spinning spreads it evenly over the surface.
Edge protection lacquer is applied before the disc is finished. The
disc can then be printed and packed.
Manufactured CDs that are sold in stores are sealed via a process
called "polywrapping" or shrink wrapping.
In 1995, material costs were 30 cents for the jewel case and 10 to 15
cents for the CD. Wholesale cost of CDs was $0.75 to $1.15, which
retailed for $16.98. On average, the store received 35 percent of
the retail price, the record company 27 percent, the artist 16
percent, the manufacturer 13 percent, and the distributor 9
percent. When 8-track tapes, cassette tapes, and CDs were
introduced, each was marketed at a higher price than the format they
succeeded, even though the cost to produce the media was reduced. This
was done because the apparent value increased. This continued from
vinyl to CDs but was broken when Apple marketed MP3s for $0.99, and
albums for $9.99. The incremental cost, though, to produce an
Writable compact discs
CD-R next to a mechanical pencil
Main article: CD-R
Recordable Compact Discs, CD-Rs, are injection-molded with a "blank"
data spiral. A photosensitive dye is then applied, after which the
discs are metalized and lacquer-coated. The write laser of the CD
recorder changes the colour of the dye to allow the read laser of a
CD player to see the data, just as it would with a standard
stamped disc. The resulting discs can be read by most
and played in most audio CD players. CD-Rs follow the Orange Book
CD-R recordings are designed to be permanent. Over time, the dye's
physical characteristics may change causing read errors and data loss
until the reading device cannot recover with error correction methods.
The design life is from 20 to 100 years, depending on the quality of
the discs, the quality of the writing drive, and storage conditions.
However, testing has demonstrated such degradation of some discs in as
little as 18 months under normal storage conditions. This
failure is known as disc rot, for which there are several, mostly
The recordable audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD
recorder. These consumer audio CD recorders use SCMS (Serial Copy
Management System), an early form of digital rights management (DRM),
to conform to the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act). The Recordable
Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than
CD-R due to lower
production volume and a 3% AHRA royalty used to compensate the music
industry for the making of a copy.
High-capacity recordable CD is a higher-density recording format that
can hold 90 or 99 minutes of audio on a 12 cm (5 in) disc
(compared to about 80 minutes for
Red Book audio) or 30 minutes of
audio on an 8 cm (3 in) disc (compared to about 24 minutes
Red Book audio). The higher capacity is incompatible with some
recorders and recording software.
Main article: CD-RW
CD-RW is a re-recordable medium that uses a metallic alloy instead of
a dye. The write laser in this case is used to heat and alter the
properties (amorphous vs. crystalline) of the alloy, and hence change
its reflectivity. A
CD-RW does not have as great a difference in
reflectivity as a pressed CD or a CD-R, and so many earlier CD audio
players cannot read
CD-RW discs, although most later CD audio players
DVD players can. CD-RWs follow the Orange Book
The ReWritable Audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD
recorder, which will not (without modification) accept standard CD-RW
discs. These consumer audio CD recorders use the Serial Copy
Management System (SCMS), an early form of digital rights management
(DRM), to conform to the United States' Audio Home Recording Act
(AHRA). The ReWritable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive
CD-RW due to (a) lower volume and (b) a 3% AHRA royalty used to
compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.
Due to technical limitations, the original ReWritable CD could be
written no faster than 4x speed. High Speed ReWritable CD has a
different design, which permits writing at speeds ranging from 4x to
CD-RW drives can only write to original ReWritable CDs.
CD-RW drives can typically write to both original
ReWritable CDs and High Speed ReWritable CDs. Both types of CD-RW
discs can be read in most CD drives. Higher speed
CD-RW discs, Ultra
Speed (16x to 24x write speed) and Ultra Speed+ (32x write speed) are
Main article: CD/
DVD copy protection
Red Book audio specification, except for a simple "anti-copy"
statement in the subcode, does not include any copy protection
mechanism. Known at least as early as 2001, attempts were made by
record companies to market "copy-protected" non-standard compact
discs, which cannot be ripped, or copied, to hard drives or easily
converted to other formats (like FLAC,
MP3 or Vorbis). One major
drawback to these copy-protected discs is that most will not play on
CD-ROM drives or some standalone CD players that use
Philips has stated that such discs are not
permitted to bear the trademarked
Compact Disc Digital Audio
Compact Disc Digital Audio logo
because they violate the
Red Book specifications. Numerous
copy-protection systems have been countered by readily available,
often free, software, or even by simply turning off automatic AutoPlay
to prevent the running of the DRM executable program.
5.1 Music Disc
Compact Disc bronzing
Extended Resolution Compact Disc
High Definition Compatible Digital
K2 High Definition
Video Single Disc
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Compact disc (category)
Video How Compact Discs are Manufactured
CD-Recordable FAQ Exhaustive basics on CDs
Philips history of the CD (cache)
Patent History (CD Player) – published by
Philips in 2005
Patent History CD Disc – published by
Philips in 2003
Sony History, Chapter 8, This is the replacement of Gramophone
record ! (第8章
Sony website in
Popularized History on Soundfountain
Mixed Mode CD
business card CD
CD copy protection
Portable CD player
Mini CD single
CD copy protection schemes
CD player manufacturers
Optical disc authoring software
Variants based on CD
5.1 Music Disc
Video Single Disc
Physical audio recording formats
Phonograph cylinder (1877)
Phonograph record (1894)
Wire recording (1898)
Reel-to-reel tape (1940s)
Gray Audograph (1945)
LP record (1948)
On-the-ribs recordings (late 1940s)
RCA tape cartridge (1958)
Compact Cassette (1963)
Compact disc (1982)
Digital Audio Tape
Digital Audio Tape (1987)
Compact Cassette (1992)
High Definition Compatible Digital
High Definition Compatible Digital (1995)
5.1 Music Disc (1997)
Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD (1999)
USB flash drive (as audio format) (2004)
Electronic and digital
Audio console (mixing board)
Digital audio workstation
Digital audio workstation (DAW)
Comparison of analog and digital recording
Experimental musical instrument
Reel-to-reel audio tape recording
Sound reinforcement system
Digital signal processing
Sound reinforcement system
Electronic musical instrument
Digital audio editor
Digital audio workstation
Software effect processor
Sound recording engineer
People and organizations
Audio Engineering Society
Institute of Broadcast Sound
Musical Electronics Library
Professional Lighting and Sound Association
Professional audio store
New Interfaces for Musical Expression
New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME)