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The Comac ARJ21 Xiangfeng (Chinese: 翔凤; pinyin: xiángfèng; lit.: 'Soaring Phoenix') is a 78–90 seat regional jet manufactured by the Chinese state-owned aerospace company Comac. Development of the ARJ21 (Advanced Regional Jet) began in March 2002, the first prototype was rolled out on 21 December 2007, and made its maiden flight on 28 November 2008 from Shanghai. It received its CAAC Type Certification on 30 December 2014 and was introduced on 28 June 2016 by Chengdu Airlines. Resembling the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/MD-90 produced under licence in China, it features a 25° swept, supercritical wing designed by Antonov and twin rear-mounted General Electric CF34 engines.

Development

Joy Air ARJ21 Model at the 2008 China Airshow

The development of the ARJ21 (Advanced Regional Jet) is a key project in the "10th Five-Year Plan" of China. It began in March 2002 and was led by the state-owned ACAC consortium. The maiden flight of the ARJ21 was initially planned to take place in 2005 with commercial service beginning 18 months later.[5] The programme became eight years behind schedule.[6] The design work was delayed and the final trial production stage did not begin until June 2006.[7]

The first prototype (serial number 101) rolled out on 21 December 2007,[8] with a maiden flight on 28 November 2008 at Shanghai's Dachang Airfield.[citation needed] The aircraft completed a long-distance test flight on 15 July 2009, flying from Shanghai to Xi'an in 2 hours 19 minutes, over a distance of 1,300 km. The second ARJ21 (serial number 102) completed the same test flight route on 24 August 2009. The third aircraft (serial number 103) similarly completed its first test flight on 12 September 2009.[9] The fourth aircraft (CN 104) flew by November 2010. By August 2011, static, flutter and crosswind flight tests had been completed.[10]

The ARJ21 is a small jet aircraft that looks similar to the MD-80, which was licensed to be built in China. COMAC claims that it is an original design, part of which was created by supercomputers in China.[11]

The ACAC consortium was reorganized in 2009 and became a part of COMAC.[12]

Key flight tests and CAAC certification

AC104 returned to China on April 28, 2014 after completing natural-icing tests in North America. This was the first time a turbofan-powered regional jet independently developed by China had flown abroad to carry out flight tests in special weather conditions. At the same time, other flight-test aircraft covered more than 30,000 km across Asia, America, Europe, and the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Natural-icing tests are required for airworthiness certification, and conducting these tests outside China showed it was feasible to do certification tests for civil aircraft in other countries.[13]

The first production aircraft flew on 18 June 2014.[6] and AC104 completed an airspeed calibration flight on October 30.

Route-proving started on October 29, 2014 and AC105 made 83 flights between ten airports in Chengdu, Guiyang, Guilin, Haikou, Fuzhou, Zhoushan, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yinchuan and Xianyang. The cumulative flight time was 173 hours and 55 minutes.[14]

By November 2014, AC104 had completed 711 flights in 1,442 hours and 23 minutes. Certification tests included stall, high-speed, noise and simulated and natural icing.[15]

AC105 returned to Yanliang airport on December 16, 2014 from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport after the last function and reliability flight. This completed the testing for the ARJ21-700 airworthiness certificate.

The ARJ21-700 received its Type Certification under Chapter 25 of the Chinese civil aviation regulations from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), on December 30, 2014.[16] The certification program for the CAAC required 5,000 hours.[17] An ARJ21-700 completed a final demonstration flight on 12 September 2015 before being delivered to a customer.

Introduction"10th Five-Year Plan" of China. It began in March 2002 and was led by the state-owned ACAC consortium. The maiden flight of the ARJ21 was initially planned to take place in 2005 with commercial service beginning 18 months later.[5] The programme became eight years behind schedule.[6] The design work was delayed and the final trial production stage did not begin until June 2006.[7]

The first prototype (serial number 101) rolled out on 21 December 2007,[8] with a maiden flight on 28 November 2008 at Shanghai's Dachang Airfield.[citation needed] The aircraft completed a long-distance test flight on 15 July 2009, flying from Shanghai to Xi'an in 2 hours 19 minutes, over a distance of 1,300 km. The second ARJ21 (serial number 102) completed the same test flight route on 24 August 2009. The third aircraft (serial number 103) similarly completed its first test flight on 12 September 2009.[9] The fourth aircraft (CN 104) flew by November 2010. By August 2011, static, flutter and crosswind flight tests had been completed.[10]

The ARJ21 is a small jet aircraft that looks similar to the MD-80, which was licensed to be built in China. COMAC claims that it is an original design, part of which was created by supercomputers in China.[11]

The ACAC consortium was reorganized in 2009 and became a part of COMAC.[12]

Key flight tests and CAAC certification

AC104 returned to China on April 28, 2014 after completing natural-icing tests in North America. This was the first time a turbofan-powered regional jet independently developed by China had flown abroad to carry out flight tests in special weather conditions. At the same time, other flight-test aircraft covered more than 30,000 km across Asia, America, Europe, and the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Natural-icing tests are required for airworthiness certification, and conducting these tests outside China showed it was feasible to do certification tests for civil aircraft in other countries.[13]

The first production aircraft flew on 18 June 2014.[6] and AC104 completed an airspeed calibration flight on October 30.

Route-proving started on October 29, 2014 and AC105 made 83 flights between ten airports in Chengdu, Guiyang, Guilin, Haikou, Fuzh

The first prototype (serial number 101) rolled out on 21 December 2007,[8] with a maiden flight on 28 November 2008 at Shanghai's Dachang Airfield.[citation needed] The aircraft completed a long-distance test flight on 15 July 2009, flying from Shanghai to Xi'an in 2 hours 19 minutes, over a distance of 1,300 km. The second ARJ21 (serial number 102) completed the same test flight route on 24 August 2009. The third aircraft (serial number 103) similarly completed its first test flight on 12 September 2009.[9] The fourth aircraft (CN 104) flew by November 2010. By August 2011, static, flutter and crosswind flight tests had been completed.[10]

The ARJ21 is a small jet aircraft that looks similar to the MD-80, which was licensed to be built in China. COMAC claims that it is an original design, part of which was created by supercomputers in China.[11]

The ACAC consortium was reorganized in 2009 and became a part of COMAC.[12]

AC104 returned to China on April 28, 2014 after completing natural-icing tests in North America. This was the first time a turbofan-powered regional jet independently developed by China had flown abroad to carry out flight tests in special weather conditions. At the same time, other flight-test aircraft covered more than 30,000 km across Asia, America, Europe, and the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Natural-icing tests are required for airworthiness certification, and conducting these tests outside China showed it was feasible to do certification tests for civil aircraft in other countries.[13]

The first production aircraft flew on 18 June 2014.[6] and AC104 completed an airspeed calibration flight on October 30.

Route-proving started on October 29, 2014 and AC105 made 83 flights between ten airports in Chengdu, Guiyang, Guilin, Haikou, Fuzhou, Zhoushan, Tianjin, Shijiazhu

The first production aircraft flew on 18 June 2014.[6] and AC104 completed an airspeed calibration flight on October 30.

Route-proving started on October 29, 2014 and AC105 made 83 flights between ten airports in Chengdu, Guiyang, Guilin, Haikou, Fuzhou, Zhoushan, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yinchuan and Xianyang. The cumulative flight time was 173 hours and 55 minutes.[14]

By November 2014, AC104 had completed 711 flights in 1,442 hours and 23 minutes. Certification tests included stall, high-speed, noise and simulated and natural icing.[15]

AC105 returned to Yanliang airport on December 16, 2014 from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport after the last function and reliability flight. This completed the testing for the ARJ21-700 airworthiness certificate.

The ARJ21-700 received its Type Certification under Chapter 25 of the Chinese civil aviation regulations from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), on December 30, 2014.[16] The certification program for the CAAC required 5,000 hours.[17] An ARJ21-700 completed a final demonstration flight on 12 September 2015 before being delivered to a customer.

On 29 November 2015, COMAC delivered the first ARJ21-700 to Chengdu Airlines.[18] The first commercial flight took off from Chengdu Shuangliu Airport on June 28, 2016, landing in Shanghai two hours later.[19][20] one day after its commercial flight was approved by the CAAC.

During the summer schedule period of 2016, i.e. until October 29, 2016, the ARJ21-700 was scheduled to operate three weekly rotations between Chengdu and Shanghai Hongqiao. 85 flight segments were operated by ARJ21 (81 by B-3321, four by B-3322).

Fur

During the summer schedule period of 2016, i.e. until October 29, 2016, the ARJ21-700 was scheduled to operate three weekly rotations between Chengdu and Shanghai Hongqiao. 85 flight segments were operated by ARJ21 (81 by B-3321, four by B-3322).

In June 2018 an ARJ21-700+ was proposed for 2021 with weight and drag reductions. Subsequently, a -900 stretch version was designed to accommodate 115 all-economy seats, similar to the Bombardier CRJ900, Embraer E175-E2 or Mitsubishi MRJ90. Structurally conservative and designed for hot and high operations, the ARJ21's 25 t (55,000 lb) empty weight is higher than initially targeted in 2002, and also higher than competing aircraft.

In 2018 an executive version was in final assembly and a cargo variant was proposed.executive version was in final assembly and a cargo variant was proposed.[21]

In early July 2017, the CAAC certified the ARJ21 for mass production.[22]

On 6 March 2020, the first ARJ21 assembled at the second production line in Pudong, took its first production test flight.[23] The second production line, with a production capacity of up to 30 jets a

On 6 March 2020, the first ARJ21 assembled at the second production line in Pudong, took its first production test flight.[23] The second production line, with a production capacity of up to 30 jets a year, is located at the same facility that assembles the C919 assembly facility.[23]

Different sources claim the ARJ21 closely resembles either the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 or the MD-90 which were produced under licence in China.[24][25] Comac states that the ARJ21 is a completely indigenous design.[26][27][28] The ARJ21's development did depend heavily on foreign suppliers, including engines and avionics from the United States. The ARJ21 has a new supercritical wing designed by Ukraine's Antonov Design Bureau with a sweepback of 25 degrees and winglets.[29][30][31][29] Some of China's supercomputers have been used to design parts for ARJ21.[32]

Manufacturers

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

  1. ^ "Airbus, Boeing Jostle for China Friendship, and Aircraft Orders". chinaaviationdaily.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  2. ^ "PICTURES: Chengdu Airlines takes delivery of first ARJ21". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 2016-02-20. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  3. ^ "COMAC ARJ21 production list". rzjets.net. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  4. ^ a b <

    Related development

    Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

    Related lists

    References

    1. ^ "Airbus, Boeing Jostle for China Friendship, and Aircraft Orders". chinaaviationdaily.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
    2. Antonov An-148
    3. Bombardier CRJ700 series
    4. Embraer E-Jets
    5. Mitsubishi Regional Jet
    6. List of jet airliners
    7. List of airliners
    8. List of Chinese aircraft
    9. References