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Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship. It was the United States′ first model of radio (and later television) during the 1920s, in contrast with the public television model in Europe during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s which prevailed worldwide (except in the United States) until the 1980s.

Contents

1 Features

1.1 Advertising 1.2 Paid programming 1.3 Ratings 1.4 Other factors

2 Global commercial broadcasting

2.1 Americas 2.2 Europe 2.3 Asia

3 List of major commercial broadcasters

3.1 Americas

3.1.1 Argentina 3.1.2 Brazil 3.1.3 Canada 3.1.4 Colombia 3.1.5 Mexico 3.1.6 United States

3.2 Asia

3.2.1 China 3.2.2 Indonesia 3.2.3 Japan (key station) 3.2.4 Malaysia 3.2.5 Philippines 3.2.6 Singapore 3.2.7 South Korea 3.2.8 Taiwan

3.3 Europe

3.3.1 United Kingdom

3.4 Oceania

3.4.1 Australia

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Features[edit] Advertising[edit] Commercial broadcasting is primarily based on the practice of airing radio advertisements and television advertisements for profit. This is in contrast to public broadcasting, which receives government subsidies and tries to avoid paid advertising interrupting the show. During pledge drives they will interrupt shows to ask for donations. In the United States, non-commercial educational (NCE) television and radio exists in the form of community radio; however, premium cable services such as HBO
HBO
and Showtime generally operate solely on subscriber fees and do not sell advertising. This is also the case for the portions of the two major satellite radio systems that are produced in-house (mainly music programming). Radio
Radio
broadcasting originally began without paid commercials. As time went on, however, advertisements seemed less objectionable to both the public and government regulators and became more common. While commercial broadcasting was unexpected in radio, in television it was planned due to commercial radio's success. Television
Television
began with commercial sponsorship and later transformed to paid commercial time. When problems arose over patents and corporate marketing strategies, regulatory decisions were made by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to control commercial broadcasting.[1] Paid programming[edit] Commercial broadcasting overlaps with paid services such as cable television, radio and satellite television. Such services are generally partially or wholly paid for by local subscribers and is known as leased access. Other programming (particularly on cable television) is produced by companies operating in much the same manner as advertising-funded commercial broadcasters, and they (and often the local cable provider) sell commercial time in a similar manner. The FCC's interest in program control began with the chain-broadcasting investigation of the late 1930s, culminating in the "Blue Book" of 1946, Public Service Responsibility For Broadcast Licensees. The Blue Book differentiated between mass-appeal sponsored programs and unsponsored "sustaining" programs offered by the radio networks. This sustained programming, according to the Blue Book, had five features serving the public interest:

Sustaining programs balanced the broadcast schedule, supplementing the soap operas and popular-music programs receiving the highest ratings and most commercial sponsors They allowed for the broadcast of programs which, by their controversial or sensitive nature, were unsuitable for sponsorship They supplied cultural programming for smaller audiences They provided limited broadcast access for non-profit and civic organizations They made possible artistic and dramatic experimentation, shielded from the pressures of short-run rating and commercial considerations of a sponsor.[1]

