COMCAST CORPORATION (formerly registered as COMCAST HOLDINGS) is an American global telecommunications conglomerate that is the largest broadcasting and cable television company in the world by revenue. It is the second-largest pay-TV company after AT&T , largest cable TV company and largest home Internet service provider in the United States, and the nation's third-largest home telephone service provider . Comcast services U.S. residential and commercial customers in 40 states and in the District of Columbia . The company's headquarters are located in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania . As the owner of the international media company NBCUniversal since 2011, Comcast is a producer of feature films and television programs intended for theatrical exhibition and over-the-air and cable television broadcast.
Comcast operates over-the-air national broadcast network channels ( NBC and Telemundo ), multiple cable-only channels (including MS NBC , C NBC , USA Network , NBCSN , E! , The Weather Channel , among others), the film production studio Universal Pictures , and Universal Parks Orlando, Florida ; and Osaka, Japan . Universal Studios Singapore , one of the four Universal operating theme parks, is wholly owned by Genting Group , and a few new locations such as Universal Studios Beijing are currently in construction or planned in the future. Comcast also has significant holdings in digital distribution, such as thePlatform , acquired in 2006. In February 2014, the company agreed to merge with Time Warner Cable in an equity swap deal worth $45.2 billion. Under the terms of the agreement Comcast was to acquire 100% of Time Warner Cable. However, on April 24, 2015, Comcast terminated the agreement. Comcast and Charter Communications entered into an agreement to conduct exclusive discussions with Sprint in late June 2017.
Comcast has been criticized for multiple reasons; the company's customer satisfaction often ranks among the lowest in the cable industry. In addition, Comcast has violated net neutrality practices in the past; and, despite Comcast's commitment to a narrow definition of net neutrality, critics advocate a definition which precludes any distinction between Comcast's private network services and the rest of the Internet. Critics also point out a lack of competition in the vast majority of Comcast's service area; there is limited competition among cable providers. Furthermore, given Comcast's negotiating power as a large ISP, some suspect that Comcast could leverage paid peering agreements to unfairly influence end-user connection speeds. And its ownership of both content production (in NBCUniversal) and content distribution (as an ISP) has raised antitrust concerns. These issues, in addition to others, led to Comcast being dubbed "The Worst Company in America" by _ The Consumerist _ in 2010 and 2014.
Despite being publicly traded, Comcast is a family-owned business , with the Roberts family owning a 33% controlling stake and multiple generations serving as company executives.
* 1 Overview
* 1.1 Leadership * 1.2 Corporate offices * 1.3 Employee relations * 1.4 Financial performance * 1.5 Lobbying and electoral fundraising * 1.6 Philanthropy
* 2 History
* 2.1 American Cable Systems * 2.2 Comcast * 2.3 Increasing market share (1990–2000)
* 2.4 Largest US cable provider (2001–present)
* 2.4.1 Adelphia purchase * 2.4.2 NBCUniversal * 2.4.3 Time Warner Cable * 2.4.4 DreamWorks Animation * 2.4.5 Cellular service * 2.4.6 Minority in Amblin Partners * 2.4.7 Full ownership of Universal Studios Japan
* 3 Divisions and subsidiaries
* 4 Criticism and controversy * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links
Comcast is sometimes described as a family business. Brian L. Roberts , chairman, president, and CEO of Comcast, is the son of co-founder Ralph Roberts. Roberts owns or controls just over 1% of all Comcast shares but all of the Class B supervoting shares, which gives him an "undilutable 33% voting power over the company". Legal expert Susan P. Crawford has said this gives him "effective control over every step". In 2010, he was one of the highest paid executives in the United States, with total compensation of about $31 million.
Comcast is headquartered in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania, and also has corporate offices in Atlanta , Detroit , Denver , and Manchester, New Hampshire . On January 3, 2005, Comcast announced that it would become the anchor tenant in the new Comcast Center in downtown Philadelphia. The 975 ft (297 m) skyscraper is the tallest building in Pennsylvania. Comcast has begun construction on a second 1,121 ft (342 m) skyscraper directly adjacent to the original Comcast headquarters in the summer of 2014.
The company is often criticized by both the media and its own staff for its less upstanding policies regarding employee relations. A 2012 Reddit post written by an anonymous Comcast call center employee eager to share their negative experiences with the public received attention from publications including _The Huffington Post_. A 2014 investigative series published by _The Verge_ involved interviews with 150 of Comcast's employees. It sought to examine why the company has become so widely criticized by its customers, the media and even members of its own staff. The series claimed part of the problem is internal and that Comcast's staff endures unreasonable corporate policies. According to the report: "customer service has been replaced by an obsession with sales; technicians are understaffed while tech support is poorly trained; and the company is hobbled by internal fragmentation." A widely read article penned by an anonymous call center employee working for Comcast appeared in November 2014 on _Cracked_. Titled "Five Nightmares You Live While Working For America's Worst Company," the article also claimed that Comcast is obsessed with sales, doesn't train its employees properly and concluded that "the system makes good customer service impossible."
Comcast has also earned a reputation for being anti-union. According to one of the company's training manuals, " Comcast does not feel union representation is in the best interest of its employees, customers, or shareholders". A dispute in 2004 with CWA , a labor union that represented many employees at Comcast's offices in Beaverton, Oregon, led to allegations of management intimidating workers, requiring them to attend anti-union meetings and unwarranted disciplinary action for union members. In 2011, Comcast received criticism from Writers Guild of America for its policies in regards to unions.
Despite these criticisms, Comcast has appeared on multiple "top places to work" lists. In 2009, it was included on _CableFAX_ magazine's "Top 10 Places to Work in Cable", which cited its "scale, savvy and vision". Similarly, the _ Philadelphia Business Journal _ awarded Comcast the silver medal among extra-large companies in Philadelphia, with the gold medal going to partner organization, Comcast-Spectacor. _ The Boston Globe _ found Comcast to be that city's top place to work in 2009. Employee diversity is also an attribute upon which Comcast receives strong marks. In 2008, _Black Enterprise _ magazine rated Comcast among the top 15 companies for workforce diversity. Comcast was also named a "Top 2014 Workplace" by the Washington Post in their annual feature. the Human Rights Campaign has given Comcast a 100 on the Corporate Equality Index and one of the best places for LGBT people to work
The book value of the company nearly doubled from $8.19 a share in 1999 to $15 a share in 2009. Revenues grew sixfold from 1999's $6 billion to almost $36 billion in 2009. Net profit margin rose from 4.2% in 1999 to 8.4% in 2009, with operating margins improving 31 percent and return on equity doubling to 6.7 percent in the same time span. Between 1999 and 2009, return on capital nearly tripled to 7 percent. Comcast reported first quarter 2012 profit increases of 30% due to increase in high-speed internet customers. In February 2014, Comcast generated 1.1 billion in revenue during the first quarter due to the Sochi Olympics .
LOBBYING AND ELECTORAL FUNDRAISING
With $18.8 million spent in 2013, Comcast has the seventh largest lobbying budget of any individual company or organization in the United States. Comcast employs multiple former US Congressmen as lobbyists. The National Cable "> Comcast logo from 1969 to 1999 before it was replaced with the crescent logo
The company was re-incorporated in Pennsylvania in 1969, under the new name COMCAST CORPORATION. The name "Comcast" is a portmanteau of the words "Communication" and "Broadcast". Comcast's initial public offering occurred on June 29, 1972, with a market capitalization of US $3,010,000. In 1977, HBO was first launched on a Comcast system with 20,000 customers in western Pennsylvania with a five-night free preview getting a 15% sign up rate.
Although Comcast lost a bidding war with Kohlberg Kravis Roberts to buy Storer Communications in 1985, in 1988, it was able to buy a 50% share of the company's assets in a joint deal with Tele-Communications Inc. . Comcast also acquired American Cellular Network Corporation in 1988 for $230 million, marking the first time it became a mobile phone operator . Comcast started its Comcast Cellular Communications division.
INCREASING MARKET SHARE (1990–2000)
In 1994, Comcast became the third-largest cable operator in the United States, with around 3.5 million subscribers following its purchase of Maclean-Hunter 's American division for $1.27 billion. The company's UK branch, Comcast UK Cable Partners, went public while constructing a cable telecommunications network. With five other media companies, the corporation became an original investor in The Golf Channel . Following a bid in 1994 for $2.1 billion, Comcast increased its ownership of QVC from 15.5% of stock to a majority, in a move to prevent QVC from merging with CBS . Comcast later sold its QVC shares in 2004 to Liberty Media for $7.9 billion.
In October 1995, Comcast announced the purchase of the cable operation of E. W. Scripps Company for $1.575 billion in stock, a deal making Comcast the no. 3 cable company at the time with 4.3 million customers. Comcast offered internet connection for the first time in 1996, with its part in the launch of the @Home Network . By December 31, 1997, it was available in the Philadelphia, Detroit , Baltimore , Orange County, CA , Sarasota and Union, NJ areas ( Comcast no longer serves Orange County, CA). It was soon rolled out to all Comcast serviceable areas. After Excite@Home went bankrupt in October 2001, Comcast took over providing internet directly to consumers in January 2002.
In 1996, Comcast Spectacor and Comcast SportsNet were formed as Comcast units. Comcast Spectacor by joining Ed Snider's Spectacor sports venture company and Comcast SportsNet as a Philadelphia region sports channel which launches in 1997. Microsoft invested $1 billion in Comcast in 1997. Also that year, Digital TV was rolled out by Comcast. In partnership with Disney, Comcast got a 50.1 percent controlling interest in E! Entertainment .
In February 1998, Comcast sold its UK division to NTL for US $600 million, along with the division's $397 million in debt. Additionally, Comcast launched the Style Network . 1997 cable acquisitions were Jones Intercable, Inc. with 1 million customers and a stake in Prime Communications with 430,000 subscribers.
Comcast sold Comcast Cellular to SBC Communications in 1999 for $400 million, releasing them from $1.27 billion in debt. Comcast acquired Greater Philadelphia Cablevision in 1999. In March 1999, Comcast offered to buy MediaOne for $60 billion. However, MediaOne decided to accept AT&T Corporation 's offer of $62 billion instead. Comcast University started in 1999 as well as Comcast Interactive Capital Group to make technology and Internet related investments taking its first investment in VeriSign.
With AT"> Proposed merger name logo, 2001 Comcast logo from 1999 to 2012
In 2001, Comcast announced it would acquire the assets of the largest cable television operator at the time, AT&T Broadband , for US$44.5 billion. The proposed name for the merged company was " AT&T Comcast", but the companies ultimately decided to keep only the Comcast name. In 2002, Comcast acquired all assets of AT&T Broadband, thus making Comcast the largest cable television company in the United States with over 22 million subscribers. This also spurred the start of Comcast Advertising Sales (using AT"> NBCUniversal logo from 2004 to 2011 NBCUniversal logo from 2011 to present
Media outlets began reporting in late September 2009 that Comcast was in talks to buy NBCUniversal . Comcast denied the rumors at first, while NBC would not comment on them. However, C NBC itself reported on October 1 that General Electric was considering spinning NBCUniversal off into a separate company that would merge the NBC television network and its cable properties such as USA Network , Syfy and MSNBC , as well as Universal Studios , with Comcast's content assets. GE would maintain 49% control of the new company, while Comcast owned 51%. Vivendi , which owns 20%, would have to sell its stake to GE. It was reported that under the current deal with GE that it would happen in November or December. It was also reported that Time Warner would be interested in placing a bid, until CEO Jeffrey L. Bewkes directly denied interest, leaving Comcast the sole bidder. On November 1, 2009, _ The New York Times _ reported Comcast had moved closer to a deal to purchase NBCUniversal and that a formal announcement could be made sometime the following week.
Following a tentative agreement on by December 1, on December 3, 2009, the parties announced that Comcast would buy a controlling 51% stake in NBCUniversal for $6.5 billion in cash and $7.3 billion in programming. GE would take over the remaining 49% stake in NBCUniversal, using $5.8 billion to buy out Vivendi 's 20% minority stake in NBCUniversal. On January 18, 2011, the FCC approved the deal by a vote of 4 to 1. The sale was completed on January 28, 2011. In late December 2012, Comcast added the NBC peacock symbol to their new logo. On February 12, 2013, Comcast announced an intention to acquire the remaining 49% of General Electric's interest in NBCUniversal, which Comcast completed on March 19, 2013.
Time Warner Cable
On February 12, 2014, the Los Angeles Times reported that Comcast sought to acquire Time Warner Cable in a deal valued at $45.2 billion. On February 13, it was reported that Time Warner Cable agreed to the acquisition. This was to add several metropolitan areas to the Comcast portfolio, such as New York City , Los Angeles , Dallas-Fort Worth , Cleveland , Columbus , Cincinnati , Charlotte , San Diego , and San Antonio . Time Warner Cable and Comcast aimed to merge into one company by the end of 2014 and both have praised the deal, emphasizing the increased capabilities of a combined telecommunications network, and to "create operating efficiencies and economies of scale".
In 2014, critics expressed concern that the deal would give Comcast greater negotiating power in a number of areas, including rebroadcast fees with television channels, and peering agreements with ISPs.
Critics noted in 2013 that Tom Wheeler , the head of the FCC, which has to approve the deal, is the former head of both the largest cable lobbying organization, the National Cable & Telecommunications Association , and as largest wireless lobby, CTIA – The Wireless Association . According to _ Politico _, Comcast "donated to almost every member of Congress who has a hand in regulating it." The US Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on the deal on April 9, 2014. The House Judiciary Committee planned its own hearing. On March 6, 2014, the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division confirmed it was investigating the deal. In March 2014, the division's chairman, William Baer, recused himself because he was involved in the prior Comcast NBCUniversal acquisition. Several states' attorneys general have announced support for the federal investigation. On April 24, 2015, Jonathan Sallet, general counsel of the F.C.C., said that he was going to recommend a hearing before an administrative law judge, equivalent to a collapse of the deal.
In August 2015, Comcast announced to speed up Internet for low income customers from 5 megabits per second (mbps) to 10 Mbit/s, provide free wireless routers, and will pilot an initiative to increase Internet access for low-income senior citizens. In September of that year Comcast also launched Watchable, a YouTube competitor. The move was seen by Variety as an attempt to appeal to the cord cutting market.
Main article: DreamWorks Animation
In April 2016, Comcast confirmed that its NBCUniversal division would acquire DreamWorks Animation for $3.8 billion. The deal closed on August 22, 2016. Universal Pictures will take over distribution of DreamWorks Animation films beginning in 2019 with _How to Train Your Dragon 3 _ when DreamWorks Animation's deal with 20th Century Fox expires.
In September 2016, Comcast confirmed that it had reached a partnership with Verizon Wireless to launch a cellular network as an MVNO . The new service, described as being a "Wi-Fi and MVNO-integrated product", and was expected to launch in mid-2017. The partnership and the addition of wireless would allow Comcast to offer a quadruple play of services. The service was officially announced on April 6, 2017, as Xfinity Mobile.
Minority In Amblin Partners
On February 15, 2017, Comcast (through NBCUniversal's division Universal Studios) acquired a minority stake in Amblin Partners (parent company of Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Pictures ), strengthening the relationship between Universal and Amblin, and reuniting a minority percentage of the DreamWorks Pictures label with DreamWorks Animation.
Full Ownership Of Universal Studios Japan
On February 28, 2017, Comcast (through NBCUniversal) announced that it would acquire the remaining 49% stake in the Universal Studios Japan theme park that it did not own.
DIVISIONS AND SUBSIDIARIES
COMCAST CABLE (XFINITY)
Main article: Xfinity
is the cable television division of Comcast Corporation, providing cable television, broadband internet, and landline telephone under the Xfinity brand. Comcast Cable also provides connections to small to medium-sized business through its Comcast Business brand, and Fortune 1000 companies through its Comcast Enterprise brand.
Main article: NBCUniversal
Comcast delivers third-party television programming content to its own customers, and also produces its own first-party content both for subscribers and customers of other competing television services. Fully or partially owned Comcast programming includes Comcast Newsmakers, Comcast Network , Comcast SportsNet , SportsNet New York , MLB Network , Comcast Sports Southeast/Charter Sports Southeast , NBC Sports Network , The Golf Channel , AZN Television , and FEARnet . On May 19, 2009, Disney and ESPN announced an agreement to allow Comcast Corporation to carry the channels ESPNU and ESPN3 . The U.S. Olympic Committee and Comcast intended to team up to create The U.S. Olympic Network, which was slated to launch after the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games. These plans were then put on hold by the U.S. Olympic Committee. The U.S. Olympic Committee and Comcast have ended the plans to create The U.S. Olympic Network.
Comcast's content networks and assets also include E! , Esquire Network , Golf Channel , NBCSN , Sprout , TV One , and the regional Comcast SportsNets . When Comcast took majority ownership in NBCUniversal, significant number of cable networks were added to this list. Comcast's NHL deal obligated them to create a U.S. version of NHL Network , launched in October 2007.
