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Coordinates: 40°46′05″N 73°58′55″W / 40.76806°N 73.98194°W / 40.76806; -73.98194

The statue of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
by Gaetano Russo in the middle of Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
in Manhattan, New York City.

Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
is a traffic circle and heavily trafficked intersection in the New York City
New York City
borough of Manhattan, located at the intersection of Eighth Avenue, Broadway, Central Park South
Central Park South
(West 59th Street), and Central Park
Central Park
West, at the southwest corner of Central Park. The circle is the point from which official highway distances from New York City
New York City
are measured, as well as the center of the 25 miles (40 km) restricted-travel area for C-2 visa holders. The circle is named after the monument of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in the center. The name is also used for the neighborhood a few blocks around the circle in each direction. To the south of the circle lies Hell's Kitchen, also known as "Clinton", and the Theater District, and to the north is the Upper West Side.

Contents

1 Monument 2 Circle

2.1 As a geographic center

3 Neighborhood

3.1 West 3.2 North 3.3 Northeast 3.4 South 3.5 Southeast 3.6 3, 4, 5, and 6 Columbus Circle

4 Transportation 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Monument[edit]

Columbus atop the rostral column, a traditional form to commemorate naval achievements.

The 76-foot (23 m) Columbus Column monument at the center of the circle, created by Italian sculptor Gaetano Russo,[1] consists of a 14-foot (4.3 m) marble statue of Columbus atop a 27.5-foot (8.4 m) granite rostral column[2] on a four-stepped granite pedestal.[3] The column is decorated with bronze reliefs representing Columbus' ships: the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa María, although actually they are Roman galleys instead of caravels. Its pedestal features an angel holding a globe.[1] The monument was one of three planned as part of the city's 1892 commemoration of the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the Americas.[3] Originally, the monument was planned to be located in Bowling Green or somewhere else in lower Manhattan. By the time Russo's plan was decided upon in 1890, a commission of Italian businessmen from around the United States had contributed $12,000 of the $20,000 needed to build the statue (equivalent to $327,000 of the $545,000 cost in modern dollars).[4] The statue was constructed with funds raised by Il Progresso, a New York City-based Italian-language newspaper.[1] Russo created parts of the Columbus Column in his Rome
Rome
studio and in other workshops in Italy;[3] the bronze elements were cast in the Nelli Foundry.[5] The completed column was shipped to the United States in September 1892, to be placed within the "circle at Fifty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue".[6] Once the statue arrived in Manhattan, it was quickly transported to the circle.[2] The monument was officially unveiled with a ceremony on October 13, 1892, as part of the 400th anniversary celebrations.[7][8][9]:287 The monument received some retouching in 1992 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus's voyage, and in turn, the monument's own 100th anniversary.[9]:288 It was also rededicated that year.[10] Amid the 2017 monument controversies in the United States, an issue arose over the statue due to criticism of Columbus's alleged mistreatment of the native people on Hispaniola. In August of that year, there had been a far-right rally Charlottesville, Virginia, that resulted in a death and several injuries. Following that rally, Mayor Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
commissioned a "90-day review" of possibly "hateful" monuments across the city to determine if any of them, including the Columbus Column, warranted either removal or recontextualization (e.g. by explanatory plaques).[11][12] Although calls to remove the monument were supported by those criticizing Columbus's actions, the proposed removal was opposed by some sectors of the city's Italian American community and Columbus Day Parade organizers.[13][14] Due to two incidents of vandalism in September 2017, full-time security measures were put around the column ahead of the year's parade.[15] Circle[edit]

Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
during construction of the original subway in 1900

Subway construction under the Columbus monument in 1901

The traffic circle was designed in 1857, as part of Frederick Law Olmsted's vision for Central Park, which included a "Grand Circle" at the Merchants' Gate, its most important Eighth Avenue entrance.[16] After the 1892 installation of the Columbus Column in the circle's center, it became known as "Columbus Circle",[9]:287[17]:124 although its other names were also used through the 1900s.[18] By 1901, construction on the first subway line required the excavation of the circle, and the column and streetcar tracks through the area were put on temporary wooden stilts.[19][9]:288 During construction, traffic in the circle was so dangerous that the Municipal Art Society
Municipal Art Society
proposed redesigning the roundabout.[18][20] By February 1904, the station underneath was largely complete,[21] and service on the subway line began on October 27, 1904.[22]:162–191[23] Later that year, due to the high speeds of cars passing through the circle, the New York City
New York City
Police Department added tightly spaced electric lights on the inner side of the circle, surrounding the column.[24] The current circle was redesigned in 1905 by William P. Eno, a businessman who pioneered many early innovations in road safety and traffic control.[25][26] In a 1920 book, Eno writes that prior to the implementation of his plan, traffic went around the circle in both directions, causing accidents almost daily. The 1905 plan, which he regarded as temporary, created a counterclockwise traffic pattern with a "safety zone" in the center of the circle for cars stopping; however, the circle was too narrow for the normal flow of traffic. Eno also wrote of a permanent plan, with the safety zones on the outside as well as clearly delineated pedestrian crossings.[27] The redesign marked the first true one-way traffic circle to be constructed anywhere, implementing the ideas of Eugène Hénard.[26][28] In this second scheme, the public space within the circle, around the monument, was almost as small as the monument's base.[29]

