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(i)

The COMMITTEE OF FIVE of the Second Continental Congress was a team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. This Declaration committee operated from June 11, 1776 until July 5, 1776, the day on which the Declaration was published.

THE COMMITTEE

The members of this group were:

* John Adams
John Adams
, representative of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
– became the second US President * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, representative of Virginia
Virginia
– became the third US President * Benjamin Franklin , representative of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
– known as one of the most famous of the Founding Fathers, and first US Minister to France * Roger Sherman , representative of Connecticut
Connecticut
– the only person to sign all four of the US state papers: the Continental Association , the Declaration, the Articles of Confederation , and the Constitution * Robert Livingston , representative of New York – negotiated the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
as the Minister to France

Sherman , Franklin , Jefferson , Adams , and Livingston . (from left to right)

DRAFTING OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

The delegates of the United Colonies in Congress resolved to postpone until Monday, July 1, the final consideration of whether or not to declare the several sovereign independencies of the United Colonies , which had been proposed by the North Carolina
North Carolina
resolutions of April 12 and the Virginia
Virginia
resolutions of May 15. The proposal, known as the Lee Resolution , was moved in Congress on June 7 by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia. During these allotted three weeks Congress agreed to appoint a committee to draft a broadside statement to proclaim to the world the reasons for taking America out of the British Empire
British Empire
, if the Congress were to declare the said sovereign independencies. The actual declaration of "American Independence" is precisely the text comprising the final paragraph of the published broadside of July 4. The broadside's final paragraph repeated the text of the Lee Resolution as adopted by the declaratory resolve voted on July 2.

On June 11, the Committee of Five
Committee of Five
was appointed: John Adams
John Adams
of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Connecticut
, Robert Livingston of New York , Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
of Virginia
Virginia
. Because the committee left no minutes, there is some uncertainty about how the drafting process proceeded—accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are contradictory and not entirely reliable.

THE FIRST DRAFT

Certainly the committee, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. With Congress's busy schedule, Jefferson had limited time to write the draft over the ensuing 17 days. He then consulted with the others on the committee, who reviewed the draft and made extensive changes. Jefferson then produced another copy incorporating these alterations.

Among the changes was the simplification of the phrase Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness , which Jefferson had phrased "preservation of life, & liberty, "> The Committee of Five presenting their work to the Congress on June 28, 1776. Painting by John Trumbull
John Trumbull
.

THE SIGNING

Although not officially noted, the estimated time was 18:26 LMT (6:26pm local) for the recording of this historic vote. The Congress then heard the report of the Committee of the Whole and declared the sovereign status of the United Colonies the following day, during the afternoon of July 2. The Committee of the Whole then turned to the Declaration, and it was given a second reading before adjournment.

LAST MINUTE ARGUMENTS

On Wednesday, July 3, the Committee of the Whole gave the Declaration a third reading and commenced scrutiny of the precise wording of the proposed text. Two passages in the Committee of Five's draft were rejected by the Committee of the Whole. One was a critical reference to the English people and the other was a denunciation of the slave trade and of slavery itself. The text of the Declaration was otherwise accepted without any other major changes.

Jefferson wrote in his autobiography, of the two deleted passages:

“ The pusillanimous idea that we had friends in England worth keeping terms with still haunted the minds of many. For this reason, THOSE PASSAGES WHICH CONVEYED CENSURES ON THE PEOPLE OF ENGLAND WERE STRUCK OUT, lest they should give them offense. The clause, too, REPROBATING THE ENSLAVING THE INHABITANTS OF AFRICA WAS STRUCK OUT in complaisance to South Carolina
South Carolina
and Georgia, who had never attempted to restrain the importation of slaves, and who, on the contrary, still wished to continue it. Our Northern brethren also, I believe, felt a little tender under these censures, for though their people had very few slaves themselves, yet they had been pretty considerable carriers of them to others. ”

As John Adams
John Adams
recalled many years later, this work of editing the proposed text was largely completed by the time of adjournment on July 3. However, the text's formal adoption was deferred until the following morning, when the Congress voted its agreement during the late morning of July 4.

FAIR COPY

The draft document as adopted was then referred back to the Committee of Five in order to prepare a "fair copy," this being the redrafted-as-corrected document prepared for delivery to the broadside printer, John Dunlap . And so the Committee of Five
Committee of Five
convened in the early evening of July 4 to complete its task.

Historians have had no documentary means by which to determine the identity of the authenticating party. It is unclear whether the Declaration was authenticated by the Committee of Five's signature or the Committee submitted the fair copy to President Hancock for his authenticating signature, or the authentication awaited President John Hancock’s signature on the printer’s finished proof-copy of what became known as the Dunlap broadside Either way, upon the July 5 release of the Dunlap broadside of the Declaration, the Committee of Five’s work was done.

THE DUNLAP BROADSIDE RELEASE TO THE PUBLIC

Upon the July 5 release of the Dunlap broadside, the public could read who had signed the Declaration. Just one signature as attested by Secretary Charles Thomson . Memories of the participants proved to be very short on this particular historic moment. Not three decades had elapsed by which time the prominent members of the Committee of Five could no longer recollect in detail what actually took place, and by their active participation, on July 4 and 5 of 1776. And so during these early decades was born the myth of a one grand ceremonial general signing on July 4, by all the delegates to Congress. The myth continues to have a very long life.

REFERENCES

* ^ Maier, American Scripture, 97–105; Boyd, Evolution, 21. * ^ Boyd, Evolution, 22. * ^ Maier,American Scripture, 104. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2010-02-18. , retrieved on October 29, 2013 * ^ Locke, John (1988) . Laslett, Peter, ed. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Sec. 87, 123, 209, 222. ISBN 052135448X . * ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 4. * ^ For verification of the afternoon July 2 date of this vote of Congress, see Harold Eberlein Forgotten Leader of the Revolution (American Faculty Press, 1975), Chapter 11: Independence 1776, p. 174. See also Jane Harrington Scott, A Gentleman As Well As a Whig: Caesar Rodney and the American Revolution
American Revolution
(University of Delaware
Delaware
Press, 2000), Chapter 15: Independence is Declared, p. 117 therein. Speculatively, an estimated time moment interval of 14:00 LMT up to 18:00 LMT appears to be the period during which this day’s historic events reached completion by the vote in Congress and the newspaper report of independence declared. * ^ Autobiography, by Thomas Jefferson * ^ A New Jersey
New Jersey
delegate to Congress wrote to a friend during the early morning of the 4th, explaining Congress' recent editing of the Declaration: "Our Congress Resolved to Declare the United Colonies Free and independent States. A Declaration for this Purpose, I expect, will this day pass Congress, it is nearly gone through, after which it will be Proclaimed with all the State Chapter VII: The Declaration of Independence, pp. 182–209, wherein July 4th, p. 205. See also Edward Channing, A Short History of the United States. (N.Y: The MacMillan Co., 1908), Chapter V-15: The Great Declaration and the French Alliance, p. 146. * ^ The Congress left no record of when, during the night of July 4/5, President John Hancock
John Hancock
affixed his authenticating signature to either the Committee's fair copy or the Dunlap broadside master copy (the printer's proof-copy). On the extant original copies of the printed broadside one finds this: "Signed by Order and in Behalf of the Congress, JOHN HANCOCK, President." For a scholarly appraisal of this national tragedy of the absent record of Hancock's signature moment, see Julian P. Boyd, "The Declaration of Independence: The Mystery of the Lost Original", in The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine. Vol. C, No. 4, October 1976, pp. 438–67. * ^ Congress may have taken as little as 33 days from the debates of July 1 to the opening of business on August 2, in order to establish "THE unanimous DECLARATION of the thirteen united STATES OF AMERICA", being the revised-format edition of the July 4 Declaration. This 'unanimous thirteen' edition remains on permanent public display, enshrined in the rotunda of the National Archives at Washington, D.C. For a partially successful effort to piece together the fragmented record of the genesis of the Declaration's creation during this 33-day interval, see Wilfred J. Ritz, "The Authentication of the Engrossed Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776", in the Cornell Law School's Law and History Review. Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 1986, pp. 179–204. See also, Herbert Friedenwald, The Declaration of Independence: An Interpretation and an Analysis. (MacMillan ">. * Dunlap broadside : The Dunlap broadside of the Declaration of Independence, as first published on July 5, 1776, entitled "A DECLARATION By The Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA In General Congress assembled". * Goddard broadside : The Goddard broadside of the Declaration of Independence, as first published on January 31, 1777, entitled "The unanimous DECLARATION of the Thirteen United States of AMERICA".

