Comics is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined
with text or other visual information.
Comics frequently takes the
form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual
devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate
dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and
arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing.
similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means
in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common
forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and
comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as
graphic novels, comic albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly
common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
The history of comics has followed different paths in different
cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the
Lascaux cave paintings. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished
particularly in the United States, western Europe (especially in
France and Belgium), and Japan. The history of
European comics is
often traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, and
became popular following the success in the 1930s of strips and books
such as The Adventures of Tintin. American comics emerged as a mass
medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic
strips; magazine-style comic books followed in the 1930s, in which the
superhero genre became prominent after
Superman appeared in 1938.
Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning (manga) propose origins as
early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the
early 20th century, and the output of comics magazines and books
rapidly expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity
of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka.
Comics has had a lowbrow
reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th
century began to find greater acceptance with the public and in
The English term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to
the medium and a plural when referring to particular instances, such
as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the
humorous (or comic) work that predominated in early American newspaper
comic strips, it has become standard also for non-humorous works. It
is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by
the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese
comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no
consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics;
some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality
or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass
reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing
cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras
has further made definition difficult.
1 Origins and traditions
1.1 English-language comics
1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics
1.3 Japanese comics
2 Forms and formats
5 See also
5.1 See also lists
7.1 Works cited
7.1.2 Academic journals
8 Further reading
9 External links
Origins and traditions
History of comics
History of comics and List of comics by country
Examples of early comics
Hokusai, early 19th century
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame
Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830
Ally Sloper in Some of the Mysteries of Loan and Discount
Charles Henry Ross, 1867
The Yellow Kid
R. F. Outcault, 1898
The European, American, and Japanese comics traditions have followed
different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning
with the Swiss
Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans
have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s
newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to
recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of
satirical cartoons and comics leading up to the World War II era.
The ukiyo-e artist
Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics
and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In the post-war
era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka
produced a prolific body of work. Towards the close of the 20th
century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards
book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon[a] in
Japan, and the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries.
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have
seen precedents for comics in the
Lascaux cave paintings in France
(some of which appear to be chronological sequences of images),
Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century
Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the
Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last
Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 18th-century
sequential engravings, amongst others.[b]
Theorists debate whether the
Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics.
Main articles: British comics, History of American comics, and
American comic book
Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain,
the earliest of which was the short-lived
The Glasgow Looking Glass
The Glasgow Looking Glass in
1825. The most popular was Punch, which popularized the term
cartoon for its humorous caricatures. On occasion the cartoons in
these magazines appeared in sequences; the character Ally Sloper
featured in the earliest serialized comic strip when the character
began to feature in its own weekly magazine in 1884.
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and
Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York
World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The
Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early
Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and
1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech
Mutt and Jeff
Mutt and Jeff (1907–1982) was the first successful
daily comic strip (1907).
Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the
20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success
in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated
Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text
beneath them, including
Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour
strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with
continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became
Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first
reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original
content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics
and its lead hero
Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of
Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent. In the UK
and the Commonwealth, the DC Thomson-created Dandy (1937) and Beano
(1938) became successful humor-based titles, with a combined
circulation of over 2 million copies by the 1950s. Their characters,
including "Dennis the Menace", "Desperate Dan" and "The Bash Street
Kids" have been read by generations of British schoolboys. The
comics originally experimented with superheroes and action stories
before settling on humorous strips featuring a mix of the Amalgamated
Press and US comic book styles.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books (Wonderworld
Comics #3, 1939; cover: The Flame by Will Eisner).
The popularity of superhero comic books declined following World
War II, while comic book sales continued to increase as other
genres proliferated, such as romance, westerns, crime, horror, and
humour. Following a sales peak in the early 1950s, the content of
comic books (particularly crime and horror) was subjected to scrutiny
from parent groups and government agencies, which culminated in Senate
hearings that led to the establishment of the
Comics Code Authority
self-censoring body. The Code has been blamed for stunting the
growth of American comics and maintaining its low status in American
society for much of the remainder of the century. Superheroes
re-established themselves as the most prominent comic book genre by
the early 1960s.