Commercial time has increased 31 seconds per hour for all prime time television shows. For example, ABC has increased from 9 minutes and 26 seconds to 11 minutes and 26 seconds.[2] Ratings[edit] Programming on commercial stations is more ratings-driven—particularly during periods such as sweeps in the US and some Latin American countries. Other factors[edit] Commercial broadcasting (especially free-to-air) is sometimes controversial.[citation needed] One reason is a perceived lack of quality and risk in the programming (to which more conservative elements respond that it is too risqué much of the time), an excessively high ratio of advertising to program time (especially on children's television), and a perceived failure to serve the local interest due to media consolidation. Commercial radio (in particular) is criticized for a perceived homogeneity in programming, covert politically motivated censorship of content, and a desire to cut costs at the expense of a station's identifiable personality. Politics is a major force in media criticism, with an ongoing debate (especially in the United States) as to what moral standards – if any – are to be applied to the airwaves. Global commercial broadcasting[edit] Americas[edit] Commercial broadcasting is the dominant type of broadcasting in the United States and most of Latin America. "The US commercial system resulted from a carefully crafted cooperation endeavor by national corporations and federal regulators."[3] The best-known commercial broadcasters in the United States today are the ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC
NBC
television networks and the iHeartMedia radio network, based in the United States. Major cable television in the United States operators include Comcast, Cox Communications
Cox Communications
and Time Warner Cable. Direct-broadcast satellite
Direct-broadcast satellite
(DBS) services include DirecTV
DirecTV
and Dish Network. In an hour of broadcast time on a commercial broadcasting station, 10 to 20 minutes are typically devoted to advertising. Advertisers pay a certain amount of money to air their commercials, usually based upon program ratings or the audience measurement of a station or network. This makes commercial broadcasters more accountable to advertisers than public broadcasting, a disadvantage of commercial radio and television. Europe[edit] In Europe, commercial broadcasting coexists with public broadcasting (where programming is largely funded by broadcast receiver licences, public donations or government grants). In the UK, British Sky Broadcasting
Broadcasting
(BSkyB) is available and WorldSpace Satellite Radio
Radio
was available. Asia[edit] One of the best-known commercial services in Asia is the oldest radio station in the region, Radio
Radio
Ceylon. List of major commercial broadcasters[edit] Americas[edit] Argentina[edit]

América Canal 9 Telefe El Trece

Brazil[edit]

Band Cultura Globo RecordTV RedeTV! SBT

Canada[edit] English language

CTV City Global Television
Television
Network

French language

TVA V

Colombia[edit]

Caracol RCN

Mexico[edit]

Televisa TV Azteca Imagen Televisión

United States[edit] English language

ABC CBS Fox NBC CW

Spanish language

Univision Telemundo

Asia[edit] China[edit]

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Television
Television
Entertainment Company Limited (香港電視娛樂有限公司HKTVE) — Hong Kong Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Television
Television
Broadcasts Limited (香港電視廣播有限公司 "香港無綫電視"HKTVB) — Hong Kong

Indonesia[edit]

PT Media Nusantara Citra
Media Nusantara Citra
(MNC Media)

PT Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia (RCTI) PT Media Nusantara Citra
Media Nusantara Citra
Televisi (MNCTV) PT Global Informasi Bermutu (GTV) PT Sun Television
Television
Network (iNews)

PT Surya Citra Media (SCM)

PT Surya Citra Televisi (SCTV) PT Indosiar
Indosiar
Visual Mandiri (Indosiar)

PT Media Group

PT Media Televisi Indonesia (MetroTV)

PT Trans Media Corpora (Trans Media)

PT Televisi Transformasi Indonesia (Trans TV) PT Duta Visual Nusantara Tivi Tujuh (Trans7)

PT Visi Media Group
Media Group
(VIVA)

PT Intermedia Capital (IMDA)

PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi (antv)

PT Lativi Media Karya (tvOne)

PT Net Mediatama Indonesia ( NET.
NET.
Mediatama Indonesia)

PT Net Mediatama Televisi (NET.)

PT Kompas Gramedia (Kompas Gramedia)

PT Gramedia Media Nusantara (Kompas TV)

PT Rajawali Wirabhakti Utama (Rajawali Corporation)

PT Metropolitan Televisindo (RTV)

Japan (key station)[edit]

TV Asahi Fuji TV Nippon TV TBS TV Tokyo

Malaysia[edit]

Media Prima Berhad (Media Prima)

Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad (TV3) Natseven TV Sdn Bhd (NTV7) Metropolitan TV Sdn Bhd (8TV) Ch-9 Media Sdn Bhd (TV9) Synchrosound Studio Sdn Bhd (Hot FM) Max-Airplay Sdn Bhd (Fly FM) One FM Copyright Laureate Sdn Bhd (Kool FM) Primeworks Studios Sdn Bhd (Primeworks Studios) Primeworks Distribution Sdn Bhd (Primeworks Distribution) New Straits Times Press (NSTP)

New Straits Times Berita Harian Harian Metro

Philippines[edit]

ABS-CBN GMA Network The 5 Network

Singapore[edit]

Media Corporation of Singapore (Mediacorp)

South Korea[edit]

Munhwa Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (MBC) Seoul Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System (SBS)

Taiwan[edit]

China Television
China Television
Company Ltd (中國電視事業股份有限公司CTV) Chinese Television System
Chinese Television System
Inc (中華電視股份有限公司CTS) Formosa Television
Formosa Television
Inc (民間全民電視股份有限公司FTV)

Europe[edit] United Kingdom[edit]

ITV

Oceania[edit] Australia[edit]

Seven Network Nine Network Network Ten

See also[edit]

Broadcast clock Broadcast network Citizen media Corporate media Digital broadcasting Leonard Plugge

References[edit]

^ a b Boddy, William. Fifties Television: the Industry and Its Critics. University of Illinois Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-252-06299-5 ^ Fleming, H. (1997). PSA slice shrinks as commercial pie grows. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
& Cable, 127(13), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/225346067 ^ Hilmes, Michele (2004). "The Origins of the Commercial Broadcasting System of the United States". Jahrbuch Medien und Geschichte. 4: 73–81. 

External links[edit]

Video (audio) interview with Ray Fitzwalter on commercial TV in Britain, The rise and fall of ITV, Frontline Club, London, May 2008.

v t e

Broadcasting

Medium

Radio
Radio
( Radio
Radio
program Cable Satellite) Telephone Teletext Television
Television
( Television
Television
program Cable Satellite) Internet television
Internet television
and radio (Webcast Streaming media Web television Peer-to-peer television BitTorrent television and movies)

Broadcasting niche

Campus radio Commercial broadcasting Community radio News broadcasting Pirate radio / Pirate television Public broadcasting Religious broadcasting Talk
Talk
radio

Specialty channels

Adult television channels Children's interest channel / Children's television series Documentary channel Men's interest channel Movie television channels Music radio / Music television Quiz channel Shopping channel News broadcasting

Business channels Public affairs Sports television channels

Women's interest channel

Production and funding

Broadcast designer Broadcast license Broadcast network Broadcast-safe Broadcast television systems Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Network affiliate News ticker Score bug Television
Television
news screen layout Television
Television
licence Television
Television
studio Press box Press pool on-screen display

v t e

Analog and digital audio broadcasting

Terrestrial

Radio
Radio
modulation

AM FM COFDM

Frequency allocations

LW (LF) MW (MF) SW (HF) VHF (low / mid / high) L band
L band
(UHF)

Digital systems

CAM-D DAB/DAB+ DRM/DRM+ FMeXtra HD Radio CDR DVB-T2
DVB-T2
Lite

Satellite

Frequency allocations

C band Ku band L band S band

Digital systems

ADR DAB-S DVB-SH S-DMB SDR

Commercial radio providers

1worldspace Sirius XM Holdings SiriusXM Canada

Codecs

AAC AMR-WB+ HDC HE-AAC MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

Subcarrier signals

AMSS DirectBand PAD RDS/RBDS SCA/SCMO DARC

Related topics

Technical (audio)

Audio data compression Audio signal processing

Technical ( AM stereo
AM stereo
formats)

Belar C-QUAM Harris Kahn-Hazeltine Magnavox

Technical (emission)

AM broadcasting AM expanded band Cable radio Digital radio Error detection and correction FM broadcast band FM broadcasting Multipath propagation Shortwave relay station

Cultural

History of radio International broadcasting

Comparison of radio systems

Authority control

.