* v * t * e

Historical documents of the United States

CONSTITUTION

Preamble border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Preamble * I * II * III * IV * V * VI * VII

AMENDMENTS

RATIFIED

* 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * 7 * 8 * 9 * 10 * 11 * 12 * 13 * 14 * 15 * 16 * 17 * 18 * 19 * 20 * 21 * 22 * 23 * 24 * 25 * 26 * 27

PENDING

* Congressional Apportionment * Titles of Nobility * Corwin (State Domestic Institutions) * Child Labor

UNSUCCESSFUL

* Equal Rights * District of Columbia Voting Rights

SEE ALSO

* List of Constitutional Amendments * Bill of Rights (Amendments 1–10) * Reconstruction Amendments (Amendments 13–15) * Amendment proposals in Congress * Conventions to propose amendments * State ratifying conventions

FORMATION

* History * Articles of Confederation * Mount Vernon Conference * Annapolis Convention

* Philadelphia Convention

* Virginia
Virginia
Plan * New Jersey Plan * Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise * Three-Fifths Compromise
Three-Fifths Compromise
* Committee of Detail * Signing * Independence Hall
Independence Hall
* Syng inkstand
Syng inkstand

* The Federalist Papers * Anti-Federalist Papers * Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise * Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention * Hillsborough Convention * Drafting and ratification timeline

CLAUSES

* Appointments * Appropriations * Assistance of Counsel * Bill of credit * Case or Controversy * Citizenship * Commerce * Compact * Compulsory Process * Confrontation * Contract * Copyright and Patent * Double Jeopardy * Due Process * Equal Protection * Establishment * Exceptions * Excessive Bail * Ex post facto * Extradition * Free Exercise * Free Speech * Fugitive Slave * Full Faith and Credit * General Welfare * Guarantee * Impeachment * Import-Export * Ineligibility (Emolument) * Militia * Natural-born citizen * Necessary and Proper * New States * No Religious Test * Oath or Affirmation * Origination * Petition * Postal * Presentment * Privileges and Immunities * Privileges or Immunities * Recommendation * Self-Incrimination * Speech or Debate * Speedy Trial * State of the Union * Supremacy * Suspension * Take Care * Takings * Taxing and Spending * Territorial * Title of Nobility * Treaty * Trial by Jury * Vesting * Vicinage * War Powers * List of clauses

INTERPRETATION

* Concurrent powers * Congressional enforcement * Constitutional law * Criminal procedure * Criminal sentencing * Dormant Commerce Clause
Commerce Clause
* Enumerated powers * Equal footing * Executive privilege
Executive privilege
* Incorporation of the Bill of Rights * Judicial review * Nondelegation doctrine * Preemption * Saxbe fix * Separation of church and state * Separation of powers * Taxation power * Unitary executive theory

SIGNATORIES

CONVENTION PRESIDENT

* George Washington
George Washington

NEW HAMPSHIRE

* John Langdon * Nicholas Gilman

MASSACHUSETTS

* Nathaniel Gorham * Rufus King

CONNECTICUT

* William Samuel Johnson * Roger Sherman

NEW YORK

* Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

NEW JERSEY

* William Livingston * David Brearley * William Paterson * Jonathan Dayton

PENNSYLVANIA

* Benjamin Franklin * Thomas Mifflin * Robert Morris * George Clymer * Thomas Fitzsimons * Jared Ingersoll * James Wilson * Gouverneur Morris

DELAWARE

* George Read * Gunning Bedford Jr. * John Dickinson * Richard Bassett * Jacob Broom

MARYLAND

* James McHenry * Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer * Daniel Carroll

VIRGINIA

* John Blair * James Madison
James Madison

NORTH CAROLINA

* William Blount * Richard Dobbs Spaight * Hugh Williamson

SOUTH CAROLINA

* John Rutledge
John Rutledge
* Charles Cotesworth Pinckney * Charles Pinckney * Pierce Butler
Pierce Butler

GEORGIA

* William Few * Abraham Baldwin

CONVENTION SECRETARY

* William Jackson

Display and legacy

* National Archives

* Charters of Freedom Rotunda

* Independence Mall * Constitution Day * Constitution Gardens
Constitution Gardens
* National Constitution Center
National Constitution Center
* Scene at the Signing of the Constitution (painting) * A More Perfect Union (film) * Worldwide influence

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

PRIMARY AUTHOR

* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

SIGNATORIES

PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS

* John Hancock
John Hancock
(Massachusetts)

NEW HAMPSHIRE

* Josiah Bartlett * William Whipple * Matthew Thornton

MASSACHUSETTS

* Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
* John Adams
John Adams
* Robert Treat Paine * Elbridge Gerry

RHODE ISLAND

* Stephen Hopkins * William Ellery

CONNECTICUT

* Roger Sherman * Samuel Huntington * William Williams * Oliver Wolcott

NEW YORK

* William Floyd * Philip Livingston * Francis Lewis * Lewis Morris

NEW JERSEY

* Richard Stockton * John Witherspoon * Francis Hopkinson * John Hart * Abraham Clark

PENNSYLVANIA

* Robert Morris * Benjamin Rush * Benjamin Franklin * John Morton * George Clymer * James Smith * George Taylor * James Wilson * George Ross

DELAWARE

* George Read * Caesar Rodney * Thomas McKean

MARYLAND

* Samuel Chase
Samuel Chase
* William Paca * Thomas Stone * Charles Carroll of Carrollton

VIRGINIA

* George Wythe * Richard Henry Lee * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
* Benjamin Harrison * Thomas Nelson Jr. * Francis Lightfoot Lee * Carter Braxton

NORTH CAROLINA

* William Hooper * Joseph Hewes * John Penn

SOUTH CAROLINA

* Edward Rutledge * Thomas Heyward Jr. * Thomas Lynch Jr. * Arthur Middleton

GEORGIA

* Button Gwinett * Lyman Hall * George Walton

SEE ALSO

* Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights * Lee Resolution * Committee of Five

* Document\'s history

* signing * portrait

* Second Continental Congress * " All men are created equal " * " Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness " * " Consent of the governed "

* Independence Hall
Independence Hall

* Syng inkstand
Syng inkstand

* American Revolution
American Revolution

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

SIGNATORIES

PRIMARY DRAFTER

* John Dickinson

NEW HAMPSHIRE

* Josiah Bartlett * John Wentworth Jr.

MASSACHUSETTS

* John Hancock
John Hancock
* Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
* Elbridge Gerry * Francis Dana * James Lovell * Samuel Holten

RHODE ISLAND

* William Ellery * Henry Marchant * John Collins

CONNECTICUT

* Roger Sherman * Samuel Huntington * Oliver Wolcott * Titus Hosmer * Andrew Adams

NEW YORK

* James Duane * Francis Lewis * William Duer * Gouverneur Morris

NEW JERSEY

* John Witherspoon * Nathaniel Scudder

PENNSYLVANIA

* Robert Morris * Daniel Roberdeau * Jonathan Bayard Smith * William Clingan * Joseph Reed

DELAWARE

* Thomas McKean * John Dickinson * Nicholas Van Dyke

MARYLAND

* John Hanson * Daniel Carroll

VIRGINIA

* Richard Henry Lee * John Banister * Thomas Adams * John Harvie * Francis Lightfoot Lee

NORTH CAROLINA

* John Penn * Cornelius Harnett * John Williams

SOUTH CAROLINA

* Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
* William Henry Drayton * John Mathews * Richard Hutson * Thomas Heyward Jr.

GEORGIA

* John Walton * Edward Telfair * Edward Langworthy

SEE ALSO

* Continental Congress * Congress of the Confederation * American Revolution
American Revolution
* Perpetual Union
Perpetual Union

CONTINENTAL ASSOCIATION

SIGNATORIES

PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS

* Peyton Randolph

NEW HAMPSHIRE

* John Sullivan * Nathaniel Folsom

MASSACHUSETTS BAY

* Thomas Cushing * Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
* John Adams
John Adams
* Robert Treat Paine

RHODE ISLAND

* Stephen Hopkins * Samuel Ward

CONNECTICUT

* Eliphalet Dyer * Roger Sherman * Silas Deane

NEW YORK

* Isaac Low * John Alsop * John Jay * James Duane * Philip Livingston * William Floyd * Henry Wisner * Simon Boerum

NEW JERSEY

* James Kinsey * William Livingston * Stephen Crane * Richard Smith * John De Hart
John De Hart

PENNSYLVANIA

* Joseph Galloway * John Dickinson * Charles Humphreys * Thomas Mifflin * Edward Biddle * John Morton * George Ross

THE LOWER COUNTIES

* Caesar Rodney * Thomas McKean * George Read

MARYLAND

* Matthew Tilghman * Thomas Johnson, Junr * William Paca * Samuel Chase
Samuel Chase

VIRGINIA

* Richard Henry Lee * George Washington
George Washington
* Patrick Henry, Junr * Richard Bland * Benjamin Harrison * Edmund Pendleton
Edmund Pendleton

NORTH CAROLINA

* William Hooper * Joseph Hewes * Richard Caswell

SOUTH CAROLINA

* Henry Middleton * Thomas Lynch * Christopher Gadsden * John Rutledge
John Rutledge
* Edward Rutledge

SEE ALSO

* Virginia
Virginia
Association * First Continental Congress * Carpenters\' Hall * Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

* v * t * e

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

* 3rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1801–1809) * 2nd U.S. Vice President (1797–1801) * 1st U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793) * U.S. Minister to France (1785–1789) * 2nd Governor of Virginia
Virginia
(1779–1781) * Delegate, Second Continental Congress (1775–1776)

Founding documents of the United States

* A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) * Initial draft, Olive Branch Petition (1775) * Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775)

* 1776 Declaration of Independence

* Committee of Five * authored * physical history * "All men are created equal" * "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" * "Consent of the governed"

* 1786 Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom

* freedom of religion

FRENCH REVOLUTION

* Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)

PRESIDENCY

* Inaugural Address (1801 * 1805) * Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves * Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase

* Lewis and Clark Expedition

* Corps of Discovery
Corps of Discovery
* timeline * Empire of Liberty

* Red River Expedition * Pike Expedition * Cumberland Road

* Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807

* Chesapeake–Leopard Affair * Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

* First Barbary War * Native American policy * Marbury v. Madison * West Point Military Academy * State of the Union Addresses (texts * 1801 * 1802 * 1805) * Cabinet * Federal judicial appointments

Other noted accomplishments

* Early life and career

* Founder, University of Virginia
Virginia

* history

* Land Ordinance of 1784

* Northwest Ordinance 1787

* Anti-Administration party * Democratic-Republican Party

* Jeffersonian democracy

* First Party System * republicanism

* Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measure of the United States (1790) * Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
Resolutions * A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801)

Jeffersonian architecture

* Barboursville * Farmington

* Monticello
Monticello

* gardens

* Poplar Forest

* University of Virginia
Virginia

* The Rotunda * The Lawn
The Lawn

* Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol * White House
White House
Colonnades

OTHER WRITINGS

* Notes on the State of Virginia
Virginia
(1785) * 1787 European journey memorandums * Indian removal letters * Jefferson Bible (1895) * Jefferson manuscript collection at the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment * American Enlightenment * American Philosophical Society

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

* Member, Virginia
Virginia
Committee of Correspondence * Committee of the States * Founding Fathers of the United States * Franco-American alliance * Jefferson and education * Religious views * Jefferson and slavery * Jefferson and the Library of Congress * Jefferson disk * Jefferson Pier * Pet mockingbird * National Gazette
National Gazette

* Residence Act

* Compromise of 1790

* Sally Hemings

* Jefferson–Hemings controversy * Betty Hemings

* Separation of church and state * Swivel chair * The American Museum magazine * Virginia
Virginia
dynasty

ELECTIONS

* United States Presidential election 1796 * 1800 * 1804

LEGACY

* Bibliography * Jefferson Memorial * Mount Rushmore
Mount Rushmore
* Birthday * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Center for the Protection of Free Expression * Jefferson Lecture * Jefferson National Expansion Memorial * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Star for Foreign Service * Jefferson Lab * Monticello
Monticello
Association * Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City, Missouri
* Jefferson College * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
School of Law * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
University * Washington and Jefferson National Forests * Other placenames

* Currency depictions

* Jefferson nickel * Two-dollar bill

* U.S. postage stamps

POPULAR CULTURE

* Ben and Me (1953 short) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film ) * Jefferson in Paris (1995 film) * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1997 film) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) * Jefferson\'s Garden (2015 play) * Hamilton (2015 musical) * Jefferson–Eppes Trophy * Wine bottles controversy

FAMILY

* Peter Jefferson (father) * Jane Randolph Jefferson (mother) * Lucy Jefferson Lewis (sister) * Randolph Jefferson (brother) * Isham Randolph (grandfather) * William Randolph (great-grandfather) * Martha Jefferson (wife) * Martha Jefferson Randolph (daughter) * Mary Jefferson Eppes (daughter) * Harriet Hemings (daughter) * Madison Hemings (son) * Eston Hemings
Eston Hemings
(son) * Thomas J. Randolph (grandson) * Francis Eppes (grandson) * George W. Randolph (grandson) * John Wayles Jefferson (grandson) * Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
(son-in-law) * John Wayles Eppes (son-in-law) * John Wayles (father-in-law) * Dabney Carr (brother-in-law) * Dabney Carr (nephew)

* ← JOHN ADAMS * JAMES MADISON →

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790

President of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1785–1788) , Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress (1775–1776)

Founding of the United States

* Join, or Die (1754 political cartoon)

* Albany Plan of Union

* Albany Congress

* Hutchinson Letters Affair * Committee of Secret Correspondence * Committee of Five * Declaration of Independence

* Model Treaty

* Franco-American alliance * Treaty of Amity and Commerce * Treaty of Alliance

* Staten Island Peace Conference * Treaty of Paris, 1783 * Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Provincial Assembly * Postmaster General * Founding Fathers

Inventions, other events

* Franklin\'s electrostatic machine * Bifocals * Franklin stove * Glass armonica * Gulf Stream exploration, naming, and chart * Lightning rod * Kite experiment * Pay it forward

* Associators

* 111th Infantry Regiment

* Junto club * American Philosophical Society * Library Company of Philadelphia * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Hospital

* The Academy and College of Philadelphia

* University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

* Philadelphia Contributionship * Union Fire Company * Early American currency * United States Postal Service * President, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Abolition Society * Master, Les Neuf Sœurs * Other social contributions and studies * Gravesite

WRITINGS

* Silence Dogood letters (1722) * A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) * The Busy-Body letters (1729) * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Gazette (1729–1790) * Poor Richard\'s Almanack (1732–1758) * The Drinker\'s Dictionary (1737) * "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) * "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) * Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) * Experiments and Observations on Electricity (1751) * Birch letters (1755) * The Way to Wealth (1758) * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Chronicle (1767) * Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) * Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) * A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) * Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784) * The Morals of Chess (1786) * An Address to the Public (1789) * A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) * The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1771–90, pub. 1791) * Bagatelles and Satires (pub. 1845) * Franklin as a journalist

LEGACY

* Franklin Court
Franklin Court
* Benjamin Franklin House * Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology * Benjamin Franklin National Memorial * Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
* Benjamin Franklin Medal * Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington * Benjamin Franklin statue, Washington D.C.

* In popular culture

* Ben and Me (1953 short) * Ben Franklin in Paris (1964 musical play) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film ) * Benjamin Franklin (1974 miniseries) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * Benjamin Franklin (2002 documentary series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) * Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries) * Sons of Ben (supporters group for the Philadelphia Union soccer club

* Refunding Certificate * Franklin half dollar * One-hundred dollar bill

* Washington-Franklin stamps

* other stamps

* Cities, counties, schools named for Franklin * Franklin Field * State of Franklin * Ships named USS Franklin * Ben Franklin effect

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment * American Enlightenment * The New-England Courant * The American Museum magazine

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

* Syng inkstand
Syng inkstand

FAMILY

* Deborah Read (wife) * Sarah Franklin Bache (daughter) * Francis Franklin (son) * William Franklin
William Franklin
(son) * Richard Bache Jr. (grandson) * Benjamin F. Bache (grandson) * Louis F. Bache (grandson) * William Franklin
William Franklin
(grandson) * Andrew Harwood (great-grandson) * Alexander Bache (great-grandson) * Josiah Franklin (father) * Jane Mecom (sister) * James Franklin (brother) * Mary Morrell Folger (grandmother) * Peter Folger (grandfather) * Richard Bache (son-in-law) * Ann Smith Franklin (sister-in-law)

* v * t * e

John Adams
John Adams

* 2nd President of the United States, 1797–1801 * 1st Vice President of the United States, 1789–1797 * U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1785–1788 * U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands, 1782–1788 * Delegate, Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778 * Delegate, First Continental Congress, 1774

Founding of the United States

* Braintree Instructions (1765) * Boston Massacre defense * Continental Association * Novanglus; A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time (1775) * Thoughts on Government (1776)

* Declaration of Independence

* May 15 preamble * Committee of Five

* Model Treaty

* Treaty of Amity and Commerce * Treaty of Alliance

* Board of War
Board of War

* Chairman of the Marine Committee, 1775-1779

* Continental Navy

* Staten Island Peace Conference

* Conference House

* Constitution of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1780) * Treaty of Paris, 1783

PRESIDENCY

* Inauguration

* Quasi War with France

* XYZ Affair * Commerce Protection Act * United States Marine Corps * Convention of 1800
Convention of 1800

* Alien and Sedition Acts

* Naturalization Act of 1798

* Navy Department Library * Treaty of Tellico * Treaty of Tripoli

* Midnight Judges Act

* Marbury v. Madison

* State of the Union Address (1797 * 1798 * 1799 * 1800) * Cabinet * Federal judiciary appointments

OTHER WRITINGS

* Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society holdings

Life and homes

* Early life and education

* Adams National Historical Park

* John Adams
John Adams
Birthplace * Family home and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
birthplace * Peacefield * Presidential Library

* Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hall, Harvard University * Presidents House, Philadelphia * Co-founder and second president, American Academy of Arts and Sciences * United First Parish Church and gravesite

ELECTIONS

* United States presidential election 1788–1789 * 1792 * 1796 * 1800

LEGACY

* Adams House at Harvard University * John Adams
John Adams
Building * U.S. Postage stamps * Adams Memorial

POPULAR CULTURE

* Profiles in Courage (1964 series) * American Primitive (1969 play) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film) * The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book * 2008 miniseries) * Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries)

RELATED

* "Adams and Liberty" campaign song * Adams\' personal library * American Enlightenment * Congress Hall
Congress Hall

* Federalist Party
Federalist Party

* Federalist Era * First Party System * republicanism

* American Philosophical Society * Gazette of the United States * The American Museum

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FAMILY

* Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams

* wife * Quincy family

* Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (daughter)

* John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

* son * presidency

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John Adams
II (grandson) * John Q. Adams (great-grandson) * Henry Adams (great-grandson) * Brooks Adams (great-grandson) * John Adams
John Adams
Sr. (father) * Susanna Boylston (mother) * Elihu Adams (brother) * Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
(second cousin)

* Louisa Adams

* daughter-in-law * First Lady

* ← GEORGE WASHINGTON * THOMAS JEFFERSON →

* CATEGORY

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