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The COMMONWEALTH GAMES (known as the BRITISH EMPIRE GAMES from 1930–1950, the BRITISH EMPIRE AND COMMONWEALTH GAMES from 1954–1966, and BRITISH COMMONWEALTH GAMES from 1970–1974) is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, which were cancelled due to World War II , has taken place every four years since then. The most recent Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in Glasgow
Glasgow
, Scotland
Scotland
in 2014.

The games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. A host city is selected for each edition. 18 cities in seven countries have hosted the event. Apart from many Olympic sports
Olympic sports
, the games also include some sports that are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls and netball .

Although there are 52 members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, 70 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
England
England
, Scotland
Scotland
, Wales
Wales
, and Northern Ireland
Ireland
—also send separate teams.

Nine nations have hosted the Commonwealth Games. Australia
Australia
has hosted four Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(1938 , 1962 , 1982 , 2006 ) and will host for the fifth time in 2018 . Canada
Canada
has hosted four Commonwealth Games (1930 , 1954 , 1978 , 1994 ). Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than one time: Auckland
Auckland
(1950 , 1990 ) and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1970 , 1986 ). Malaysia
Malaysia
and India
India
have hosted the games in 1998 and 2010 respectively.

Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia , Canada
Canada
, England
England
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, Scotland
Scotland
, and Wales
Wales
. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England
England
for seven, and Canada
Canada
for one.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of the Games

* 2 Editions of the Games

* 2.1 During the 20th century

* 2.1.1 British Empire
British Empire
Games * 2.1.2 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
* 2.1.3 British Commonwealth Games * 2.1.4 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games

* 2.2 During the 21st century * 2.3 Inclusion of para-sports * 2.4 Youth Games

* 3 List of Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
* 4 All-time medal table

* 5 Ceremonies

* 5.1 Opening * 5.2 Closing

* 6 List of Commonwealth sports

* 7 Participation

* 7.1 Commonwealth nations/dependencies/disputed territories yet to send teams

* 8 Notable competitors * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External Links

HISTORY OF THE GAMES

A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1891, when he wrote an article in The Times
The Times
suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". The John Astley Cooper Committees worldwide (e.g. Australia) helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games
Olympic Games
off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London
London
to celebrate the coronation of George V . As part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships was held in which teams from Australasia, Canada, South Africa, and the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing, wrestling and swimming events.

EDITIONS OF THE GAMES

DURING THE 20TH CENTURY

British Empire
British Empire
Games

The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later become known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton , in the province of Ontario
Ontario
in Canada
Canada
from August 16–23, 1930. In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada
Canada
was asked to organise the first British Empire
British Empire
Games. Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium . Women competed in only the swimming events. The participant nations were Australia
Australia
, Bermuda
Bermuda
, British Guyana
Guyana
, Canada
Canada
, England
England
, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, Newfoundland , New Zealand
New Zealand
, Scotland
Scotland
, South Africa
South Africa
and Wales
Wales
. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, boxing, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973.

The 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London
London
, England
England
. The host city was London
London
, with the main venue at Wembley Park
Wembley Park
, although the track cycling events were in Manchester
Manchester
. The 1934 Games had originally been awarded to Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, but were given to London
London
instead because of the potential for prejudiced treatment of black and Asian athletes in South Africa
South Africa
. Seventeen national teams took part, including the Irish Free State (the only Games in which they did take part) and new participants Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, India
India
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, Southern Rhodesia and Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
. Opening ceremony of the 1938 British Empire Games at the Sydney Cricket Ground
Sydney Cricket Ground
.

The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire
British Empire
Games , which were held in Sydney
Sydney
, New South Wales
Wales
, Australia
Australia
. They were timed to coincide with Sydney's sesqui-centenary (150 years since the foundation of British settlement in Australia). Held in the southern hemisphere for the first time, the III Games opening ceremony took place at the famed Sydney Cricket Ground
Sydney Cricket Ground
in front of 40,000 spectators. Fifteen nations participated down under at the Sydney Games involving a total of 464 athletes and 43 officials. Fiji and Ceylon made their debuts. Seven sports were featured in the Sydney Games – athletics, boxing, cycling, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling.

The 1950 British Empire Games was the fourth edition and was held in Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand
New Zealand
after a 12-year gap from the 3rd edition of the games. The fourth games were originally awarded to Montreal, Canada and were to be held in 1942 but were cancelled due to World War II
World War II
. The opening ceremony at Eden Park
Eden Park
was attended by 40,000 spectators, whilst nearly 250,000 people attended the Auckland
Auckland
Games. Twelve countries sent a total of 590 athletes to Auckland
Auckland
. Malaya and Nigeria
Nigeria
made their first appearances.

British Empire
British Empire
And Commonwealth Games

The 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games which were fifth edition, were held in Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia
British Columbia
, Canada
Canada
. These were the first games since the name change from British Empire
British Empire
Games took effect in 1952. The 5th edition of the Games placed Vancouver
Vancouver
on a world stage and featured memorable sporting moments as well as outstanding entertainment, technical innovation and cultural events. The ‘Miracle Mile’, as it became known, saw both the gold medallist, Roger Bannister of England
England
and silver medallist John Landy of Australia
Australia
, run sub-four minute races in an event that was televised live across the world for the first time. Northern Rhodesia and Pakistan
Pakistan
made their debuts and both performed well, winning eight and six medals respectively. 3pence British stamp with theme of 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games , Cardiff
Cardiff
, Wales
Wales

The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Cardiff
Cardiff
, Wales
Wales
The sixth edition of the games marked the largest sporting event ever held in Wales
Wales
and it was the smallest country ever to host a British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games. Cardiff
Cardiff
had to wait 12 years longer than originally scheduled to become host of the Games, as the 1946 event was cancelled because of World War II
World War II
. The Cardiff
Cardiff
Games introduced the Queen\'s Baton Relay , which has been conducted as a prelude to every British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
ever since. Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,122 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff
Cardiff
Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, including for the first time, Singapore
Singapore
, Ghana
Ghana
, Kenya
Kenya
and the Isle of Man .