The second of Eno's Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
plans

Eno's circular-traffic plan was abolished in 1929, with traffic now allowed to go around the circle in both directions.[29] In 1956, in preparation for the opening of the New York Coliseum
New York Coliseum
on the circle's west side, two north-south roadways were cut through the circle's center, on either side of the Columbus statue.[30] By the late 20th century, it was regarded as one of the most inhospitable of the city's major intersections, as the interior circle was being used for motorcycle parking, and the circle as a whole was hard for pedestrians to cross. In 1979, noted architecture critic Paul Goldberger said that the intersection was "a chaotic jumble of streets that can be crossed in about 50 different ways—all of them wrong."[29] In 1987, the city awarded a $20 million contract to Olin Partnership and Vollmer Associates to create a new design for the circle.[29] The circle was refurbished in 1991–1992 as part of the 500th-anniversary celebration of Columbus's arrival in the Americas.[31][9]:288 In 1998, as a result of the study, the circular-traffic plan was reinstated, with all traffic going around the circle in a counterclockwise direction. The center of the circle was planned for further renovations, with a proposed park 200 feet (61 m) across.[32] The design for a full renovation of the circle was finalized in 2001.[33] The project started in 2003, and was completed in 2005. It included a new water fountain by Water Entertainment Technologies, who also designed the Fountains of Bellagio; benches made of ipe wood; and plantings encircling the monument.[29][31] The fountain, the main part of the reconstructed circle, contains 99 jets that periodically change in force and speed, with effects ranging between "swollen river, a rushing brook, a driving rain or a gentle shower".[29] The inner circle is about 36,000 square feet (3,300 m2), while the outer circle is around 148,000 square feet (13,700 m2). The redesign was the recipient of the 2006 American Society of Landscape Architects’ General Design Award Of Honor.[33] In 2007 Columbus Circle was awarded the Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence silver medal.[34] As a geographic center[edit] Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
is the traditional municipal zero-mile point from which all official distances are measured,[35] although Google
Google
Maps uses New York City
New York City
Hall for this purpose.[36] For decades, Hagstrom sold maps that showed the areas within 25 miles (40 km)[37] or 75 miles (121 km)[38] from Columbus Circle. The travel area for recipients of a C-2 visa, which is issued for the purpose of immediate and continuous transit to or from the headquarters of the United Nations, is limited to a 25-mile radius of Columbus Circle.[39] The same circle coincidentally defines the city's "film zone" that local unions operate in, a counterpart to Los Angeles' studio zone.[40][41][42][43] The New York City
New York City
government employee handbook considers a trip beyond a 75-mile radius from Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
as long-distance travel.[44][45] Neighborhood[edit]

View of Columbus Circle, looking east at Central Park South
Central Park South
from inside the Time Warner
Time Warner
Center

The five streets that radiate outward from Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
separate the immediate neighborhood around the circle into five distinct portions.[46][47] West[edit] To the west of the circle is a superblock spanning two streets, bounded by Broadway, 60th Street, Ninth Avenue, 58th Street, and Eighth Avenue.[46] The superblock was formerly two separate blocks.[9]:914 From 1902 to 1954, the Majestic Theatre occupied the more southerly of the two blocks. Robert Moses
Robert Moses
demapped 59th Street through the block during the New York Coliseum's construction from 1954 to 1956.[9]:914[48] The construction project, in turn, was the culmination of an effort to remove San Juan Hill, the slum that had been located at the site.[49] Until the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center
Jacob K. Javits Convention Center
was built in Hell's Kitchen in the 1980s, the Coliseum was the primary event venue for New York City.[9]:914 By 1985, there were plans to replace the Coliseum,[50] and after a series of delays, the Coliseum was demolished in 2000.[51] Since 2003, the site has been occupied by Time Warner
Time Warner
Center, the world headquarters of the Time Warner
Time Warner
corporation.[52]:310[53] The center consists of a pair of 750-foot (230 m) towers 53 stories high.[35][54] The complex also hosts the Shops at Columbus Circle mall, Jazz at Lincoln Center, the New York City
New York City
studio headquarters of CNN, and the Mandarin Oriental, New York
Mandarin Oriental, New York
hotel.[9]:1319[35] The mall inside the complex Prestigious restaurants in the center include Landmarc, Per Se and Masa.[55][56] Time Warner
Time Warner
also paid for the portion of the new interior circle that directly faces the Time Warner Center. North[edit] On the north side of Columbus Circle, bounded by Broadway, Central Park West, and 61st Street,[46] is the Trump International Hotel and Tower, with its noted steel globe, which had been an office tower, the headquarters of the Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
conglomerate, which was stripped to its steel skeleton and reclad in a new facade.[35][57] The Gulf and Western Building, a 44-story building completed in 1969[52]:351 or 1970,[58] filed for bankruptcy in 1991.[58] In 1994, Donald Trump announced his plans to convert the building into a mixed-purpose hotel and condominium units, with hotel rooms below the 14th floor and condominiums above that floor.[59] Renovations started in 1995 after Gulf and Western's lease lapsed and Trump took control of the building.[60] That renovation was complete by 1997.[9]:288[61] Northeast[edit] On the northeast lies the Merchant's Gate to Central Park, dominated by the USS Maine National Monument. The USS Maine monument was designed by Harold Van Buren Magonigle
Harold Van Buren Magonigle
and sculpted by Attilio Piccirilli, who did the colossal group and figures, and Charles Keck, who was responsible for the "In Memoriam" plaque. An imposing Beaux-Arts edifice of marble and gilded bronze,[62] it was dedicated in 1913 as a memorial to sailors killed aboard the battleship USS Maine,[63] whose mysterious 1898 explosion in Havana
Havana
harbor precipitated the Spanish–American War.[62] South[edit] Actors' Equity
Actors' Equity
was founded in 1913 in the old Pabst Grand Circle Hotel,[64] located at 2 Columbus Circle
2 Columbus Circle
on the southern side of the circle.[65] The building was torn down in 1960 in order to construct a distinctive new International Modernist tower designed by architect Edward Durrell Stone
Edward Durrell Stone
to house the Huntington Hartford
Huntington Hartford
Gallery of Modern Art.[65] Vacant since the city's Department of Cultural Affairs departed in 1998,[65] it was listed as one of the World Monuments Fund's "100 most endangered sites" in 2006.[66] After a renovation by architect Brad Cloepfil, the building became the new home for Museum of Arts and Design in 2008.[52]:310[9]:288, 868[67] Its radical transformation was controversial for the failure of the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission to hold hearings on its worthiness for designation.[68][69][70] Southeast[edit] 240 Central Park
Central Park
South, a balconied moderne apartment building across Broadway from the museum, is on the southeast side of the circle. Built in 1941, it is a city-designated landmark with a new addition, a green roof, atop its retail base.[71]:128 3, 4, 5, and 6 Columbus Circle[edit]

U.S. Rubber Headquarters constructed at 1790 Broadway in 1912

3, 4, 5, and 6 Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
are the numbers given to four buildings on the south side of 58th Street. From east to west, the buildings are numbered 5, 3, 4, and 6 Columbus Circle.[47] 5 Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
(also known by its address, 1790 Broadway),[72] is a 286-foot (87 m), 20-story tower on the southeast corner of Broadway and 58th Street.[73] It was originally built as the headquarters of the United States Rubber Company
United States Rubber Company
(U.S. Rubber) in 1912.[52]:308[74] It was part of Broadway's "Automobile Row" during the early 20th century.[75] U.S. Rubber moved to a new headquarters in 1940, and the building was sold several times before being acquired by the West Side Federal Savings and Loan Association. The First Nationwide Savings Bank, which acquired the West Side Federal Savings bank, sold the building in 1985 to 1790 Broadway Associates, its current owners.[74] The lobby contains part of an under-construction flagship store for Nordstrom, which is planned to open in 2019; the 360,000-square-foot (33,000 m2) store itself would be located under three buildings on the block.[76][77] Between Eighth Avenue and Broadway on the south side of 58th Street is 3 Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
(also 1775 Broadway), a 310-foot (94 m), 26-story tower.[78] It is occupied by Young & Rubicam, Bank of America, Chase Bank, and Gilder Gagnon Howe & Co.[79] The tower sits atop a 3-story structure called the Colonnade Building.[80][81] The first 3 stories were built in 1923 and the top 23 stories were added as part of a large expansion in 1927–1928.[52]:307 During the expansion, the original building's three-story Ionic supports were kept.[82][80] The new expansion, designed by Shreve & Lamb,[52]:307 hosted General Motors' headquarters from 1927[75][83] to 1968.[83][84] In 1969, Midtown Realty purchased the building's lease, and in 1980, acquired the land. Half of the building was leased by Bankers Trust
Bankers Trust
until the late 1980s,[83] and Newsweek
Newsweek
leased a third of the building from 1994[85] until 2006.[86] When the Moinian Group purchased the building in 2000,[80][87] the building assumed its current name;[80][86] a subsequent renovation refurbished the exterior and removed all remnants of the Colonnade Building.[80] A neon sign for CNN
CNN
was located on the roof of the building from the mid-2000s to 2015.[84] An annex of Nordstrom
Nordstrom
for menswear is planned for the base of 3 Columbus Circle.[72] 4 Columbus Circle, an eight-story low-rise located at 989 Eighth Avenue at the southwest corner of the intersection with 58th Street, was built in the late 1980s. Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
designed the building, which houses the furniture company Steelcase
Steelcase
on the upper floors and a Duane Reade
Duane Reade
and a Starbucks
Starbucks
on the ground floor.[88] Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management
bought the building in 2006 for $82.9 million. In 2011, it was sold to German real estate firm GLL Real Estate Partners for $96.5 million.[89] Directly to the west is 6 Columbus Circle, an 88-room, 12-floor boutique hotel called 6 Columbus.[90] Acquired by the Pomeranc Group in 2007,[91] the hotel was put on sale in December 2015.[92] A 700-foot-tall (210 m) tower is planned for the site.[93] Transportation[edit] The M5, M7, M10, M20 and M104 buses all serve the circle, with the M5, M7, M20 and M104 providing through service and the southbound M10 terminating near the circle.[94] Under the circle is the 59th Street– Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
subway station (1, ​2​, A, ​B, ​C, and ​D trains).[95] Gallery[edit]

Columbus Circle, circa 1907

Around Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
today

The Museum of Arts & Design at 2 Columbus Circle

The USS Maine National Monument
USS Maine National Monument
at the Merchant's Gate entrance to Central Park

The Trump International Hotel and Tower

The Time Warner
Time Warner
Center, which replaced the New York Coliseum

Six Columbus, a boutique hotel at 6 Columbus Circle

See also[edit]

New York City
New York City
portal

References[edit] Notes

^ a b c "New York - Columbus Monument". www.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ a b "ITALY'S GIFT IS HERE" (PDF). The Press. New York, New York. September 5, 1892. p. 2. Retrieved October 13, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.  ^ a b c "COLUMBUS MEMORIALS.; THREE OF THEM SOON TO BE PRESENTED TO THIS CITY". The New York Times. June 13, 1892. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "FROM ITALIANS TO AMERICA.; THE GREAT STATUE OF COLUMBUS TO ADORN NEW-YORK". The New York Times. July 9, 1890. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ " Central Park
Central Park
Monuments - Columbus Monument". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved October 18, 2017.  ^ "THE COLUMBUS STATUE.; SAFE IN PORT ON BOARD THE TRANSPORT GARIGLIANO". The New York Times. September 6, 1892. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "THE VOYAGER IN MARBLE; UNVEILING OF THE GREAT COLUMBUS MONUMENT. IMPRESSIVE CEREMONIES VIEWED BY MANY THOUSANDS -- POETIC ADDRESS BY MISS BARSOTTI -- MUSIC AND MILITARY EVOLUTIONS THAT CHARMED THE PEOPLE". The New York Times. October 13, 1892. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "Columbus is Unveiled by a Little Girl" (PDF). New York Herald. October 13, 1892. p. 6. Retrieved October 13, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City
New York City
(2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2  ^ Barron, James (June 21, 1991). "At a Party for Columbus, a Few Uninvited Guests". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Neuman, William (August 30, 2017). "Ordering Review of Statues Puts de Blasio in Tricky Spot". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Helmore, Edward (August 25, 2017). "New York mayor considers Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
statue removal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Rosenberg, Zoe (August 23, 2017). "Elected officials call for removal of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
statue near Central Park". Curbed NY. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ "Columbus Day Parade Organizers Fight To Keep Statue In Columbus Circle". CBS New York. August 30, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Wootson Jr., Cleve R. (October 7, 2017). "Why police have to guard a statue of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in New York around the clock". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Heckscher, M.H. (2008). Creating Central Park. DE-601)129532134: Metropolitan Museum of Art bulletin. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 51, 55. ISBN 978-0-300-13669-2. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ Feirstein, Sanna (2001), Naming New York: Manhattan
Manhattan
Places & How They Got Their Names, New York: New York University, ISBN 978-0-8147-2712-6  ^ a b "IMPROVING COLUMBUS CIRCLE". The New York Times. 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "SCENES ALONG THE ROUTE OF THE TUNNEL; How Work Is Carried on Under the Columbus Column. Circle Station for Rapid Transit Trains Nearing Completion -- Some of the Difficulties Surmounted". The New York Times. May 26, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "EIGHTH AVENUE CIRCLE". The New York Times. April 16, 1903. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "By Handcar Through the Subway—End of the Great Engineering Feat Now in Sight" (PDF). The Globe
Globe
and Commercial Advertiser. February 1, 1904. p. 7. Retrieved October 13, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.  ^ Walker, James Blaine (1918). Fifty Years of Rapid Transit — 1864 to 1917. New York, N.Y.: Law Printing. Retrieved November 6, 2016.  ^ "SUBWAY OPENING TO-DAY WITH SIMPLE CEREMONY; Exercises at One o'Clock; Public to be Admitted at Seven. JOHN HAY MAY BE PRESENT Expected to Represent the Federal Government -- President Roosevelt Sends Letter of Regret". The New York Times. October 27, 1904. Retrieved May 28, 2017.  ^ "LANE OF ELECTRIC LIGHTS.; Police Plan Measure for Vehicles in the Columbus Circle". The New York Times. November 15, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ Henebery, Ann. "The Rules of the Road: Then Versus Now", Eno Center for Transportation, October 6, 2015. Accessed October 9, 2017. "William P. Eno is internationally recognized as an original pioneer of traffic regulation and safety.... He was dubbed the 'Father of Traffic Safety' and many of the traffic-flow innovations that we now take for granted were a result of Eno’s hard work. He is credited with designing Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
in New York City
New York City
and the traffic circle surrounding the Arc de Triomphe in Paris." ^ a b Petroski, Henry (2016). The Road Taken: The History and Future of America's Infrastructure. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 79. ISBN 9781632863614.  ^ Eno, William P. (1920). The Science of Highway Traffic Regulation: 1899-1920. Brentano's. pp. 26–27.  ^ Municipal Engineering. Municipal Engineering Company. 1917. p. 111.  ^ a b c d e f Dunlap, David W. (August 4, 2005). "An Island of Sanctuary in the Traffic Stream". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (1956-02-20). " Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
Traffic Will Shift; Changes Will Include New Road to Ease Jam at Coliseum COLUMBUS CIRCLE TO SHIFT TRAFFIC Bus Routes to be Changed Six Months of Study". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-02-13.  ^ a b Lombino, David (June 28, 2005). "Two Years and $20M Later, Traffic-Plagued Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
Near Completion". The New York Sun. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ Newman, Andy (August 11, 1998). "Traffic on Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
Finally Comes, Well, Full Circle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ a b "ASLA 2006 Professional Awards". American Society of Landscape Architects. 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ "Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence". Bruner Foundation. Retrieved September 6, 2013.  ^ a b c d Jacobs, Karrie (April 21, 2009). "The New Time Warner Center". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved October 12, 2017.  ^ Garlock, Stephanie (June 27, 2014). "The Sign Says You've Got 72 Miles to Go Before the End of Your Road Trip. It's Lying". CityLab. Retrieved October 12, 2017.  ^ Hagstrom 25-mile radius from Columbus Circle, New York City, Hagstrom Map
Hagstrom Map
Company, Hagstrom Map
Hagstrom Map
Co, 1984, ISBN 0880971223, retrieved October 13, 2017  ^ Company, Hagstrom Map
Hagstrom Map
(March 1, 2006). Hagstrom 75-Mile Radius Map: From Columbus Circle, NYC. Hagstrom Map
Hagstrom Map
Company, Incorporated. ISBN 9781592459834.  ^ Shribman, David. "Justice Dept. Denies 315 Visas for U.N. Disarmament Session", The New York Times, June 8, 1982. Accessed October 9, 2017. "These restricted visas, known as C-2 visas, limit travel to within 25 miles of Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
in Manhattan." ^ Prevost, Lisa (February 16, 2003). "Lights! Camera! Action! Location Fees!". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 11, 2017.  ^ "25 Mile Studio Zone Map" (PDF). State of New Jersey Department of State.  ^ "Theatrical Agreement" (PDF). SAG-AFTRA. 2005.  ^ "Economic & Fiscal Impact of the Nassau County Film Industry". www.nassaucountyny.gov. March 2015. pp. 3–4.  ^ "FAQs: Directive #6 – Travel, Meals, Lodging, and Miscellaneous Agency Expenses" (PDF). The New York City
New York City
Office of The Comptroller. August 21, 2017.  ^ "City Vehicle Driver Handbook" (PDF). The City of New York. May 2016.  ^ a b c "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Midtown West" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.  ^ a b Google
Google
(October 13, 2017). "Columbus Cir, New York, NY" (Map). Google
Google
Maps. Google. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ Gray, Christopher (April 26, 1987). "The Coliseum; The 'Hybrid Pseudo-Modern' on Columbus Circle". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2009.  ^ Hudson, Edward (April 13, 1954). "COLISEUM IS BEGUN AFTER 8-YEAR LAG; Mayor and Moses Denounce Bid in Congress to Bar Aid -- Will Take Fight to Capital WON'T LET U. S. RENEGE' Fear Expressed That Plan, if Passed, Would Endanger $200,000,000 Projects". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Blair, William G. (May 3, 1985). "14 PLANS FOR COLISEUM SITE SENT TO CITY AND M.T.A." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Dunlap, David W. (February 20, 2000). "Built, but Not Destined, to Last; A Robert Moses
Robert Moses
Legacy, Coliseum Is Coming Down". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City
New York City
(5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867  ^ Dunlap, David W. (2003). "A Vertical Neighborhood Takes Shape". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Crow, Kelly. "The Newest Tower: Working 24/7", The New York Times, December 9, 2001. Accessed October 9, 2017. "ON the western rim of Columbus Circle, on the site of the old Coliseum, stands the skeleton of the city's newest skyscraper, the AOL Time Warner
Time Warner
Center. At the moment, it is a mesh of steel and scaffolding 19 stories tall, but when completed in two years, the $1.7 billion center's twin towers will reach 53 stories, or 750 feet." ^ Ensminger, Kris (October 9, 2005). "Columbus Circle: A New World". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "Dining". The Shops at Columbus Circle. 2017.  ^ Pogrebin, Roin. "52-Story Comeback Is So Very Trump; Columbus Circle Tower Proclaims That Modesty Is an Overrated Virtue", The New York Times, April 25, 1996. Accessed October 9, 2017. "The Trump International Hotel and Tower is open for business, looming over Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
and Central Park
Central Park
like a ghost of the Gulf and Western Building, which is precisely what it is. And with his new building, due for occupancy in the fall, Donald Trump
Donald Trump
seems to be busily renovating himself in much the same way: as himself -- only more so." ^ a b Rothstein, Mervyn (January 31, 1993). "COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: The Gulf ands Western Building; Twisting in the Wind On Columbus Circle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 17, 1994). "For a Troubled Building, a New Twist". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Muschamp, Herbert (June 21, 1995). "Trump Tries to Convert 50's Style Into 90's Gold; Makeover Starts on Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
Hotel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "New Trump Hotel On Central Park". The New York Times. 1997. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b USS Maine National Monument, New York City
New York City
Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed October 9, 2017. ^ "MONUMENT TO MAINE HEROES READY FOR UNVEILING; Distinguished Guests and Imposing Ceremonies at the Dedication on Memorial Day---Fleet of Seventeen Ships and 5,000 Bluejackets Will Participate". The New York Times. May 25, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Harding, Alfred. "AFTER A STORMY YOUTH EQUITY COMES OF AGE; EQUITY REACHES THE AGE OF TWENTY-ONE", The New York Times, May 27, 1934. Accssed October 9, 2017. "TWENTY-ONE years ago yesterday, on May 26, 1913, 110 actors met in Elks Hall, in the Pabst Grand Circle Hotel on West Fifty-ninth Street, and, by their signature of the members' agreement and constitution and by-laws of the Actor Equity Association, laid the cornerstone of one of the most significant structures in the American theatre." ^ a b c Muschamp, Herbert. "The Secret History of 2 Columbus Circle", The New York Times, January 8, 2006. Accessed October 9, 2017. ^ "100 Most Endangered Sites 2006" (PDF). World Monuments Fund: 47. Summer 2005.  ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (September 25, 2008). "Brad Cloepfil's Museum of Arts and Design Gives a Building a New Face and Restores Its Original Mission". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Pogrebin, Robin (December 1, 2008). "Preservation and Development, Engaged in a Delicate Dance". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2010.  ^ Wolfe, Tom (July 4, 2005). "The 2 Columbus Circle
2 Columbus Circle
Game". New York Magazine. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Hales, Linda (June 13, 2004). " Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
site sets off a controversy". Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2017 – via Chicago Tribune.  ^ New York City
New York City
Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S. (text); Postal, Matthew A. (text) (2009), Postal, Matthew A., ed., Guide to New York City
New York City
Landmarks (4th ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1  ^ a b Neamt, Ioana (February 18, 2016). "Nordstrom's Future New York Store is an Eyecatcher". Commercial Property Executive. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Rubber Company Building, New York City". Emporis. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b Gray, Christopher (November 26, 1989). "Streetscapes: U.S. Rubber Company Building; Restoring Luster to a 1912 Lady". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (July 7, 2000). "Street of Automotive Dreams". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Wilson, Reid (February 12, 2016). "Official Renderings Revealed Of Nordstrom
Nordstrom
Tower's Retail Base Under Construction At 217 West 57th Street". New York YIMBY. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Warerkar, Tanay (February 12, 2016). " Central Park
Central Park
Tower's Nordstrom Flagship Gets Its First Render". Curbed NY. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "3 Columbus Circle, New York City". Emporis. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "3 Columbus Circle". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b c d e Dunlap, David W. (February 20, 2008). "Switching Brands in the Skyline". City Room. The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "COLONNADE BUILDING AT COLUMBUS CIRCLE WILL BE IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL IMPROVEMENT; Planned for Twenty-three Stories and Will Be Erected on the Block Now Occupied by the Thoroughfare Building in the Heart of the Motor Trade Activity-- Total Cost Will Exceed $6,000,000 MOONSHINING IN BUILDINGS. Owner Liable for Fine Imposed Upon a Tenant". The New York Times. February 27, 1921. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "NOYES & CO. CLOSE $24,000,000 DEAL" (PDF). Brooklyn Standard Union. February 9, 1926. p. 16 – via Fultonhistory.com.  ^ a b c Oser, Alan S. (September 15, 1999). "Commercial Real Estate; Developer Is Stepping Up Its Activity in West Midtown Area". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b Clarke, Katherine (July 30, 2015). "Neon CNN
CNN
sign removed from Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
perch after 10 years". NY Daily News. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Piskora, Beth (August 26, 1999). "NEWSWEEK BUILDING SOLD FOR $140 MILLION". New York Post. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b Cuozzo, Steve (December 27, 2007). "BROADWAY BONANZA". New York Post. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Strassel, Kimberley A. (August 25, 1999). "David Werner Is Set to Purchase Manhattan's Newsweek
Newsweek
Building". Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "4 Columbus Circle". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Fung, Amanda (August 3, 2011). "Germans pay $96.5M for 4 Columbus Circle". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Conlin, Jennifer (July 1, 2007). "Anticipation Builds, and Builds Some More, for Latest Chic New York Hotel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Hylton, Ondel (January 12, 2016). "See How 6 Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
Could Change the Central Park
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Hotel Site Hits the Market, Expected to Fetch $88.9M". Commercial Observer. December 1, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Baird-Remba, Rebecca (January 8, 2016). "Vision: A 700-Foot-Tall Tower for 6 Columbus Circle?". New York YIMBY. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ " Manhattan
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Bibliography

New York City
New York City
History – Columbus Circle

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Columbus Circle.

NYC Parks Department - Columbus Circle NYC Parks Department - Columbus Monument NYCDOT traffic cams facing Columbus Circle Smithsonian's Inventory of American Sculpture Entry

v t e

Structures on Broadway in Manhattan

1-599 (Battery Pl. - W. Houston St.)

1 Broadway 2 Broadway Bowling Green 26 Broadway
26 Broadway
(previously occupied by Lautman's Dairy) Cunard Building 52 Broadway Adams Express Building 65 Broadway 1 Wall Street AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company Trinity Church Equitable Building Equitable Life Building Marine Midland Building Zuccotti Park One Liberty Plaza Fulton Center Corbin Building American Surety Building 195 Broadway Astor House Woolworth Building City Hall Park New York City
New York City
Hall Broadway–Chambers Building 280 Broadway 287 Broadway Ted Weiss Federal Building 291 Broadway Mutual Reserve Building 319 Broadway Appleton Building 359 Broadway 361 Broadway
361 Broadway
(James S. White Building) 462 Broadway Mechanics' Hall E. V. Haughwout Building New Era Building Scholastic Building Singer Building

600-1499 (W. Houston St. - Times Sq.)

Cable Building Canterbury Hall Grace Church Church of the Messiah Grand Central Hotel 770 Broadway Strand Bookstore Tisch School of the Arts Grace Church Union Square Flatiron Building Madison Square Baudouine Building Gilsey House Grand Hotel Radisson Hotel Martinique Hotel McAlpin Herald Square Haier Building Knickerbocker Theatre Marbridge Building Metropolitan Opera House (former) Rialto Theatre Times Square One Times Square
Times Square
(previously occupied by Pabst Hotel) Condé Nast Building The Knickerbocker Hotel

1500-1800 (Times Sq. - Columbus Cir.)

1500 Broadway
1500 Broadway
(previously occupied by Hotel Claridge) 1501 Broadway One Astor Plaza Astor Theatre Minskoff Theatre New York Marriott Marquis Morgan Stanley Building Palace Theatre Brill Building Winter Garden Theatre Central Theatre Capitol Theatre Ellen's Stardust Diner Paramount Plaza Studebaker Building Broadway Theatre Ed Sullivan Theater 1717 Broadway 1740 Broadway Random House Tower Columbus Circle

North of Columbus Cir.

Museum of Biblical Art Dauphin Hotel Beacon Theatre The Apthorp Bretton Hall Goddard Institute for Space Studies Barnard College Audubon Ballroom United Palace Dyckman House Church of the Good Shepherd

v t e

Neighborhoods in the New York City
New York City
borough of Manhattan

Lower Manhattan below 14th St (CB 1, 2, 3)

Alphabet City Battery Park City Bowery Chinatown Civic Center Cooperative Village East Village Essex Crossing Financial District Five Points Greenwich Village Hudson Square Little Fuzhou Little Germany Little Italy Little Syria Lower East Side Meatpacking District NoHo Nolita Radio Row SoHo South Street Seaport South Village Tribeca Two Bridges West Village World Trade Center

Midtown (CB 5)

Columbus Circle Diamond District Flatiron District Garment District Herald Square Koreatown Madison Square NoMad Silicon Alley Theater District Times Square

West Side (CB 4, 7)

Chelsea Hell's Kitchen Hudson Yards Lincoln Square Little Spain Manhattan
Manhattan
Valley Manhattantown Penn South Pomander Walk Riverside South Tenderloin Upper West Side

East Side (CB 6, 8)

Carnegie Hill Gashouse District Gramercy Park Kips Bay Lenox Hill Murray Hill Peter Cooper Village Rose Hill Stuyvesant Square Stuyvesant Town Sutton Place Tudor City Turtle Bay Union Square Upper East Side Waterside Plaza Yorkville

Upper Manhattan above 110th St (CB 9, 10, 11, 12)

Astor Row East Harlem Hamilton Heights Harlem Hudson Heights Inwood Le Petit Senegal Manhattanville Marble
Marble
Hill (Bx CB 8) Marcus Garvey Park Morningside Heights Sugar Hill Sylvan Washington Heights

Islands

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(CB 1) Governors Island
Governors Island
(CB 1) Liberty Island
Liberty Island
(CB 1) Randalls Island (CB 11) Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
(CB 8) Wards Island (CB 11)

Former

Seneca Village

Community boards: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

v t e

Streets of Manhattan

Commissioners' Plan of 1811 List of eponymous streets in New York City

North–South

East Side

FDR Dr Ave D Ave C (Loisaida Ave) Ave B / East End Ave Ave A / York Ave / Sutton Pl / Pleasant Ave Asser Levy Pl / Beekman Pl 1st Ave 2nd Ave Shevchenko Pl 3rd Ave Irving Pl / Lexington Ave Park Ave

Tunnel Viaduct 4th Ave / Park Ave S

Broadway Vanderbilt Ave Madison Ave 5th Ave / Museum Mile

West Side

5th Ave / Museum Mile Rockefeller Plz 6th Ave / Ave of the Americas / Lenox Ave / Malcolm X Blvd / East Dr 6½ Ave Center Dr 7th Ave / Fashion Ave / Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Blvd / West Dr / Shubert Alley 8th Ave / Central Park
Central Park
W / Douglas Blvd 9th Ave / Columbus Ave / Morningside Dr Dyer Ave / Lincoln Tunnel Expwy 10th Ave / Amsterdam Ave Broadway Hudson Blvd 11th Ave / West End Ave Riverside Dr 12th Ave 13th Ave Audubon Ave St. Nicholas Ave / