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The Commonwealth
The Commonwealth
Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then (with the exception of 1942 and 1946, which were cancelled due to World War II).[1] The most recent Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
Australia
in 2018. The Commonwealth
The Commonwealth
Games were known as the British Empire
British Empire
Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974. The games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation
Commonwealth Games Federation
(CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), Commonwealth Games Associations (CGAs), and organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the  Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive  Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games also include some sports that are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls and netball.[2] Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations
Home Nations
of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nine nations have hosted the Commonwealth Games. 19 cities in seven countries have hosted the event. Australia
Australia
has hosted five Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(1938, 1962, 1982, 2006, 2018). Canada
Canada
has hosted four Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(1930, 1954, 1978, 1994). Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
more than one time: Auckland
Auckland
(1950, 1990) and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1970, 1986). Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales. Australia
Australia
has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England
England
for seven, and Canada
Canada
for one.

Contents

1 History of the Games 2 Editions of the Games

2.1 During the 20th century

2.1.1 British Empire
British Empire
Games 2.1.2 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games 2.1.3 British Commonwealth Games 2.1.4 Commonwealth Games

2.2 During the 21st century 2.3 Paraplegic Games 2.4 Inclusion of Para-sports 2.5 Winter Games 2.6 Youth Games

3 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation 4 Queen's baton relay 5 Ceremonies

5.1 Opening 5.2 Closing 5.3 Medal presentation

6 List of Commonwealth Games 7 All-time medal table 8 List of Commonwealth sports 9 Participation

9.1 Commonwealth nations/dependencies/disputed territories yet to send teams

10 Controversies

10.1 Host city contract 10.2 Boycotts 10.3 Cost of the Games

11 Notable competitors 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History of the Games[edit] A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1891, when he wrote an article in The Times
The Times
suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide (e.g. Australia) and helped Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
to get his international Olympic Games
Olympic Games
off the ground.[3] In 1911, the Festival of the Empire
Festival of the Empire
was held at The Crystal Palace in London
London
to celebrate the coronation of George V. As part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships
Inter-Empire Championships
were held in which teams from Australasia, Canada, South Africa, and the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing, wrestling and swimming events. Editions of the Games[edit] During the 20th century[edit] British Empire
British Empire
Games[edit] The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later become known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from August 16–23, 1930. In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada
Canada
was asked to organise the first British Empire
British Empire
Games. Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium. The participant nations were Australia, Bermuda, British Guyana, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa
South Africa
and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, boxing, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events.[4] Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first ever gold medal in the history of the Games.[5]

Opening ceremony of the 1938 British Empire Games
1938 British Empire Games
at the Sydney Cricket Ground.

The 1934 British Empire
British Empire
Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester. The 1934 Games had originally been awarded to Johannesburg, but were given to London
London
instead because of the potential for prejudiced treatment of black and Asian athletes in South Africa. Seventeen national teams took part, including the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(the only Games in which they did take part)[6] and new participants Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
and Trinidad and Tobago. The 1938 British Empire
British Empire
Games were the third British Empire Games, which were held in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. They were timed to coincide with Sydney's sesqui-centenary (150 years since the foundation of British settlement in Australia). Held in the southern hemisphere for the first time, the III Games opening ceremony took place at the famed Sydney
Sydney
Cricket Ground in front of 40,000 spectators. Fifteen nations participated down under at the Sydney
Sydney
Games involving a total of 464 athletes and 43 officials. Fiji
Fiji
and Ceylon made their debuts. Seven sports were featured in the Sydney
Sydney
Games – athletics, boxing, cycling, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling.[7] The 1950 British Empire
British Empire
Games were the fourth edition and was held in Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand
after a 12-year gap from the third edition of the games. The fourth games were originally awarded to Montreal, Canada and were to be held in 1942 but were cancelled due to World War II. The opening ceremony at Eden Park was attended by 40,000 spectators, whilst nearly 250,000 people attended the Auckland
Auckland
Games. Twelve countries sent a total of 590 athletes to Auckland. Malaya and Nigeria
Nigeria
made their first appearances.[8] British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games[edit]

Statue in Vancouver
Vancouver
commemorating the "Miracle Mile" between Roger Bannister and John Landy

The fifth edition of the games, the 1954 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games, were held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. These were the first games since the name change from  British Empire
British Empire
Games took effect in 1952. The fifth edition of the Games placed Vancouver
Vancouver
on a world stage and featured memorable sporting moments as well as outstanding entertainment, technical innovation and cultural events. The ‘Miracle Mile’, as it became known, saw both the gold medallist, Roger Bannister
Roger Bannister
of England
England
and silver medallist John Landy
John Landy
of Australia, run sub-four minute races in an event that was televised live across the world for the first time.[9] Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
and Pakistan
Pakistan
made their debuts and both performed well, winning eight and six medals respectively.

3pence British stamp with theme of 1958 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games, Cardiff, Wales

The  1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
were held in Cardiff, Wales. The sixth edition of the games marked the largest sporting event ever held in Wales
Wales
and it was the smallest country ever to host a British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games. Cardiff
Cardiff
had to wait 12 years longer than originally scheduled to become host of the Games, as the 1946 event was cancelled because of World War II. The Cardiff
Cardiff
Games introduced the Queen's Baton Relay, which has been conducted as a prelude to every British Empire and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
ever since. Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,122 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff
Cardiff
Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, including for the first time, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya
Kenya
and the Isle of Man.[10] The 1962 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games were held in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Thirty-five countries sent a total of 863 athletes and 178 officials to Perth. Jersey
Jersey
was amongst the medal winners for the first time, whilst British Honduras, Dominica, Papua and New Guinea and St Lucia all made their inaugural Games appearances. Aden also competed by special invitation. Sarawak, North Borneo and Malaya competed for the last time before taking part in 1966 under the Malaysian flag.[11] In addition, Rhodesia and Nyasaland competed in the Games as an entity for the first and only time. The 1966 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games were held in Kingston, Jamaica. This was the first time that the Games had been held outside the so-called White Dominions. Thirty-four nations (including South Arabia) competed in the Kingston Games sending a total of 1,316 athletes and officials.[12] British Commonwealth Games[edit] The 1970 British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland. This was the first time the name British Commonwealth Games was adopted, the first time metric units rather than imperial units were used in events, the first time the games were held in Scotland and also the first time that HM Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
attended in her capacity as Head of the Commonwealth.[13] The 1974 British Commonwealth Games were held in Christchurch, New Zealand. The Games were officially named "the friendly games". Following the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics, the tenth games at Christchurch were the first multi-sport event to place the safety of participants and spectators as its uppermost requirement. Security guards surrounded the athlete’s village and there was an exceptionally high-profile police presence. Only 22 countries succeeded in winning medals from the total haul of 374 medals on offer, but first time winners included Western Samoa, Lesotho
Lesotho
and Swaziland.[14] Commonwealth Games[edit] The 1978 Commonwealth Games were held in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This event was the first to bear the current day name of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and also marked a new high as almost 1,500 athletes from 46 countries took part. They were boycotted by Nigeria, in protest of New Zealand's sporting contacts with apartheid-era South Africa, as well as by Uganda, in protest of alleged Canadian hostility towards the government of Idi Amin.[15][16]

Opening ceremony of the 1982 Commonwealth Games
1982 Commonwealth Games
at Brisbane, Australia

The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Forty-six nations participated in the Brisbane
Brisbane
Games with a new record total of 1,583 athletes and 571 officials. As hosts, Australia
Australia
headed the medal table leading the way ahead of England, Canada, Scotland
Scotland
and New Zealand respectively.[17] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
made its first appearance at the Games, having earlier competed as Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
and as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland and were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh. Participation at the 1986 Games was affected by a boycott by 32 African, Asian and Caribbean
Caribbean
nations in protest of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's refusal to condemn sporting contacts of apartheid era South Africa
Africa
in 1985, but the Games rebounded and continued to grow thereafter. Twenty-six nations did attend the second Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Games and sent a total of 1,662 athletes and 461 officials.[18] The 1990 Commonwealth Games were held in Auckland, New Zealand. It was the fourteenth Commonwealth Games, the third to be hosted by New Zealand and Auckland’s second. A new record of 55 nations participated in the second Auckland
Auckland
Games sending 2,826 athletes and officials.[19] Pakistan
Pakistan
returned to the Commonwealth in 1989 after withdrawing in 1972, and competed in the 1990 Games after an absence of twenty years.[20] The 1994 Commonwealth Games
1994 Commonwealth Games
were held in Victoria, British Columbia, the fourth to take place in Canada. The games marked South Africa's return to the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
following the apartheid era, and over 30 years since the country last competed in the Games in 1958. Namibia
Namibia
made its Commonwealth Games debut. It was also Hong Kong's last appearance at the games before the transfer of sovereignty from Britain to China. Sixty-three nations sent 2,557 athletes and 914 officials.[21] The 1998 Commonwealth Games were held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For the first time in its 68-year history, the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in Asia. The sixteenth games were also the first Games to feature team sports - an overwhelming success that added large numbers to both participant and TV audience numbers. A new record of 70 countries sent a total of 5,065 athletes and officials to the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Games. The top five countries in the medal standing were Australia, England, Canada, Malaysia
Malaysia
and South Africa. Nauru
Nauru
also achieved an impressive haul of three gold medals. Cameroon, Mozambique and Kiribati
Kiribati
debuted.[22] During the 21st century[edit] The  2002 Commonwealth Games
2002 Commonwealth Games
were held in Manchester, England. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in England
England
to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were until the 2010 edition the largest Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The final medal tally was led by Australia, followed by host England
England
and Canada. The 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
set a new benchmark for hosting the Commonwealth Games and for cities wishing to bid for them with a heavy emphasis on legacy.[23]

Athletics at the Melbourne Cricket Ground
Melbourne Cricket Ground
(MCG) during the 2006 Commonwealth Games, Melbourne, Australia

The 2006  Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in Melbourne, Australia. The only difference between the 2006 games and the 2002 games was the absence of Zimbabwe, which withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations. For the first time in the history of the Games the Queen's Baton visited every single Commonwealth nation and territory taking part in the Games, a journey of 180,000 km (112,500 miles). Over 4000 athletes took part in the sporting competitions. The final medal tally was led by the host Australia, followed by England
England
and Canada.[24] The 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
were held in Delhi, India. The Games cost $11 billion and are the most expensive Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
ever. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in India and the second time they were held in Asia
Asia
after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1998. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. The final medal tally was led by Australia. The host nation India
India
achieved its best performance ever in any sporting event, finishing second overall.[25] Rwanda
Rwanda
made its Games debut.[26] The 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
were held in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland
Scotland
with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986  Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in Edinburgh, capital city of Scotland.  Usain Bolt
Usain Bolt
competed in the 4×100 metres relay of the  2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
and set a  Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
record with his teammates.[27] The Games received acclaim for their organisation, attendance, and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with Commonwealth Games Federation chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement".[28] The 2018 Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games
are currently being held in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Australia
Australia
is hosting the games for the fifth time. There are an equal number of events for men and women. This marks the first time in history that a major multi-sport event has equality in terms of events.[29][30] The 2022 Commonwealth Games
2022 Commonwealth Games
will be held in Birmingham, England. They will be the third Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
to be hosted in England
England
following London
London
1934 and Manchester
Manchester
2002.[31] The three nations to have hosted the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
the most times are Australia
Australia
(5), Canada
Canada
(4) and New Zealand
New Zealand
(3). Furthermore, six editions have taken place in the countries within the United Kingdom ( Scotland
Scotland
(3), England
England
(2) and Wales
Wales
(1)), twice in Asia
Asia
( Malaysia
Malaysia
(1) and India
India
(1)) and once in the Caribbean
Caribbean
( Jamaica
Jamaica
(1)).[1] Paraplegic Games[edit] Main article: Commonwealth Paraplegic Games