The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Perth , Western Australia
Australia
, Australia
Australia
. Thirty-five countries sent a total of 863 athletes and 178 officials to Perth . Jersey
Jersey
was amongst the medal winners for the first time, whilst British Honduras
British Honduras
, Dominica , Papua and New Guinea and St Lucia all made their inaugural Games appearances. Aden also competed by special invitation. Sarawak
Sarawak
, North Borneo and Malaya competed for the last time before taking part in 1966 under the Malaysian flag . In addition, Rhodesia and Nyasaland competed in the Games as an entity for the first and only time.

The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
were held in Kingston, Jamaica
Jamaica
. This was the first time that the Games had been held outside the so-called White Dominions . Thirty-four nations (including South Arabia ) competed in the Kingston Games sending a total of 1,316 athletes and officials.

British Commonwealth Games

The 1970 British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland . This was the first time the name British Commonwealth Games was adopted, the first time metric units rather than imperial units were used in events, the first time the games were held in Scotland
Scotland
and also the first time that HM Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
attended in her capacity as Head of the Commonwealth .

The 1974 British Commonwealth Games were held in Christchurch
Christchurch
, New Zealand . The Games were officially named "the friendly games". Following the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics , the tenth games at Christchurch
Christchurch
was the first multi-sport event to place the safety of participants and spectators as its uppermost requirement. Security guards surrounded the athlete’s village and there was an exceptionally high-profile police presence. Only 22 countries succeeded in winning medals from the total haul of 374 medals on offer, but first time winners included Western Samoa , Lesotho
Lesotho
and Swaziland
Swaziland
.

Commonwealth Games

The 1978 Commonwealth Games were held in Edmonton
Edmonton
, Alberta
Alberta
, Canada . These games was the first to bear the current day name of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and also marked a new high as almost 1,500 athletes from 46 countries took part. They were boycotted by Nigeria
Nigeria
, in protest of New Zealand
New Zealand
's sporting contacts with apartheid -era South Africa, as well as by Uganda
Uganda
, in protest of alleged Canadian hostility towards the government of Idi Amin
Idi Amin
. Opening ceremony of the 1982 Commonwealth Games at Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia
Australia

The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane
Brisbane
, Queensland
Queensland
, Australia
Australia
. Forty-six nations participated in the Brisbane
Brisbane
Games with a new record total of 1,583 athletes and 571 officials. As hosts, Australia
Australia
headed the medal table leading the way ahead of England
England
, Canada
Canada
, Scotland
Scotland
and New Zealand
New Zealand
respectively. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
made its first appearance at the Games, having earlier competed as Southern Rhodesia and as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland .

The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
and were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. Participation at the 1986 Games was affected by a boycott by 32 African, Asian and Caribbean
Caribbean
nations in protest of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher\'s refusal to condemn sporting contacts of Apartheid
Apartheid
era South Africa
South Africa
in 1985, but the Games rebounded and continued to grow thereafter. Twenty-six nations did attend the second Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Games and sent a total of 1,662 athletes and 461 officials.

The 1990 Commonwealth Games
1990 Commonwealth Games
were held in Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand
New Zealand
. It was the fourteenth Commonwealth Games, the third to be hosted by New Zealand and Auckland
Auckland
’s second. A new record of 55 nations participated in the second Auckland
Auckland
Games sending 2,826 athletes and officials. Pakistan
Pakistan
returned to the Commonwealth in 1989 after withdrawing in 1972, and competed in the 1990 Games after an absence of twenty years.

The 1994 Commonwealth Games were held in Victoria , in the province of British Columbia
British Columbia
in Canada
Canada
for the fourth time. The games marked South Africa
South Africa
's return to the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
following the apartheid era, and over 30 years since the country last competed in the Games in 1958 . Namibia
Namibia
made its Games debut. It was also Hong Kong 's last appearance at the games before the transfer of sovereignty from Britain to China
China
. Sixty-three nations sent 2,557 athletes and 914 officials.

The 1998 Commonwealth Games
1998 Commonwealth Games
were held in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
. For the first time in its 68-year history, the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in Asia
Asia
. The sixteenth games were also the first Games to feature team sports - an overwhelming success that added large numbers to both participant and TV audience numbers. A new record of 70 countries sent a total of 5,065 athletes and officials to the Kuala Lumpur Games. The top five countries in the medal standing were Australia
Australia
, England
England
, Canada
Canada
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and South Africa
South Africa
. Nauru
Nauru
also achieved an impressive haul of three gold medals. Cameroon
Cameroon
, Mozambique
Mozambique
and Kiribati debuted.

DURING THE 21ST CENTURY

Athletics at the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium during the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
, Manchester
Manchester
, England
England
.