Underground comix challenged the Code and readers
with adult, countercultural content in the late 1960s and early
1970s. The underground gave birth to the alternative comics
movement in the 1980s and its mature, often experimental content in
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots
in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as
threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th
century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between
high and low culture began to blur.
Comics nevertheless continued to
be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children
The graphic novel—book-length comics—began to gain attention after
Will Eisner popularized the term with his book A Contract with God
(1978). The term became widely known with the public after the
commercial success of Maus, Watchmen, and
The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns in
the mid-1980s. In the 21st century graphic novels became
established in mainstream bookstores and libraries and
webcomics became common.
Franco-Belgian and European comics
European comics and Franco-Belgian comics
The francophone Swiss
Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips
beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form.
Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th
century. The success of
Zig et Puce
Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of
speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics
began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature
clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics
supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of
Albert Uderzo draws the character Asterix.
Following the success of
Le Journal de Mickey (1934–44),
dedicated comics magazines and full-colour comic albums became the
primary outlet for comics in the mid-20th century. As in the US,
at the time comics were seen as infantile and a threat to culture and
literacy; commentators stated that "none bear up to the slightest
serious analysis",[c] and that comics were "the sabotage of all art
and all literature".[d]
Italian comics series: Tex Willer, Martin Mystère, Zagor, and
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées ("drawn strips") came into
wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began
creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art"[e]
was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention
as an artform. A group including
René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo
founded the magazine
Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom
over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix
appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling
French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and
taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural
spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
Frustration with censorship and editorial interference led to a group
Pilote cartoonists to found the adults-only
L'Écho des savanes
L'Écho des savanes in
1972. Adult-oriented and experimental comics flourished in the 1970s,
such as in the experimental science fiction of Mœbius and others in
Métal hurlant, even mainstream publishers took to publishing
prestige-format adult comics.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and
serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines
decreased and many comics began to be published directly as
albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that
published longer works in non-traditional formats by
auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers
resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers
proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend
towards a shrinking print market.
Main article: History of manga
Rakuten Kitazawa created the first modern Japanese comic strip.
(Tagosaku to Mokube no Tōkyō Kenbutsu,[f] 1902)
Japanese comics and cartooning (manga),[g] have a history that has
been seen as far back as the anthropomorphic characters in the
12th-to-13th-century Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga, 17th-century toba-e and
kibyōshi picture books, and woodblock prints such as ukiyo-e
which were popular between the 17th and 20th centuries. The kibyōshi
contained examples of sequential images, movement lines, and sound
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style
satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications
in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end
of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to
appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900
saw the debut of the Jiji
Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the
first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in
Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic
strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in
large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into
The modern era of comics in Japan began after World War II, propelled
by the success of the serialized comics of the prolific Osamu
Tezuka and the comic strip Sazae-san. Genres and audiences
diversified over the following decades. Stories are usually first
serialized in magazines which are often hundreds of pages thick and
may contain over a dozen stories; they are later compiled in
tankōbon-format books. At the turn of the 20th and 21st
centuries, nearly a quarter of all printed material in Japan was
comics. Translations became extremely popular in foreign
markets—in some cases equaling or surpassing the sales of domestic
Forms and formats
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally
most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have
normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given
multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically
in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often
occupied a full page.
Specialized comics periodicals formats vary greatly in different
cultures. Comic books, primarily an American format, are thin
periodicals usually published in colour. European and Japanese
comics are frequently serialized in magazines—monthly or weekly in
Europe, and usually black-and-white and weekly in Japan.
Japanese comics magazine typically run to hundreds of pages.
A comparison of book formats for comics around the world. The left
group is from Japan and shows the tankōbon and the smaller bunkobon
formats. Those in the middle group of
Franco-Belgian comics are in the
standard A4-size comic album format. The right group of graphic novels
is from English-speaking countries, where there is no standard format.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures.