Athletes of the 1962 Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
at Perth

The Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
were an international, multi-sport event involving athletes with a disability from the Commonwealth countries. The event was sometimes referred to as the Paraplegic Empire Games and British Commonwealth Paraplegic Games. Athletes were generally those with spinal injuries or polio. The event was first held in 1962 and disestablished in 1974.[32] The Games were held in the country hosting the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
for able-bodied athletes. The countries that had hosted the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
were Australia, Jamaica, Scotland
Scotland
and New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1962, 1966, 1970 and 1974 respectively. Six countries — Australia, England, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
— had been represented at all Commonwealth Paraplegic Games. Australia
Australia
and England
England
had been the top-ranking nation two times each: 1962, 1974 and 1966, 1970 respectively. Inclusion of Para-sports[edit] Athletes with a disability were then first included in exhibition events at the 1994 Commonwealth Games
1994 Commonwealth Games
in Victoria, British Columbia,[33] and, at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
2002 Commonwealth Games
in Manchester, England, they were included as full members of their national teams, making them the first fully inclusive international multi-sport games. This meant that results were included in the medal count.[34] During the 2007 General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation (CGF) at Colombo, Sri Lanka, the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and CGF signed a co-operative agreement to ensure a formal institutional relationship between the two bodies and secure the future participation of elite athletes with a disability (EAD) in future Commonwealth Games. IPC President Philip Craven
Philip Craven
said during the General Assembly:

“We look forward to working with CGF to develop the possibilities of athletes with a disability at the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and within the Commonwealth. This partnership will help to galvanize Paralympic sports development in Commonwealth countries/territories and seek to create and promote greater opportunities in sport for athletes with a disability.”

— IPC President Sir Philip Craven

The co-operation agreement outlined the strong partnership between the IPC and the CGF. It recognized the IPC as the organization for overseeing the co-ordination and delivery of the Commonwealth Games EAD sports programme and committed both organizations to work together in supporting the growth of the Paralympic and Commonwealth Games Movements.[35] Winter Games[edit] Main article: Commonwealth Winter Games

St. Moritz, the venue for all three Games from 1958-66

The Commonwealth Winter Games
Commonwealth Winter Games
were a multi-sport event comprising winter sports, last held in 1966. Three editions of the Games have been staged. The Winter Games were designed as a counterbalance to the Commonwealth Games, which focuses on summer sports, to accompany the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympic Games. The winter Games were founded by T.D. Richardson.[36] The 1958 Commonwealth Winter Games were held in St. Moritz, Switzerland
Switzerland
and was the inaugural games for the winter edition.[37][38] The 1962 Games were also held in St. Moritz, complementing the 1962 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games in Perth, Australia, and the 1966 event was held in St. Moritz
St. Moritz
as well, following which the idea was discontinued.[39] Youth Games[edit] Main article: Commonwealth Youth Games The Commonwealth Youth Games
Commonwealth Youth Games
are an international multi-sport event organized by the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation. The games are held every four years with the current Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
format. The Commonwealth Games Federation
Commonwealth Games Federation
discussed the idea of a Millennium Commonwealth Youth Games
Commonwealth Youth Games
in 1997. In 1998 the concept was agreed on for the purpose of providing a Commonwealth multi-sport event for young people born in the calendar year 1986 or later. The first version was held in Edinburgh, Scotland
Scotland
from 10 to 14 August 2000. The age limitation of the athletes is 14 to 18.[40] Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation[edit] Main article: Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation The Commonwealth Games Federation
Commonwealth Games Federation
(CGF) is the international organisation responsible for the direction and control of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and Commonwealth Youth Games, and is the foremost authority in matters relating to the games. The headquarters of CGF are located in London, England, United Kingdom.[41][42] The Commonwealth
The Commonwealth
Games Movement is made of three major elements:

International Federations (IFs) are the governing bodies that supervise a sport at an international level. For example, the International Basketball
Basketball
Federation (FIBA) is the international governing body for basketball.[43] Commonwealth Games Associations
Commonwealth Games Associations
(CGAs) represent and regulate the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Movement within each country. For example, the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
England
England
(CGE) is the CGA of England. There are currently 70 CGAs recognised by the CGF.[44] Organising Committees for the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(OCCWGs) are temporary committees responsible for the organisation of each Commonwealth Games. OCCWGs are dissolved after each Games once the final report is delivered to the CGF.