The 2002 Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester
Manchester
, England
England
. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in England
England
to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, head of the Commonwealth . In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were until the 2010 edition the largest Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The final medal tally was led by Australia
Australia
, followed by host England
England
and Canada
Canada
. The 2002 Commonwealth Games set a new benchmark for hosting the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and for cities wishing to bid for them with a heavy emphasis on legacy.

The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
. The only difference between the 2006 games and the 2002 games was the absence of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
, which withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations . For the first time in the history of the Games the Queen\'s Baton visited every single Commonwealth nation and territory taking part in the Games, a journey of 180,000 km (112,500 miles). Over 4000 athletes took part in the sporting competitions. The final medal tally was led by the host Australia
Australia
, followed by England
England
and Canada
Canada
.

The 2010 Commonwealth Games were held in Delhi
Delhi
, India
India
. The Games cost $11 billion and are the most expensive Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
ever. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were held in India and the second time they were held in Asia
Asia
after Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1998 . It was also the second time a Commonwealth Republic hosted the games, after Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1998 . A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. The final medal tally was led by Australia
Australia
. The host nation India
India
achieved its best performance ever in any sporting event , finishing second overall. Rwanda
Rwanda
made its Games debut.

The 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
were held in Glasgow
Glasgow
, Scotland
Scotland
. It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland
Scotland
with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, capital city of Scotland
Scotland
. Usain Bolt
Usain Bolt
competed in the 4 × 100 metres relay of the 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
and set a Commonwealth Games record with his teammates. The Games received acclaim for their organisation, attendance, and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with Commonwealth Games Federation chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement".

The 2018 Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games
will be held in Gold Coast , Queensland
Queensland
, Australia
Australia
and the host nation will be going to host the games for the fifth time. There will be an equal number of events for men and women. This marks the first time in history that a major multi-sport event will have equality in terms of events.

The three nations to have hosted the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
the most times are Australia
Australia
(5), Canada
Canada
(4) and New Zealand
New Zealand
(3). Furthermore, six editions have taken place in the countries within the United Kingdom ( Scotland
Scotland
(3), England
England
(2) and Wales
Wales
(1)), twice in Asia ( Malaysia
Malaysia
(1) and India
India
(1)) and once in the Caribbean
Caribbean
( Jamaica
Jamaica
(1)).

INCLUSION OF PARA-SPORTS

Main article: Commonwealth Paraplegic Games

The first Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held alongside the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
from 1962 to 1974. Athletes with a disability were then first included in exhibition events at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, British Columbia
British Columbia
, and, at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester
Manchester
, England
England
, they were included as full members of their national teams, making them the first fully inclusive international multi-sport games. This meant that results were included in the medal count.

YOUTH GAMES

Main article: Commonwealth Youth Games

In the year 2000 the CGF took on the added responsibility of the Commonwealth Youth Games , open to athletes 18 years of age and under the Youth Games provide an excellent opportunity for aspiring young athletes from the Commonwealth with a taste of what the Commonwealth Games has in store for them in the future. The inaugural Games were in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
with the last edition being hosted in 2004 in Bendigo
Bendigo
, Australia
Australia
with Pune
Pune
, India
India
in 2008 hosting the 3rd edition. In such a short space of time the Youth Games has grown in stature and this is evidenced by award of the 2011 Commonwealth Youth Games to the Isle of Man , the 2015 edition to Samoa
Samoa
and Bahamas in 2017 .

LIST OF COMMONWEALTH GAMES

1911,1934 1938 1930 1950, 1990 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970, 1986 1974 1978 1982 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 Host cities of Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games

EDITION YEAR HOST OPENED BY START DATE END DATE SPORTS EVENTS NATIONS COMPETITORS TOP NATION

INTER-EMPIRE CHAMPIONSHIPS

- 1911 London
London
, England
England
George V 12 May 1 June 4 9 4 Unknown Canada
Canada

BRITISH EMPIRE GAMES

I 1930 Hamilton , Canada
Canada
Lord Willingdon 16 August 23 August 6 59 11 400 England
England

II 1934 London
London
, England
England

4 August 11 August 6 68 16 500 England
England

III 1938 Sydney
Sydney
, Australia
Australia

5 February 12 February 7 71 15 464 Australia
Australia

IV 1950 Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand
New Zealand
Bernard Freyberg
Bernard Freyberg
4 February 11 February 9 88 12 590 Australia
Australia

BRITISH EMPIRE AND COMMONWEALTH GAMES

V 1954 Vancouver
Vancouver
, Canada
Canada
Harold Alexander 30 July 7 August 9 91 24 662 England
England

VI 1958 Cardiff
Cardiff
, Wales
Wales

18 July 26 July 9 94 36 1122 England
England

VII 1962 Perth , Australia
Australia

22 November 1 December 9 104 35 863 Australia
Australia

VIII 1966 Kingston , Jamaica
Jamaica

4 August 13 August 9 110 34 1050 England
England

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH GAMES

IX 1970 Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
16 July 25 July 9 121 42 1383 Australia
Australia

X 1974 Christchurch
Christchurch
, New Zealand
New Zealand
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
24 January 2 February 9 121 38 1276 Australia
Australia

COMMONWEALTH GAMES

XI 1978 Edmonton
Edmonton
, Canada
Canada
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
3 August 12 August 10 128 46 1474 Canada
Canada

XII 1982 Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia
Australia
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
30 September 9 October 10 142 46 1583 Australia
Australia

XIII 1986 Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
24 July 2 August 10 163 26 1662 England
England

XIV 1990 Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand
New Zealand
Prince Edward 24 January 3 February 10 204 55 2073 Australia
Australia

XV 1994 Victoria , Canada
Canada
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
18 August 28 August 10 217 63 2557 Australia
Australia

XVI 1998 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
Mahathir Mohamad
Mahathir Mohamad
11 September 21 September 15 213 70 3633 Australia
Australia

XVII 2002 Manchester
Manchester
, England
England
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
25 July 4 August 17 281 72 3679 Australia
Australia

XVIII 2006 Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
15 March 26 March 16 245 71 4049 Australia
Australia

XIX 2010 Delhi
Delhi
, India
India
Pratibha Patil
Pratibha Patil
3 October 14 October 17 272 71 6081 Australia
Australia

XX 2014 Glasgow
Glasgow
, Scotland
Scotland
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
23 July 3 August 17 261 71 4947 England
England

XXI 2018 Gold Coast , Australia
Australia
TBA 4 April 15 April 18 275 70

XXII 2022 Election in 2017

Note: The 1911 Inter-Empire Championships held in London
London
is seen as a precursor to the modern Commonwealth Games, but is not normally considered an official edition of the Games themselves.

ALL-TIME MEDAL TABLE

See also: All-time Commonwealth Games medal table

RANK NATION GAMES GOLD SILVER BRONZE TOTAL

1 Australia
Australia
(AUS) 20 852 716 650 2218

2 England
England
(ENG) 20 669 670 669 2008

3 Canada
Canada
(CAN) 20 469 476 528 1473

4 India
India
(IND) 16 155 155 128 438

5 New Zealand
New Zealand
(NZL) 20 144 203 262 609

6 South Africa
South Africa
(RSA) 12 117 112 123 352

7 Scotland
Scotland
(SCO) 20 110 119 178 407

8 Kenya
Kenya
(KEN) 15 81 68 71 220

9 Nigeria
Nigeria
(NGR) 13 61 66 85 212

10 Wales
Wales
(WAL) 20 57 86 127 270

11 Malaysia
Malaysia
(MAS) 11 52 60 69 181

12 Jamaica
Jamaica
(JAM) 16 52 38 44 134

13 Singapore
Singapore
(SIN) 15 31 25 30 86

14 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(NIR) 19 29 33 51 113

15 Pakistan
Pakistan
(PAK) 12 24 24 21 69

16 Ghana
Ghana
(GHA) / Gold Coast 15 15 18 24 57

17 Cyprus
Cyprus
(CYP) 9 15 12 12 39

18 Uganda
Uganda
(UGA) 14 13 15 21 49

19 Cameroon
Cameroon
(CMR) 5 10 10 14 34

20 Nauru
Nauru
(NRU) 7 10 10 9 29

21 Bahamas (BAH) 14 9 12 13 34

22 Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(TRI) 17 8 20 24 52

23 Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(ZIM) 11 6 11 19 36

24 Tanzania
Tanzania
11 6 6 9 21

25 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
10 5 2 10 17

26 Zambia
Zambia
13 4 12 23 39

27 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
15 4 7 3 14

28 Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
13 4 5 2 11

29 Guyana
Guyana
/ British Guiana 17 3 6 6 15

30 Samoa
Samoa
11 3 5 11 19

31 Fiji 15 3 4 8 15

32 Namibia
Namibia
6 3 4 11 18

33 Isle of Man 15 3 2 6 11

34 Botswana
Botswana
10 2 4 6 12

35 Barbados
Barbados
15 2 3 7 12

36 Malaya 3 2 3 2 7

37 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
8 2 2 2 6

Mozambique
Mozambique
5 2 2 2 6

39 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11 2 0 1 3

40 Mauritius
Mauritius
14 1 5 6 12

41 Guernsey
Guernsey
12 1 3 2 6

42 Bermuda
Bermuda
17 1 2 2 5

43 Grenada 9 1 1 1 3

Lesotho
Lesotho
10 1 1 1 3

45 Jersey
Jersey
15 1 0 3 4

46 Cayman Islands 10 1 0 1 2

47 Kiribati 5 1 0 0 1

48 Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 1 0 0 1

49 Seychelles
Seychelles
7 0 3 3 6

50 Malta
Malta
12 0 1 3 4

Swaziland
Swaziland
12 0 1 3 4

52 Malawi
Malawi
12 0 0 3 3

Saint Lucia 10 0 0 3 3

Tonga 9 0 0 3 3

55 Gambia 10 0 0 1 1

Norfolk Island 8 0 0 1 1

* ^ Totals for Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
include all medals won as Southern Rhodesia and Rhodesia and Nyasaland * ^ Totals for Zambia
Zambia
include all medals won as Northern Rhodesia * ^ Totals for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
include all medals won as British Ceylon , and Dominion of Ceylon
Dominion of Ceylon

CEREMONIES

OPENING

Opening ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games at Melbourne, Australia
Australia

The Commonwealth Games always starts with a grand opening ceremony. Various cultural and military shows are performed during the ceremony of the Commonwealth Games. The flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation, flag of the last hosting nation and the current hosting nation are hosted during the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
opening ceremony. The 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi
Delhi
, India
India
was considered to have the most grand opening ceremony in the history of any Commonwealth Games and it was highly compared with the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
at Beijing
Beijing
, China. The cost of the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was around $77 million which was the second costliest opening ceremony of any international sporting event in the world after the 2008 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Beijing. The 70 Commonwealth nations are called continent wise to have the athletes parade at the stadium and the last hosting nation of the games enters the first. The president or the head of the hosting nation declares the opening of the games, however the opening of the 2002 , 2006 and 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
were declared by Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
.

CLOSING

Closing ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi
Delhi
, India

The closing ceremony of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction. The president of the organizing committee and the CGF president make their closing speeches and the Games are officially closed. The David Dickson award for the best performance in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
is presented to one athlete. The CGF president also speaks about the conduct of the games. The mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers the CGF flag to the president of the CGF, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Commonwealth Games. The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theater representative of its culture. Many great artists and singers had performed at the ceremonies of the Commonwealth Games. For example: Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
was the link between 2014 Commonwealth Games and the 2018 Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games
and sang at the 2014 games closing.

LIST OF COMMONWEALTH SPORTS

Further information: Commonwealth Games sports and Commonwealth Games records

There are a total of 22 sports (with three multi-disciplinary sports) and a further seven para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation. Core sports must be included on each programme. A number of optional sports may be picked by the host nation, which may include some team sports such as basketball .

SPORT TYPE YEARS

Archery Optional 1982, 2010

Athletics Core 1911–present

Badminton Core 1966–present

Basketball
Basketball
Optional 2006, 2018

Boxing Core 1911–present

Canoeing Optional Never

Cycling Optional 1934–present

Diving Optional 1930–present

Field hockey Core 1998–present

Gymnastics (Artistic) Optional 1978, 1990–present

Gymnastics (Rhythmic) Optional 1978, 1990–present

Judo Optional 1990, 2002, 2014

Lawn bowls Core 1930–1962, 1970–present

Netball
Netball
Core 1998–present

Rowing Optional 1930, 1938–1962, 1986

SPORT TYPE YEARS

Rugby sevens Core 1998–present

Sailing
Sailing
Optional Never

Shooting Optional 1966, 1974–present

Softball Optional Never

Squash Core 1998–present

Swimming Core 1911–present

Synchronized swimming Optional 1986–2006

Table tennis Optional 2002–present

Taekwondo
Taekwondo
Optional Never

Tennis Optional 2010

Ten-Pin Bowling Optional 1998

Triathlon Optional 2002, 2006, 2014

Volleyball
Volleyball
(beach) Optional 2018

Weightlifting Core 1950–present

Wrestling Optional 1911–1986, 1994, 2002, 2010–present

Recognised sports are sports which have been approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation but which are deemed to need expansion; host nations may not pick these sports for their programme until the Federation's requirements are fulfilled.

SPORT TYPE YEARS

Billiards
Billiards
Recognised Never

Cricket Recognised 1998

Fencing Recognised 1950–1970

Association Football Recognised Never

Golf
Golf
Recognised Never

SPORT TYPE YEARS

Handball Recognised Never

Life saving Recognised Never

Rugby league
Rugby league
Recognised Never

Volleyball
Volleyball
(indoor) Recognised Never

Water Polo
Water Polo
Recognised 1950

PARTICIPATION

Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales. Australia
Australia
has been the highest scoring team for twelve games, England
England
for seven and Canada
Canada
for one. Countries that have hosted, or plan to host, the event Other countries that enter the games Countries that have entered the games but no longer do so 0•0 Host cities and year of games

TABLE OF TEAM PARTICIPATION BY COMMONWEALTH GAMES EDITION

TEAM EDITION I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI

YEAR 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018

HOST FLAG

HOST CITY Hamilton London
London
Sydney
Sydney
Auckland
Auckland
Vancouver
Vancouver
Madrid
Madrid
Perth Kingston Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Christchurch
Christchurch
Edmonton
Edmonton
Brisbane
Brisbane
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Auckland
Auckland
Victoria Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Manchester
Manchester
Melbourne
Melbourne
Delhi
Delhi
Glasgow
Glasgow
Gold Coast

PARTICIPATION \ HOST NATION Canada
Canada
England
England
Australia
Australia
New Zealand
New Zealand
Canada
Canada
Wales
Wales
Australia
Australia
Jamaica
Jamaica
Scotland
Scotland
New Zealand
New Zealand
Canada
Canada
Australia
Australia
Scotland
Scotland
New Zealand
New Zealand
Canada
Canada
Malaysia
Malaysia
England
England
Australia
Australia
India
India
Scotland
Scotland
Australia
Australia

Aden 1 1962

N/A

Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1998–

Antigua and Barbuda 1966–1970, 1978, 1994–

Australia
Australia
1930–

Bahamas 1954–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

N/A

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
1978, 1990–

Barbados
Barbados
1954–1982, 1990–

Belize
Belize
4 1978, 1994–

Bermuda
Bermuda
1930–1938, 1954–1982, 1990–

Botswana
Botswana
1974, 1982–

British Guiana 3 1930–1938, 1954–1962

British Honduras
British Honduras
4 1962–1966

British Virgin Islands 1990–

Brunei Darussalam 1990–

Cameroon
Cameroon
1998–

Canada
Canada
1930–

Cayman Islands 1978–

Ceylon 5 1938–1950, 1958–1970

Cook Islands 1974–1978, 1986–

Cyprus
Cyprus
1978–1982, 1990–

Dominica 1958–1962, 1970, 1994–

England
England
1930–

Falkland Islands 1982–

Fiji 6 1938, 1954–1986, 1998–2006, 2014-

Gambia 7 1970–1982, 1990–2010

Ghana
Ghana
8 1958–1982, 1990–

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
1958–

Gold Coast 8 1954

Grenada 1970–1982, 1998–

Guernsey
Guernsey
9 1970–

Guyana
Guyana
3 1966–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
10 1934, 1954–1962, 1970–1994