European comic albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour
volumes. In English-speaking countries, the trade paperback format
originating from collected comic books have also been chosen for
original material. Otherwise, bound volumes of comics are called
graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite
incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with
fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections
of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called
tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Gag and editorial cartoons usually consist of a single panel, often
incorporating a caption or speech balloon. Definitions of comics which
emphasize sequence usually exclude gag, editorial, and other
single-panel cartoons; they can be included in definitions that
emphasize the combination of word and image. Gag cartoons first
began to proliferate in broadsheets published in Europe in the 18th
and 19th centuries, and the term "cartoon"[h] was first used to
describe them in 1843 in the British humour magazine Punch.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able
to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived
installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite
canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a
Some consider storyboards and wordless novels to be comics.
Film studios, especially in animation, often use sequences of images
as guides for film sequences. These storyboards are not intended as an
end product and are rarely seen by the public. Wordless novels are
books which use sequences of captionless images to deliver a
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged
and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as
mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a
Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
Similar to the problems of defining literature and film, no
consensus has been reached on a definition of the comics medium,
and attempted definitions and descriptions have fallen prey to
numerous exceptions. Theorists such as Töpffer, R. C. Harvey,
Will Eisner, David Carrier, Alain Rey, and Lawrence Grove
emphasize the combination of text and images, though there are
prominent examples of pantomime comics throughout its history.
Other critics, such as Thierry Groensteen and Scott McCloud, have
emphasized the primacy of sequences of images. Towards the close
of the 20th century, different cultures' discoveries of each other's
comics traditions, the rediscovery of forgotten early comics forms,
and the rise of new forms made defining comics a more complicated
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work
in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the
visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the
1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to
the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level
image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud
later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term
multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics page as a semantic
unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as
Benoît Peeters and Thierry
Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices.
Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the
definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid
forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les
littératures dessinées" (or "drawn literatures"). French theory
has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from
American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel
transitions. Since the mid-2000s,
Neil Cohn has begun analyzing
how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science,
extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience
experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page
layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that
extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions
of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is
similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and
Historical narratives of manga tend to focus either on its recent,
post-WWII history, or on attempts to demonstrates deep roots in the
past, such as to the
Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga picture scroll of the 12th
and 13th centuries, or the early 19th-century
Hokusai Manga. The
first historical overview of Japanese comics was Seiki Hosokibara's
Nihon Manga-Shi[i] in 1924. Early post-war Japanese criticism was
mostly of a left-wing political nature until the 1986 publication for
Tomofusa Kure's Modern Manga: The Complete Picture,[j] which
de-emphasized politics in favour of formal aspects, such as structure
and a "grammar" of comics. The field of manga studies increased
rapidly, with numerous books on the subject appearing in the
1990s. Formal theories of manga have focused on developing a
"manga expression theory",[k] with emphasis on spatial relationships
in the structure of images on the page, distinguishing the medium from
film or literature, in which the flow of time is the basic organizing
Comics studies courses have proliferated at Japanese
universities, and Japan Society for Studies in Cartoon and
Comics (ja)[l] was established in 2001 to promote comics
scholarship. The publication of Frederik L. Schodt's Manga!
Manga! The World of Japanese
Comics in 1983 led to the spread of use
of the word manga outside Japan to mean "Japanese comics" or
Will Eisner (left) and
Scott McCloud have proposed influential and
controversial definitions of comics.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American
comics with The
Comics (1947). Will Eisner's
Sequential Art (1985) and Scott McCloud's
Understanding Comics (1993)
were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David
Carrier's The Aesthetics of
Comics (2000) was the first full-length
treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent
American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's,
McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential
art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a
story or dramatize an idea";
Scott McCloud defined comics as
"juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence,
intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response
in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached
comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C.
Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which
words (often lettered into the picture area within speech balloons)
usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice
versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw
McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and
objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the
essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal
content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial
attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Cross-cultural study of comics is complicated by the great difference
in meaning and scope of the words for "comics" in different
languages. The French term for comics, bandes dessinées ("drawn
strip") emphasizes the juxtaposition of drawn images as a defining
factor, which can imply the exclusion of even photographic
comics. The term manga is used in Japanese to indicate all forms
of comics, cartooning, and caricature.