Comcast also owns many local channels. Comcast also has a variety network known as Comcast Network , available exclusively to Comcast and Cablevision subscribers. The channel shows news, sports, and entertainment and places emphasis in Philadelphia and the Baltimore/ Washington, D.C. areas, though the channel is also available in New York, Pittsburgh, and Richmond . In August 2004, Comcast started a channel called Comcast Entertainment Television , for Colorado Comcast subscribers, and focusing on life in Colorado. It also carries some National Hockey League and National Basketball Association games when Altitude Sports "> Comcast service van, Ypsilanti Township, Michigan
In 2004 and 2007, the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey found that Comcast had the worst customer satisfaction rating of any company or government agency in the country, including the Internal Revenue Service . The ACSI indicates that almost half of all cable customers (regardless of company) have registered complaints, and that cable is the only industry to score below 60 in the ACSI. Comcast's Customer Service Rating by the ACSI surveys indicate that the company's customer service has not improved since the surveys began in 2001. Analysis of the surveys states that " Comcast is one of the lowest scoring companies in ACSI. As its customer satisfaction eroded by 7% over the past year, revenue increased by 12%." The ACSI analysis also addresses this contradiction, stating that "Such pricing power usually comes with some level of monopoly protection and most cable companies have little competition at the local level. This also means that a cable company can do well financially even though its customers are not particularly satisfied."
In April 2014, Comcast was awarded the 2014 "Worst Company in America" award; an annual contest by the consumer affairs blog _The Consumerist _ that runs a series of reader polls to determine the least popular company in America. This was the second time Comcast had been awarded this title, the first being in 2010.
Comcast spends millions of dollars annually on government relationships. Comcast employs the spouses, sons and daughters of mayors, councilmen, commissioners, and other officials to assure its continued preferred market allocations.
Comcast was given an "F" for its corporate governance practices in 2010, by Corporate Library , an independent shareholder-research organization. According to Corporate Library, Comcast's board of directors ability to oversee and control management was severely compromised (at least in 2010) by the fact that several of the directors either worked for the company or had business ties to it (making them susceptible to management pressure), and a third of the directors were over 70 years of age. According to the _Wall Street Journal _ nearly two-thirds of the flights of Comcast's $40 million corporate jet purchased for business travel related to the NBCU acquisition, were to CEO Brian Roberts' private homes or to resorts.
In January 2015, a customer named Ricardo Brown received a bill from Comcast with his name changed to "Asshole Brown". Brown's wife, Lisa, believed a Comcast employee changed the name in response to the Browns' request to cancel their cable service, an incident in which she was refused a cancellation unless she paid a $60 fee and instead was routed to a retention specialist. Comcast refused to correct the name on their bill after bringing it to the attention of numerous customer service outlets for the company by explaining that Ricardo is the legal name of the customer, so the Browns turned to consumer advocate Christopher Elliott. Elliott posted the facts of the incident, along with a copy of the bill, on his blog. Shortly thereafter, Elliott contacted Comcast and Comcast offered the Browns an apology, a $60 refund, and a promise to track down and fire the responsible employee. The Browns instead requested a full refund for their negative experience and Comcast agreed to refund the family the last two years of service and provide the next two years of service at no charge. Comcast released a statement explaining: "We have spoken with our customer and apologized for this completely unacceptable and inappropriate name change. We have zero tolerance for this type of disrespectful behavior and are conducting a thorough investigation to determine what happened. We are working with our customer to make this right and will take appropriate steps to prevent this from happening again."
On February 19, 2015, a Comcast customer-support representative was caught falsely telling a customer that the company is required by law to implement data caps . In a SoundCloud recording posted on Reddit, the Comcast agent, named Lionel, can be heard telling the customer, "Every Internet service provider has data caps. It is mandated by the law."
On August 1, 2016, Washington State Attorney General Bob Ferguson filed a lawsuit against cable television and Internet giant Comcast Corporation in King County Superior Court, alleging the company’s own documents reveal a pattern of illegally deceiving their customers to pad their bottom line by tens of millions of dollars. The FCC issued a $2.3 million fine to Comcast after finding that the company was charging customers for unordered services and equipment. More than a thousand customers issued complaints about these unprecedented charges to their bill. In addition, numerous customers reported inappropriate name-calling and interrogation by customer service representatives. Comcast’s executive vice president, David Cohen , admitted the company needed to improve their customer service.
In February 2017, Comcast was ordered by the self-regulatory National Advertising Review Board to cease using a claim based on Speedtest.net data that it has "America's fastest internet", stating that "Ookla’s data showed only that Xfinity consumers who took advantage of the free tests offered on the Speedtest.net website subscribed to tiers of service with higher download speeds than Verizon FiOS consumers who took advantage of the tests." They were also ordered to stop using a claim that the company offers the "fastest in-home Wi-Fi", which was poorly substantiated.
* ^ Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was COMCAST HOLDINGS CORPORATION. Comcast Holdings Corporation now refers to a subsidiary of Comcast Corporation, not the parent company (see: Bloomberg profile on Comcast Holdings Corporation). Technically, the current parent company was founded December 7, 2001, as CAB HOLDINGS CORPORATION, which changed its name to AT -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
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