English is the official language of the Commonwealth. The other language used at each Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
is the language of the host country (or languages, if a country has more than one official language apart from English). Every proclamation (such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony) is spoken in these two (or more) languages, or the main depending on whether the host country is an English speaking country. Queen's baton relay[edit] Main article: Queen's Baton Relay

The 2002 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay

The Queen's Baton Relay, is a relay around the world held prior to the beginning of the Commonwealth Games. The Baton carries a message from the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Relay traditionally begins at Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
in London
London
as a part of the city's Commonwealth Day
Commonwealth Day
festivities. The Queen entrusts the baton to the first relay runner. At the Opening Ceremony of the Games, the final relay runner hands the baton back to the Queen or her representative, who reads the message aloud to officially open the Games.The Queen's Baton Relay
Queen's Baton Relay
is similar to the Olympic Torch Relay.[45] The Relay was introduced at the 1958 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games in Cardiff, Wales. Up until, and including, the 1994 Games, the Relay only went through England
England
and the host nation. The Relay for the 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
was the first to travel to other nations of the Commonwealth. The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay is set to be the longest in Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
history. Covering 230,000 km over 388 days, the Baton will make its way through the six Commonwealth regions of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, Asia
Asia
and Oceania. For the first time, the Queen's baton was presented at the Commonwealth Youth Games
Commonwealth Youth Games
during its sixth edition in 2017 which were held in Nassau, Bahamas.[46] Ceremonies[edit] Opening[edit]

Opening ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games
2006 Commonwealth Games
at Melbourne

Various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Commonwealth Games. This ceremony takes place before the events have occurred. The ceremony typically starts with the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem. The flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation, flag of the last hosting nation and the next hosting nation are also hosted during the opening ceremony. The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance and theatre representative of its culture. The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Delhi
Delhi
Games reportedly cost $70 million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.[47] After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. The last hosting nation is traditionally the first nation to enter. Nations then enter the stadium alphabetical or continental wise with the host country's athletes being the last to enter. Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Queen's Baton is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final baton carrier, often a successful Commonwealth athlete from the host nation, who hands it over to the Head of the Commonwealth. Closing[edit]

Closing ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
at Delhi

The closing ceremony of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction. The president of the organizing committee and the CGF president make their closing speeches and the Games are officially closed. The CGF president also speaks about the conduct of the games. The mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers the CGF flag to the president of the CGF, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Commonwealth Games. The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theater representative of its culture. Many great artists and singers had performed at the ceremonies of the Commonwealth Games. At the closing ceremony of every Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
the CGF President makes an award and presents a trophy to one athlete who has competed with particular distinction and honour both in terms of athletic performance and overall contribution to his or her team. Athletes are nominated by their Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Association at the end of the final day of competition and the winner is selected by a panel comprising the CGF President and representatives from each of the six Commonwealth Regions. The ‘David Dixon Award’ as it is called was introduced in Manchester
Manchester
2002, after the late David Dixon, former Honorary Secretary of the CGF, in honour of his monumental contribution to Commonwealth sport for many years.[48] Medal presentation[edit] A medal ceremony is held after each event is concluded. The winner, second and third-place competitors or teams stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals. After the medals are given out by a CGF member, the national flags of the three medallists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medallist's country plays. Volunteering citizens of the host country also act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag-bearers. List of Commonwealth Games[edit]

1911,1934

1938

1930

1950, 1990

1954

1958

1962

1966

1970, 1986

1974

1978

1982

1994

1998

2002

2006

2010

2014

2018

2022

Host cities of Commonwealth Games

Edition Year Host City & Host Nation Opened by Start Date End Date Sports Events Nations Competitors Top Nation Ref

Inter-Empire Championships

– 1911 London, United Kingdom George V 12 May 1 June 4 9 4 Unknown  Canada

British Empire
British Empire
Games

I 1930 Hamilton, Canada Viscount Willingdon 16 August 23 August 6 59 11 400  England [1]

II 1934 London, England

4 August 11 August 6 68 16 500  England [2]

III 1938 Sydney, Australia Lord Wakehurst 5 February 12 February 7 71 15 464  Australia [3]

– 1942 Montreal, Canada Cancelled due to World War II[49]

– 1946 Cardiff, Wales Cancelled due to World War II[49]

IV 1950 Auckland, New Zealand Sir Bernard Freyberg 4 February 11 February 9 88 12 590  Australia [4]

British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games

V 1954 Vancouver, Canada Earl Alexander of Tunis 30 July 7 August 9 91 24 662  England [5]

VI 1958 Cardiff, Wales

18 July 26 July 9 94 36 1122  England [6]

VII 1962 Perth, Australia Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 22 November 1 December 9 104 35 863  Australia [7]

VIII 1966 Kingston, Jamaica Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 4 August 13 August 9 110 34 1050  England [8]

British Commonwealth Games

IX 1970 Edinburgh, Scotland Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 16 July 25 July 9 121 42 1383  Australia [9]

X 1974 Christchurch, New Zealand Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 24 January 2 February 9 121 38 1276  Australia [10]

Commonwealth Games

XI 1978 Edmonton, Canada Elizabeth II 3 August 12 August 10 128 46 1474  Canada [11]

XII 1982 Brisbane, Australia Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 30 September 9 October 10 142 46 1583  Australia [12]

XIII 1986 Edinburgh, Scotland Elizabeth II 24 July 2 August 10 163 26 1662  England [13]

XIV 1990 Auckland, New Zealand Prince Edward 24 January 3 February 10 204 55 2073  Australia [14]

XV 1994 Victoria, Canada Elizabeth II 18 August 28 August 10 217 63 2557  Australia [15]

XVI 1998 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tuanku Jaafar 11 September 21 September 15 213 70 3633  Australia [16]

XVII 2002 Manchester, England Elizabeth II 25 July 4 August 17 281 72 3679  Australia [17]

XVIII 2006 Melbourne, Australia Elizabeth II 15 March 26 March 16 245 71 4049  Australia [18]

XIX 2010 Delhi, India Pratibha Patil 3 October 14 October 17 272 71 6081  Australia [19]

XX 2014 Glasgow, Scotland Elizabeth II 23 July 3 August 17 261 71 4947  England [20]

XXI 2018 Gold Coast, Australia Charles, Prince of Wales 4 April 15 April 18 275 71

[21]

XXII 2022 Birmingham, England TBA 27 July 7 August

XXIII 2026 Election in 2019 TBA

Note: The 1911 Inter-Empire Championships
Inter-Empire Championships
held in London
London
is seen as a precursor to the modern Commonwealth Games, but is not normally considered an official edition of the Games themselves. Also, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
competed as one country, unlike the Commonwealth Games today when they compete as England, Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland. Canada
Canada
topped the medal table by winning 4 events.[50] All-time medal table[edit] Main article: All-time Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
medal table Below is a Top 10 all-time medal table.

Rank Nation Games Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Australia (AUS) 20 852 716 650 2218

2  England (ENG) 20 669 670 669 2008

3  Canada (CAN) 20 469 476 528 1473

4  India (IND) 16 155 155 128 438

5  New Zealand (NZL) 20 144 203 262 609

6  South Africa (RSA) 12 117 112 123 352

7  Scotland (SCO) 20 110 119 178 407

8  Kenya (KEN) 15 81 68 71 220

9  Nigeria (NGR) 13 61 66 85 212

10  Wales (WAL) 20 57 86 127 270

List of Commonwealth sports[edit] Further information: Commonwealth Games sports and Commonwealth Games records There are a total of 22 sports (with three multi-disciplinary sports) and a further seven para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation. Core sports must be included on each programme. A number of optional sports may be picked by the host nation, which may include some team sports such as basketball.

Sport Type Years

Archery (Recurve) Optional 1982, 2010

Athletics Core 1930–present

Para Athletics Core 2002–present[51]

Badminton Core 1966–present

Basketball
Basketball
3x3 Optional 2006, 2018, 2022

Boxing Core 1930–present

Cricket Optional 1998

Cycling (Mountain Bike) Optional[52] 2002-2006, 2014-present

Cycling (Para Track) Optional[52] 2014–present

Cycling (Road) Core[52] 1938–present

Cycling (Track) Optional[52] 1934–present

Diving Optional 1930–present

Field hockey Core 1998–present

Gymnastics (Artistic) Core[52] 1978, 1990–present

Gymnastics (Rhythmic) Optional 1978, 1990–present

Judo Core (from 2022)[53] 1990, 2002, 2014, 2022

Lawn bowls Core 1930–1962, 1970–present

Sport Type Years

Para Lawn bowls Core 2002–present[51]

Netball
Netball
(Women) Core 1998–present

Powerlifting Core 2002–present[51]

Rugby sevens Core 1998–present

Shooting Optional 1966, 1974–2018

Squash Core 1998–present

Swimming Core 1930–present

Para Swimming Core 2002–present[51]

Table tennis Core[52] 2002–present

Para Table tennis Optional[52] 2002–2010, 2018-present

Triathlon Core[52] 2002, 2006, 2014-2018

Para Triathlon Optional[52] 2018

Volleyball
Volleyball
(beach) Optional 2018

Weightlifting Core 1950–present

Wheelchair Basketball Optional[52] Never

Wrestling (Freestyle) Core[52] 1930–1986, 1994, 2002, 2010–present

In 2015 the Commonwealth Games Federation
Commonwealth Games Federation
agreed large changes to the programme which increased the number of core sports, whilst removing a number of optionals, those removed are listed below. [54]

Sport Type Years

Canoeing Optional Never[55]

Rowing Optional 1930, 1938–1962, 1986

Sailing Optional Never

Softball Optional Never

Synchronized swimming Optional 1986–2006

Sport Type Years

Taekwondo Optional Never

Tennis Optional 2010

Ten-Pin Bowling Optional 1998

Wrestling (Greco-Roman) Optional 2010

Recognised sports are sports which have been approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation
Commonwealth Games Federation
but which are deemed to need expansion; host nations may not pick these sports for their programme until the Federation's requirements are fulfilled.[56]

Sport Type Years

Billiards Recognised Never

Fencing Recognised 1950–1970

Association Football Recognised Never

Golf Recognised Never

Handball Recognised Never

Sport Type Years

Life saving Recognised Never

Rugby league Recognised Never

Volleyball
Volleyball
(indoor) Recognised Never

Water Polo Recognised 1950

Participation[edit] Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales. Australia
Australia
has been the highest scoring team for twelve games, England
England
for seven and Canada
Canada
for one.

  Countries that have hosted, or plan to host, the event   Other countries that enter the games   Countries that have entered the games but no longer do so 0•0 Host cities and year of games

Table of Team Participation by Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Edition

Team Edition I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI

Year 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018

Host Flag

Host City Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Kingston Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi Glasgow Gold Coast

Participation \ Host nation Canada England Australia New Zealand Canada Wales Australia Jamaica Scotland New Zealand Canada Australia Scotland New Zealand Canada Malaysia England Australia India Scotland Australia

 Aden 1 1962

  Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1998–

 Antigua and Barbuda 1966–1970, 1978, 1994–

 Australia 1930–

 Bahamas 1954–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

 Bangladesh 1978, 1990–

 Barbados 1954–1982, 1990–

  Belize
Belize
4 1978, 1994–

 Bermuda 1930–1938, 1954–1982, 1990–

 Botswana 1974, 1982–

  British Guiana
British Guiana
3 1930–1938, 1954–1962

  British Honduras
British Honduras
4 1962–1966

 British Virgin Islands 1990–

  Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam 1990–

 Cameroon 1998–

 Canada 1930–

 Cayman Islands 1978–

 Ceylon 5 1938–1950, 1958–1970

 Cook Islands 1974–1978, 1986–

 Cyprus 1978–1982, 1990–

 Dominica 1958–1962, 1970, 1994–

 England 1930–

 Falkland Islands 1982–

  Fiji
Fiji
6 1938, 1954–1986, 1998–2006, 2014–

 Gambia 7 1970–1982, 1990–2010, 2018-

  Ghana
Ghana
8 1958–1982, 1990–

 Gibraltar 1958–

 Gold Coast 8 1954

 Grenada 1970–1982, 1998–

  Guernsey
Guernsey
9 1970–

  Guyana
Guyana
3 1966–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

  Hong Kong
Hong Kong
10 1934, 1954–1962, 1970–1994

 India 1934–1938, 1954–1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

Ireland11 12 1930

  Irish Free State
Irish Free State
11 1934

 Isle of Man 1958–

 Jamaica 1934, 1954–1982, 1990–

  Jersey
Jersey
9 1958–

 Kenya 1954–1982, 1990–

 Kiribati 1998–

 Lesotho 1974–

  Malawi
Malawi
13 1970–

 Malaya 14 1950, 1958–1962

 Malaysia 1966–1982, 1990–

 Maldives 1986–2014

 Malta 1958–1962, 1970, 1982–

 Mauritius 1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

 Montserrat 1994–

 Mozambique 1998–

 Namibia 1994–

 Nauru 1990–

 Newfoundland 15 1930–1934

 New Zealand 1930–

 Nigeria 1950–1958, 1966–1974, 1982, 1990–1994, 2002–

 Niue 2002–

 Norfolk Island 1986–

North Borneo 14 1958–1962

  Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
11 16 1934–1938, 1954–

  Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
18 1954-1958

 Pakistan 1954–1970, 1990–

 Papua New Guinea 1962–1982, 1990–

 Rhodesia and Nyasaland 17 1962

 Rwanda 2010–

 Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1978

 Saint Helena19 1982, 1998–

  Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
2 1990–

 Saint Lucia 1962, 1970, 1978, 1994–

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1958, 1966–1978, 1994–

  Samoa
Samoa
20 1998–

Sarawak 14 1958–1962

 Scotland 1930–

 Seychelles 1990–

 Sierra Leone 1958, 1966–1970, 1978, 1990–

  Singapore
Singapore
14 1958–

 Solomon Islands 1982, 1990–

 South Africa 1930–1958, 1994–

 South Arabia 1 1966

  Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
18 1934–1958

  Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
5 1974–1982, 1990–

 Swaziland 1970–

  Tanganyika
Tanganyika
21 1962

 Tanzania 1966–1982, 1990–

 Tonga 1974, 1982, 1990–

 Trinidad and Tobago 1934–1982, 1990–

 Turks and Caicos Islands 1978, 1998–

 Tuvalu 1998–

 Uganda 1954–1974, 1982, 1990–

 Vanuatu 1982–

 Wales 1930–

  Western Samoa
Western Samoa
20 1974–1994

  Zambia
Zambia
13 1970–1982, 1990–

  Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
13 22 1982, 1990–2002

Legend

  Participated   Withdrew for political reason   Not eligible to participate   To be determined

Nation Years participated

 Aden1 1962

 Anguilla2 1998–

 Australasia 1911

 Antigua and Barbuda 1966–1970, 1978, 1994–

 Australia 1930–

 Bahamas 1954–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

 Bangladesh 1978, 1990–

 Barbados 1954–1982, 1990–

 Belize4 1978, 1994–

 Bermuda 1930–1938, 1954–1982, 1990–

 Botswana 1974, 1982–

 British Guiana3 1930–1938, 1954–1962

 British Honduras4 1962–1966

 British Virgin Islands 1990–

  Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam 1990–

 Cameroon 1998–

 Canada 1911, 1930–

 Cayman Islands 1978–

 Ceylon5 1938–1950, 1958–1970

 Cook Islands 1974–1978, 1986–

 Cyprus 1978–1982, 1990–

 Dominica 1958–1962, 1970, 1994–

 England 1930–

 Falkland Islands 1982–

 Fiji6 1938, 1954–1986, 1998–2006, 2014–

 Gambia7 1970–1982, 1990–2010, 2018-

 Ghana8 1958–1982, 1990–

 Gibraltar 1958–

 Gold Coast8 1954

 Grenada 1970–1982, 1998–

 Guernsey9 1970–

 Guyana3 1966–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

 Hong Kong10 1934, 1954–1962, 1970–1994

 India 1934–1938, 1954–1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

Ireland11 12 1930

 Irish Free State11 1934

 Isle of Man 1958–

 Jamaica 1934, 1954–1982, 1990–

 Jersey9 1958–

 Kenya 1954–1982, 1990–

 Kiribati 1998–

 Lesotho 1974–

 Malawi13 1970–

 Malaya14 1950, 1958–1962

 Malaysia 1966–1982, 1990–

 Maldives15 1986–2014

 Malta 1958–1962, 1970, 1982–

Nation Years participated

 Mauritius 1958–1982, 1990–

 Montserrat 1994–

 Mozambique 1998–

 Namibia 1994–

 Nauru 1990–

 Newfoundland16 1930–1934

 New Zealand 1930–

 Nigeria 1950–1958, 1966–1974, 1982, 1990–1994, 2002–

 Niue 2002–

 Norfolk Island 1986–

North Borneo14 1958–1962

 Northern Ireland11 17 1934–1938, 1954–

 Northern Rhodesia19 1954–1958

 Pakistan 1954–1970, 1990–

 Papua New Guinea 1962–1982, 1990–

 Rhodesia and Nyasaland18 1962

 Rwanda 2010–

 Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla2 1978

 Saint Helena20 1982, 1998–

 Saint Kitts and Nevis2 1990–

 Saint Lucia5 1962, 1970, 1978, 1994–

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1958, 1966–1978, 1994–

 Samoa21 1998–

Sarawak14 1958–1962

 Scotland 1930–

 Seychelles 1990–

 Sierra Leone 1958, 1966–1970, 1978, 1990–

 Singapore14 1958–

 Solomon Islands 1982, 1990–

 South Africa 1911–1958, 1994–

 South Arabia1 1966

 Southern Rhodesia19 1934–1958

 Sri Lanka 1974–1982, 1990–

 Swaziland 1970–

 Tanganyika22 1962

 Tanzania 1966–1982, 1990–

 Tonga 1974, 1982, 1990–

 Trinidad and Tobago 1934–1982, 1990–

 Turks and Caicos Islands 1978, 1998–

 Tuvalu 2002–

 Uganda 1954–1974, 1982, 1990–

 United Kingdom 1911 24

 Vanuatu 1982–

 Wales 1930–

 Western Samoa21 1974–1994

 Zambia13 1970–1982, 1990–

 Zimbabwe13 23 1982, 1990–2002

Notes

^ Aden later joined South Arabia in 1963 and departed the Commonwealth in 1968. ^ Anguilla
Anguilla
was completely separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
in 1980 and remaining Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1983. ^ British Guiana
British Guiana
was renamed Guyana
Guyana
in 1966. ^ British Honduras
British Honduras
was renamed Belize
Belize
in 1973. ^ Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1972. ^ Fiji
Fiji
was re-suspended from the Commonwealth and Games in 2009.[57] Fiji's suspension from the Commonwealth was lifted in time for the 2014 Games following democratic elections in March, 2014. ^ The Gambia
The Gambia
withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2013, but rejoined on 8 February 2018; The Gambia
The Gambia
was readmitted to the Commonwealth Games Federation in March 2018. ^ Gold Coast (British colony)
Gold Coast (British colony)
was renamed Ghana
Ghana
in 1957. ^ Including neighbouring Islands. ^ Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was never a Commonwealth member but was a territory of a Commonwealth country; it ceased to be in the Commonwealth when the territory was handed over to China
China
in 1997. ^ Ireland
Ireland
was represented as a team from the whole of the island in 1930, and from both parts, the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Northern Ireland in 1934. The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was renamed Ireland
Ireland
in 1937 (but also known by its name in Irish Éire), did not participate in the 1938 Games, and withdrew from the Commonwealth when it declared that it was the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
on 18 April 1949. ^ Contemporary illustrations show Green Flag used for the Irish team. ^ Malawi, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
competed in 1962 as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. ^ Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore
Singapore
federated as Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963. Singapore
Singapore
left the federation in 1965. ^ The Maldives
Maldives
withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2016.[58] ^ Newfoundland joined Canada
Canada
in 1949. ^ The Ulster Banner
Ulster Banner
was the flag of the former Government of Northern Ireland
Ireland
only between 1953 and 1972, but the flag has been regarded as flag of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
since 1924 among unionists and loyalists.The Ulster Banner
Ulster Banner
is the sporting flag of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in other events as the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
and in the FIVB Volleyball
Volleyball
World Championship. ^ Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
and Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
federated with Nyasaland in 1953 as Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which dissolved at the end of 1963. ^ Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
and Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
competed separately in 1954 and 1958 while both were part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. ^ Under the name of "Saint Helena" in the Commonwealth Games.[59] Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
were dependencies of Saint Helena, so the territory was officially called " Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Dependencies" until 2009. Saint Helena, Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and Tristan da Cunha became equal parts of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in 2009. ^ Western Samoa
Western Samoa
was renamed Samoa
Samoa
in 1997. ^ Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Tanganyika
Tanganyika
federated to form Tanzania
Tanzania
in 1964. ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2003. ^ United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were the host of the Inter-Empire Championships
Inter-Empire Championships
in 1911. This event was held before the 1st edition of the Games held in Hamilton, Canada
Canada
in 1930.

Commonwealth nations/dependencies/disputed territories yet to send teams[edit] Very few Commonwealth dependencies and nations have yet to take part:[60]

Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and Tristan da Cunha, former dependencies of Saint Helena and current parts of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, have never formed their own teams independent from the Saint Helena
Saint Helena
team. Other states, territories and territorial autonomies with native populations within the Commonwealth that may be eligible include Christmas Island
Christmas Island
and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territories of Australia), Nevis
Nevis
(a federal entity of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis), Rodrigues
Rodrigues
(outer islands of Mauritius), and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania). Cornwall, represented by the Cornwall
Cornwall
Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Association (CCGA), sent a bid for participation in the 2006 Commonwealth Games, however, their application was rejected by the CGF, who stated that the constitutional status of Cornwall
Cornwall
was not an issue that should be resolved through this medium. However, in 2010, the CCGA sought to launch a legal challenge to the decision of the CGF, stating that the Cornish bid of 2006 fulfilled the entire criterion of the CGF, and by rejecting the bid, the CGF had violated their own code, failing to follow their own criteria for participation. The Cornwall
Cornwall
team will therefore seek competition in the 2014 games.[61] The British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
currently has no permanent population although there is a sizeable population who were born in the BIOT but currently live in Mauritius
Mauritius
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and so would be eligible to compete on birth criteria. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has made applications to the CGF to send teams. It is also conceivable that any future members of the Commonwealth such as applicants (for example South Sudan, Sudan
Sudan
and Yemen) may participate in future games. The Colony of Aden
Colony of Aden
and Federation of South Arabia, precursors to modern Yemen, participated before in 1962 and in 1966. Sudan
Sudan
was an Anglo-Egyptian protectorate until independence in 1956. The Pitcairn Islands' tiny population (currently 50 to 60 people) would appear to prevent this British overseas territory from competing. Tokelau
Tokelau
was expected to take part in the 2010 Games in Delhi
Delhi
but did not do so. The lack of a permanent population would seem to prevent the British overseas territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and British Antarctic Territory, the New Zealand
New Zealand
territory of Ross Dependency and the Australian external territories of Australian Antarctic Territory, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands and Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
from competing.

Controversies[edit] Host city contract[edit] The 1934 British Empire
British Empire
Games, originally awarded in 1930 to Johannesburg
Johannesburg
was moved to London
London
after South Africa's pre-apartheid government refused to allow nonwhite participants.[62] The 2022 Commonwealth Games
2022 Commonwealth Games
were originally awarded to Durban
Durban
on 2 September 2015, at the CGF General Assembly in Auckland.[63] It was reported in February 2017 that Durban
Durban
may be unable to host the games due to financial constraints. On 13 March 2017, the CGF stripped Durban
Durban
of their rights to host.[64] Many cities from Australia, Canada, England
England
and Malaysia
Malaysia
expressed interest to host the games. However, the CGF received only one official bid and that was from Birmingham.[65] On 21 December 2017, Birmingham
Birmingham
was awarded for the 2022 Games as Durban's replacement host.[66] Boycotts[edit] Nigeria
Nigeria
boycotted the 1978 Commonwealth Games
1978 Commonwealth Games
at Edmonton
Edmonton
in protest of New Zealand's sporting contacts with apartheid-era South Africa. Uganda
Uganda
also stayed away, in protest of alleged Canadian hostility towards the government of Idi Amin.[15][16]

Countries boycotting the 1986 Games are shaded red

During the 1986 Commonwealth Games
1986 Commonwealth Games
at Edinburgh, a majority of the Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, so that the Games appeared to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries—largely African, Asian and Caribbean
Caribbean
states—stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa
South Africa
in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
1986 witnessed the lowest number of athletes since Auckland
Auckland
1950.[67] The boycotting nations were Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Belize, Cyprus, Dominica, Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, Grenada, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sierra Leone, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Tanzania, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uganda, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe.[68] Bermuda
Bermuda
was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[69] Cost of the Games[edit] For hosting the 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
at Delhi, the initial total budget estimated by the Indian Olympic Association
Indian Olympic Association
in 2003 was ₹16.2 billion (US$250 million). In 2010, however, the official total budget soon escalated to an estimated ₹115 billion (US$1.8 billion), a figure which excluded non-sports-related infrastructure development.[70] Business Today magazine estimated that the Games cost ₹700 billion (US$11 billion).[71] The 2010 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
are reportedly the most expensive Commonwealth Games ever.[72] Indian Businessman Azim Premji
Azim Premji
called the 2010 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
a "drain on public funds" and said that hosting the high-expense Games in India
India
is not justified given that the country had more important priorities facing it, such as education, infrastructure and public health.[73] Notable competitors[edit] Lawn bowler Willie Wood from Scotland
Scotland
was the first competitor to have competed in seven Commonwealth Games, from 1974 to 2002, a record equalled in 2014 by Isle of Man
Isle of Man
cyclist Andrew Roche.[74] They have both been surpassed by David Calvert of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
who in 2018 will attend his 11th games.[75] Greg Yelavich, a sports shooter from New Zealand, has won 12 medals in seven games from 1986 to 2010. Lawn Bowler Robert Weale has represented Wales
Wales
in 8 Commonwealth Games, 1986–2014, winning 2 gold, 3 silver and 1 bronze. He is also aiming for the selection for 9th Games in 2018. Nauruan weightlifter Marcus Stephen
Marcus Stephen
won twelve medals at the Games between 1990 and 2002, of which seven gold, and was elected President of Nauru
Nauru
in 2007. His performance has helped place Nauru
Nauru
(the smallest independent state in the Commonwealth, at 21 km2 and with a population of fewer than 9,400 in 2011) in nineteenth place on the all-time Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
medal table. Ian Thorpe, Australian swimmer (now retired), has won 10 Commonwealth Games gold medals and 1 silver medal. At the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, he won 4 gold medals. At the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester, he won 6 gold medals and 1 silver medal.[76] See also[edit]

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
portal

African Games Asian Games Commonwealth Youth Games European Games Jeux de la Francophonie Olympic Games Pacific Games Pan American Games Paralympic Games Youth Oympic Games World Games Commonwealth Mountain and Ultradistance Running Championships List of Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
venues List of stamps depicting the Commonwealth Games List of coins depicting the Commonwealth Games

References[edit]

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Commonwealth Games Federation
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British Empire
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- About the Games". bendigo2004.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation
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- The Role of The CGF". thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-08-22.  ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation
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