Main article: Glossary of comics terminology
The term comics refers to the comics medium when used as an
uncountable noun and thus takes the singular: "comics is a medium"
rather than "comics are a medium". When comic appears as a countable
noun it refers to instances of the medium, such as individual comic
strips or comic books: "Tom's comics are in the basement."
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action,
often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are
broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The
reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using
background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to
combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and
arrangement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the
narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with
events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the
A caption (the yellow box) gives the narrator a voice. The characters'
dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates
Text is frequently incorporated into comics via speech balloons,
captions, and sound effects. Speech balloons indicate dialogue (or
thought, in the case of thought balloons), with tails pointing at
their respective speakers. Captions can give voice to a narrator,
convey characters' dialogue or thoughts, or indicate place or
time. Speech balloons themselves are strongly associated with
comics, such that the addition of one to an image is sufficient to
turn the image into comics. Sound effects mimic non-vocal sounds
textually using onomatopoeia sound-words.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally
using ink (especially India ink) with dip pens or ink brushes;
mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning
techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often
While comics are often the work of a single creator, the labour of
making them is frequently divided between a number of specialists.
There may be separate writers and artists, and artists may specialize
in parts of the artwork such as characters or backgrounds, as is
common in Japan. Particularly in American superhero comic
books, the art may be divided between a penciller, who lays out
the artwork in pencil; an inker, who finishes the artwork in
ink; a colourist; and a letterer, who adds the captions and
The English-language term comics derives from the humorous (or
"comic") work which predominated in early American newspaper comic
strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works
as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they
are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather
periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of
different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such
as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language
Many cultures have taken their words for comics from English,
including Russian (Russian: Комикс, komiks) and German
(comic). Similarly, the Chinese term manhua and the Korean
manhwa derive from the Chinese characters with which the Japanese
term manga is written.
Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum
See also lists
List of comic books
List of comics creators
List of comics publishing companies
List of comic strip syndicates
Franco-Belgian comics series
List of newspaper comic strips
Lists of manga
List of manga artists
List of manga magazines
List of manga publishers
List of years in comics
Visual arts portal
^ tankōbon (単行本, translation close to "independently appearing
^ David Kunzle has compiled extensive collections of these and other
proto-comics in his The Early Comic Strip (1973) and The History of
the Comic Strip (1990).
^ French: "... aucune ne supporte une analyse un peu
serieuse." – Jacqueline & Raoul Dubois in La Presse
enfantine française (Midol, 1957)
^ French: "C'est le sabotage de tout art et de toute
littérature." – Jean de Trignon in Histoires de la
littérature enfantine de ma Mère l'Oye au Roi Babar (Hachette,
^ French: neuvième art
^ Tagosaku and Mokube Sightseeing in Tokyo (Japanese:
田吾作と杢兵衛の東京見物, Hepburn: Tagosaku to Mokube no
^ "Manga" (Japanese: 漫画) can be glossed in many ways, amongst them
"whimsical pictures", "disreputable pictures", "irresponsible
pictures", "derisory pictures", and "sketches made for or out of a
^ "cartoon": from the Italian cartone, meaning "card", which referred
to the cardboard on which the cartoons were typically drawn.
^ Hosokibara, Seiki (1924). 日本漫画史 [Japanese
^ Kure, Tomofusa (1986). 現代漫画の全体像 [Modern Manga: The
Complete Picture]. Joho Center Publishing.
ISBN 4-575-71090-3. 
Manga expression theory" (Japanese: 漫画表現論, Hepburn: manga
^ Japan Society for Studies in Cartoon and
日本マンガ学会, Hepburn: Nihon
^ a b Couch 2000.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. xiv; Beerbohm 2003; Sabin 2005, p. 186;
Rowland 1990, p. 13.