India
India
1934–1938, 1954–1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

Ireland
Ireland
11 12 1930

Irish Free State
Irish Free State
11 1934

Isle of Man 1958–

Jamaica
Jamaica
1934, 1954–1982, 1990–

Jersey
Jersey
9 1958–

Kenya
Kenya
1954–1982, 1990–

Kiribati 1998–

Lesotho
Lesotho
1974–

Malawi
Malawi
13 1970–

Malaya 14 1950, 1958–1962

Malaysia
Malaysia
1966–1982, 1990–

Maldives
Maldives
1986–2014

Malta
Malta
1958–1962, 1970, 1982–

Mauritius
Mauritius
1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

Montserrat
Montserrat
1994–

Mozambique
Mozambique
1998–

Namibia
Namibia
1994–

Nauru
Nauru
1990–

Newfoundland 15 1930–1934

New Zealand
New Zealand
1930–

Nigeria
Nigeria
1950–1958, 1966–1974, 1982, 1990–1994, 2002–

Niue
Niue
2002–

Norfolk Island 1986–

North Borneo
North Borneo
14 1958–1962

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
11 16 1934–1938, 1954–

Northern Rhodesia 18 1954-1958

Pakistan
Pakistan
1954–1970, 1990–

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
1962–1982, 1990–

Rhodesia and Nyasaland 17 1962

Rwanda
Rwanda
2010–

Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1978

Saint Helena
Saint Helena
19 1982, 1998–

Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 1990–

Saint Lucia 1962, 1970, 1978, 1994–

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1958, 1966–1978, 1994–

Samoa
Samoa
20 1998–

Sarawak
Sarawak
14 1958–1962

Scotland
Scotland
1930–

Seychelles
Seychelles
1990–

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1958, 1966–1970, 1978, 1990–

Singapore
Singapore
14 1958–

Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
1982, 1990–

South Africa
South Africa
1930–1958, 1994–

South Arabia 1 1966

Southern Rhodesia 18 1934–1958

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
5 1974–1982, 1990–

Swaziland
Swaziland
1970–

Tanganyika
Tanganyika
21 1962

Tanzania
Tanzania
1966–1982, 1990–

Tonga 1974, 1982, 1990–

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
1934–1982, 1990–

Turks and Caicos Islands 1978, 1998–

Tuvalu
Tuvalu
1998–

Uganda
Uganda
1954–1974, 1982, 1990–

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
1982–

Wales
Wales
1930–

Western Samoa 20 1974–1994

Zambia
Zambia
13 1970–1982, 1990–

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
13 22 1982, 1990–2002

Legend

Participated Withdrew for political reason Not eligible to participate To be determined

-------------------------

NATION YEARS PARTICIPATED

Aden 1 1962

Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1998–

Australasia
Australasia
1911

Antigua and Barbuda 1966–1970, 1978, 1994–

Australia
Australia
1930–

Bahamas 1954–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
1978, 1990–

Barbados
Barbados
1954–1982, 1990–

Belize
Belize
4 1978, 1994–

Bermuda
Bermuda
1930–1938, 1954–1982, 1990–

Botswana
Botswana
1974, 1982–

British Guiana 3 1930–1938, 1954–1962

British Honduras
British Honduras
4 1962–1966

British Virgin Islands 1990–

Brunei Darussalam 1990–

Cameroon
Cameroon
1998–

Canada
Canada
1911–

Cayman Islands 1978–

Ceylon 5 1938–1950, 1958–1970

Cook Islands 1974–1978, 1986–

Cyprus
Cyprus
1978–1982, 1990–

Dominica 1958–1962, 1970, 1994–

England
England
1930–

Falkland Islands 1982–

Fiji 6 1938, 1954–1986, 1998–2006, 2014–

Gambia 7 1970–1982, 1990–2010

Ghana
Ghana
8 1958–1982, 1990–

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
1958–

Gold Coast 8 1954

Grenada 1970–1982, 1998–

Guernsey
Guernsey
9 1970–

Guyana
Guyana
3 1966–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
10 1934, 1954–1962, 1970–1994

India
India
1934–1938, 1954–1958, 1966–1982, 1990–

Ireland
Ireland
11 12 1930

Irish Free State
Irish Free State
11 1934

Isle of Man 1958–

Jamaica
Jamaica
1934, 1954–1982, 1990–

Jersey
Jersey
9 1958–

Kenya
Kenya
1954–1982, 1990–

Kiribati 1998–

Lesotho
Lesotho
1974–

Malawi
Malawi
13 1970–

Malaya 14 1950, 1958–1962

Malaysia
Malaysia
1966–1982, 1990–

Maldives
Maldives
15 1986–2014

Malta
Malta
1958–1962, 1970, 1982–

NATION YEARS PARTICIPATED

Mauritius
Mauritius
1958–1982, 1990–

Montserrat
Montserrat
1994–

Mozambique
Mozambique
1998–

Namibia
Namibia
1994–

Nauru
Nauru
1990–

Newfoundland 16 1930–1934

New Zealand
New Zealand
1930–

Nigeria
Nigeria
1950–1958, 1966–1974, 1982, 1990–1994, 2002–

Niue
Niue
2002–

Norfolk Island 1986–

North Borneo
North Borneo
14 1958–1962

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
11 17 1934–1938, 1954–

Northern Rhodesia 19 1954–1958

Pakistan
Pakistan
1954–1970, 1990–

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
1962–1982, 1990–

Rhodesia and Nyasaland 18 1962

Rwanda
Rwanda
2010–

Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
2 1978

Saint Helena
Saint Helena
20 1982, 1998–

Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 1990–

Saint Lucia 5 1962, 1970, 1978, 1994–

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1958, 1966–1978, 1994–

Samoa
Samoa
21 1998–

Sarawak
Sarawak
14 1958–1962

Scotland
Scotland
1930–

Seychelles
Seychelles
1990–

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1958, 1966–1970, 1978, 1990–

Singapore
Singapore
14 1958–

Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
1982, 1990–

South Africa
South Africa
1911–1958, 1994–

South Arabia 1 1966

Southern Rhodesia 19 1934–1958

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
1974–1982, 1990–

Swaziland
Swaziland
1970–

Tanganyika
Tanganyika
22 1962

Tanzania
Tanzania
1966–1982, 1990–

Tonga 1974, 1982, 1990–

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
1934–1982, 1990–

Turks and Caicos Islands 1978, 1998–

Tuvalu
Tuvalu
2002–

Uganda
Uganda
1954–1974, 1982, 1990–

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1911

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
1982–

Wales
Wales
1930–

Western Samoa 21 1974–1994

Zambia
Zambia
13 1970–1982, 1990–

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
13 23 1982, 1990–2002

Notes

* ^ Aden later joined South Arabia in 1963 and departed the Commonwealth in 1968. * ^ Anguilla
Anguilla
was completely separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
in 1980 and remaining Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1983. * ^ British Guiana was renamed Guyana
Guyana
in 1966. * ^ British Honduras
British Honduras
was renamed Belize
Belize
in 1973. * ^ Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1972. * ^ Fiji was re-suspended from the Commonwealth and Games in 2009. Fiji's suspension from the Commonwealth was lifted in time for the 2014 Games following democratic elections in March, 2014. * ^ Gambia withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2013. * ^ Gold Coast (British colony)
Gold Coast (British colony)
was renamed Ghana
Ghana
in 1957. * ^ Including neighbouring Islands. * ^ Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was never a Commonwealth member but was a territory of a Commonwealth country; it ceased to be in the Commonwealth when the territory was handed over to China
China
in 1997. * ^ Ireland
Ireland
was represented as a team from the whole of the island in 1930, and from both parts, the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
in 1934. The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was renamed Ireland
Ireland
in 1937 (but also known by its name in Irish Éire), did not participate in the 1938 Games, and was formally excluded from the Commonwealth when it declared that it was a Republic on 18 April 1949. * ^ Contemporary illustrations show Green Flag used for the Irish team. * ^ Malawi, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
competed in 1962 as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. * ^ Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak
Sarawak
and Singapore
Singapore
federated as Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963. Singapore
Singapore
left the federation in 1965. * ^ Maldives
Maldives
withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2016. * ^ Newfoundland joined Canada
Canada
in 1949. * ^ The Ulster Banner was the flag of the former Government of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
only between 1953 and 1972, but the flag has been regarded as flag of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
since 1924 among unionists and loyalists .The Ulster Banner is the sporting flag of Northern Ireland in other events as the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
and in the FIVB Volleyball
Volleyball
World Championship . * ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia federated with Nyasaland in 1953 as Rhodesia and Nyasaland , which dissolved at the end of 1963. * ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia competed separately in 1954 and 1958 while both were part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. * ^ Under the name of " Saint Helena
Saint Helena
" in the Commonwealth Games. Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha were dependencies of Saint Helena, so the territory was officially called " Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Dependencies" until 2009. Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha became equal parts of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in 2009. * ^ Western Samoa was renamed Samoa
Samoa
in 1997. * ^ Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Tanganyika
Tanganyika
federated to form Tanzania
Tanzania
in 1964. * ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2003.

COMMONWEALTH NATIONS/DEPENDENCIES/DISPUTED TERRITORIES YET TO SEND TEAMS

Very few Commonwealth dependencies and nations have yet to take part:

* Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha , former dependencies of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and current parts of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha , have never formed their own teams independent from the Saint Helena
Saint Helena
team. * Other states, territories and territorial autonomies with native populations within the Commonwealth that may be eligible include Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territories of Australia), Nevis (a federal entity of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis ), Rodrigues (outer islands of Mauritius
Mauritius
), and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania). * Cornwall
Cornwall
, represented by the Cornwall
Cornwall
Commonwealth Games Association (CCGA), sent a bid for participation in the 2006 Commonwealth Games, however, their application was rejected by the CGF, who stated that the constitutional status of Cornwall
Cornwall
was not an issue that should be resolved through this medium. However, in 2010, the CCGA sought to launch a legal challenge to the decision of the CGF, stating that the Cornish bid of 2006 fulfilled the entire criterion of the CGF, and by rejecting the bid, the CGF had violated their own code, failing to follow their own criteria for participation. The Cornwall
Cornwall
team will therefore seek competition in the 2014 games. * The British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
currently has no permanent population although there is a sizeable population who were born in the BIOT but currently live in Mauritius
Mauritius
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and so would be eligible to compete on birth criteria. * Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has made applications to the CGF to send teams. * It is also conceivable that any future members of the Commonwealth such as applicants (for example South Sudan
South Sudan
, Sudan
Sudan
and Yemen
Yemen
) may participate in future games. The Colony of Aden and Federation of South Arabia , precursors to modern Yemen, participated before in 1962 and in 1966 . Sudan
Sudan
was an Anglo-Egyptian protectorate until independence in 1956. * The Pitcairn Islands ' tiny population (currently 50 to 60 people) would appear to prevent this British overseas territory from competing. * Tokelau
Tokelau
was expected to take part in the 2010 Games in Delhi
Delhi
but did not do so. * The lack of a permanent population would seem to prevent the British overseas territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
, the New Zealand
New Zealand
territory of Ross Dependency and the Australian external territories of Australian Antarctic Territory , Ashmore and Cartier Islands , Coral Sea Islands and Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
from competing.

NOTABLE COMPETITORS

Lawn bowler Willie Wood from Scotland
Scotland
was the first competitor to have competed in seven Commonwealth Games, from 1974 to 2002, a record equalled in 2014 by Isle of Man cyclist Andrew Roche. Also, Greg Yelavich , a sports shooter from New Zealand, has won 12 medals in seven games from 1986 to 2010. Lawn Bowler Robert Weale, has represented Wales
Wales
in 8 Commonwealth Games, 1986 - 2014, winning Gold x2, Silver x3, Bronze x 1. Aiming for selection for 9th Games in 2018.

Nauruan weightlifter Marcus Stephen
Marcus Stephen
won twelve medals at the Games between 1990 and 2002, of which seven gold, and was elected President of Nauru
Nauru
in 2007. His performance has helped place Nauru
Nauru
(the smallest independent state in the Commonwealth, at 21 km2 and with a population of fewer than 9,400 in 2011) in nineteenth place on the all-time Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
medal table .

SEE ALSO

Find more aboutCOMMONWEALTH GAMESat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* African Games * Asian Games * Commonwealth Youth Games * European Games * Jeux de la Francophonie * Olympic Games
Olympic Games
* Pacific Games
Pacific Games
* Pan American Games
Pan American Games
* Paralympic Games * Youth Oympic Games * World Games
World Games
* Commonwealth Mountain and Ultradistance Running Championships * List of Commonwealth Games venues * List of stamps depicting the Commonwealth Games

REFERENCES

* ^ A B " Commonwealth Games Federation - The Story of The Commonwealth Games". thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-04-28. * ^ Harold, Perkin (September 1989). "Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth". International Journal of the History of Sport. 6 (2): 145–155. doi :10.1080/09523368908713685 . * ^ Arnd Krüger (1986): War John Astley Cooper der Erfinder der modernen Olympischen Spiele? In: LOUIS BURGENER u.a. (Hrsg.): Sport und Kultur, Bd. 6. Bern: Lang, 72 - 81. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1930 British Empire Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1934 British Empire Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1938 British Empire Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1950 British Empire Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1954 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1958 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1962 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1966 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1970 British Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1974 British Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ Donald Macintosh; Michael Hawes; Donna Ruth Greenhorn; David Ross Black (5 April 1994). Sport and Canadian Diplomacy. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 81–. ISBN 978-0-7735-1161-3 . * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1978 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1982 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1986 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1990 Commonwealth Games
1990 Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ "Pakistan". thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-06-12. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1994 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 1998 Commonwealth Games
1998 Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 2002 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 2006 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 2010 Commonwealth Games - Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01. * ^ "Rwanda". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-06-12. * ^ "Usain Bolt: Glasgow
Glasgow
2014 gold for Jamaica
Jamaica
in 4x100m relay". BBC Sport. 2014-08-02. Retrieved 2017-04-28. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
- Introduction". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01. * ^ "Gold Coast 2018 to offer same amount of medals for men and women after seven events added". Retrieved 2017-04-28. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation -Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games". www.thecgf.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01. * ^ DePauw, Karen P; Gavron, Susan J (2005). Disability sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-0-7360-4638-1 . Retrieved 25 February 2012. * ^ Van Ooyen and Justin Anjema, Mark; Anjema, Justin (25 March 2004). "A Review and Interpretation of the Events of the 1994 Commonwealth Games" (PDF). Redeemer University College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2012. * ^ " Para-sports for elite athletes with a disability". Commonwealth Games Federation website. Retrieved 25 February 2012. * ^ "The Story of the Commonwealth Games". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 5 August 2014. * ^ " Canoeing closer to being a full-medal event". Commonwealthdelhi2010.blogspot.com. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2011. * ^ Sports Programme. Commonwealth Games Federation . Retrieved on 4 June 2016. * ^ " Fiji suspended from Commonwealth". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald . 2 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2011. * ^ " Commonwealth Games Federation - Commonwealth Countries". Retrieved 10 April 2013. * ^ ""The future of the modern Commonwealth: Widening vs. deepening?". Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit. Archived from the original (doc) on 23 July 2011.". * ^ "Campaign Kernow". Campaign Kernow. Retrieved 26 October 2011. * ^ " Glasgow
Glasgow
2014: Mark Cavendish relishes idea of racing with mates". BBC Sport. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to COMMONWEALTH GAMES .

* Official website * Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) at the Commonwealth website * "Commonwealth Games". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. * Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
at DMOZ
DMOZ
* insidethegames – the latest and most up to date news and interviews from the world of Olympic, Commonwealth and Paralympic Games * ATR – Around the Rings – the Business Surrounding the Multi-sport events * GamesBids.com – An Authoritative Review of Games Bid Business (home of the BidIndex™)

* v * t

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