^ Petersen 2010, p. 41; Power 2009, p. 24; Gravett 2004,
^ Couch 2000; Petersen 2010, p. 175.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. xiv; Barker 1989, p. 6; Groensteen
2014; Grove 2010, p. 59; Beaty 2012; Jobs 2012, p. 98.
^ a b c d Gabilliet 2010, p. xiv.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. xiv; Beaty 2012, p. 61; Grove 2010,
pp. 16, 21, 59.
^ Grove 2010, p. 79.
^ Beaty 2012, p. 62.
^ a b Clark & Clark 1991, p. 17.
^ a b c Harvey 2001, p. 77.
^ Meskin & Cook 2012, p. xxii.
^ Nordling 1995, p. 123.
^ Gordon 2002, p. 35.
^ a b Harvey 1994, p. 11.
^ Bramlett, Cook & Meskin 2016, p. 45.
^ Rhoades 2008, p. 2.
^ Rhoades 2008, p. x.
^ Childs & Storry 2013, p. 532.
^ Bramlett, Cook & Meskin 2016, p. 46.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. 51.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. 49.
^ Gabilliet 2010, pp. 49–50.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. 50.
^ Gabilliet 2010, pp. 52–55.
^ Gabilliet 2010, p. 66.
^ Hatfield 2005, pp. 20, 26; Lopes 2009, p. 123; Rhoades
2008, p. 140.
^ Lopes 2009, pp. xx–xxi.
^ Petersen 2010, p. 222.
^ Kaplan 2008, p. 172; Sabin 1993, p. 246; Stringer 1996,
p. 262; Ahrens & Meteling 2010, p. 1; Williams &
Lyons 2010, p. 7.
^ Gabilliet 2010, pp. 210–211.
^ Lopes 2009, p. 151–152.
^ Thorne 2010, p. 209.
^ Harvey 2010.
^ Lefèvre 2010, p. 186.
^ Vessels 2010, p. 45; Miller 2007, p. 17.
^ Screech 2005, p. 27; Miller 2007, p. 18.
^ Miller 2007, p. 17.
^ Theobald 2004, p. 82; Screech 2005, p. 48; McKinney 2011,
^ Grove 2005, pp. 76–78.
^ Petersen 2010, pp. 214–215; Lefèvre 2010, p. 186.
^ a b Petersen 2010, pp. 214–215.
^ a b Grove 2005, p. 46.
^ Grove 2005, pp. 45–46.
^ Grove 2005, p. 51.
^ Miller 1998, p. 116; Lefèvre 2010, p. 186.
^ Miller 2007, p. 23.
^ Miller 2007, p. 21.
^ Screech 2005, p. 204.
^ Miller 2007, p. 22.
^ Miller 2007, pp. 25–28.
^ Miller 2007, pp. 33–34.
^ Beaty 2007, p. 9.
^ Lefèvre 2010, pp. 189–190.
^ Grove 2005, p. 153.
^ Miller 2007, pp. 49–53.
^ Karp & Kress 2011, p. 19.
^ Gravett 2004, p. 9.
^ a b c Johnson-Woods 2010, p. 22.
^ a b Schodt 1996, p. 22.
^ Mansfield 2009, p. 253.
^ Petersen 2010, p. 42.
^ Johnson-Woods 2010, pp. 21–22.
^ Petersen 2010, p. 128; Gravett 2004, p. 21.
^ Schodt 1996, p. 22; Johnson-Woods 2010, pp. 23–24.
^ Gravett 2004, p. 24.
^ MacWilliams 2008, p. 3; Hashimoto & Traphagan 2008,
p. 21; Sugimoto 2010, p. 255; Gravett 2004, p. 8.
^ Schodt 1996, p. 23; Gravett 2004, pp. 13–14.
^ Gravett 2004, p. 14.
^ Brenner 2007, p. 13; Lopes 2009, p. 152; Raz 1999,
p. 162; Jenkins 2004, p. 121.
^ Lee 2010, p. 158.
^ Booker 2014, p. xxvi–xxvii.
^ Orr 2008, p. 11; Collins 2010, p. 227.
^ Orr 2008, p. 10.
^ Schodt 1996, p. 23; Orr 2008, p. 10.
^ Schodt 1996, p. 23.
^ Grove 2010, p. 24; McKinney 2011.
^ Goldsmith 2005, p. 16; Karp & Kress 2011, pp. 4–6.
^ Poitras 2001, p. 66–67.
^ a b Harvey 2001, p. 76.
^ Petersen 2010, pp. 234–236.
^ Petersen 2010, p. 234; McCloud 2000, p. 222.
^ a b Rhoades 2008, p. 38.
^ Beronä 2008, p. 225.
^ Cohen 1977, p. 181.
^ Groensteen 2012, pp. 128—129.
^ a b Groensteen 2012, p. 124.
^ a b Groensteen 2012, p. 126.
^ Thomas 2010, p. 158.
^ a b Beaty 2012, p. 65.
^ Groensteen 2012, pp. 126, 131.
^ a b Grove 2010, pp. 17–19.
^ Thomas 2010, pp. 157, 170.
^ a b Groensteen 2012, pp. 112–113.
^ Miller 2007, p. 101.
^ a b Groensteen 2012, p. 112.
^ a b c Groensteen 2012, p. 113.
^ Cohn 2013.
^ Stewart 2014, pp. 28–29.
^ Johnson-Woods 2010, p. 23; Stewart 2014, p. 29.
^ a b Kinsella 2000, pp. 96–97.
^ a b Kinsella 2000, p. 100.
^ Morita 2010, pp. 37–38.
^ Stewart 2014, p. 30.
^ Inge 1989, p. 214.
^ Meskin & Cook 2012, p. xxix.
^ Yuan 2011; Eisner 1985, p. 5.
^ Kovacs & Marshall 2011, p. 10; Holbo 2012, p. 13;
Harvey 2010, p. 1; Beaty 2012, p. 6; McCloud 1993,
^ Beaty 2012, p. 67.
^ Chute 2010, p. 7; Harvey 2001, p. 76.
^ Harvey 2010, p. 1.
^ a b Morita 2010, p. 33.
^ Groensteen 2012, p. 130; Morita 2010, p. 33.
^ Groensteen 2012, p. 130.
^ Johnson-Woods 2010, p. 336.
^ Chapman 2012, p. 8; Chute & DeKoven 2012, p. 175;
Fingeroth 2008, p. 4.
^ Lee 1978, p. 15.
^ Eisner 1985, pp. 28, 45.
^ Duncan & Smith 2009, p. 10.
^ Duncan & Smith 2009, p. 316.
^ Eisner 1985, p. 30.
^ Duncan & Smith 2009, p. 315; Karp & Kress 2011,
^ Lee 1978, p. 15; Markstein 2010; Eisner 1985, p. 157;
Dawson 2010, p. 112; Saraceni 2003, p. 9.
^ Lee 1978, p. 15; Lyga & Lyga 2004.
^ Saraceni 2003, p. 9; Karp & Kress 2011, p. 18.
^ Forceville, Veale & Feyaerts 2010, p. 56.
^ Duncan & Smith 2009, pp. 156, 318.
^ Markstein 2010; Lyga & Lyga 2004, p. 161; Lee 1978,
p. 145; Rhoades 2008, p. 139.
^ Bramlett 2012, p. 25; Guigar 2010, p. 126; Cates 2010,
^ Goldsmith 2005, p. 21; Karp & Kress 2011, p. 13–14.
^ O'Nale 2010, p. 384.
^ Tondro 2011, p. 51.
^ Lyga & Lyga 2004, p. 161.
^ Markstein 2010; Lyga & Lyga 2004, p. 161; Lee 1978,
^ Duncan & Smith 2009, p. 315.
^ Lyga & Lyga 2004, p. 163.
^ Groensteen 2012, p. 131 (translator's note).
^ McKinney 2011, p. xiii.
^ Alaniz 2010, p. 7.
^ Frahm 2003.
^ Wong 2002, p. 11; Cooper-Chen 2010, p. 177.
^ Johnson-Woods 2010, p. 301.
^ Cooper-Chen 2010, p. 177.
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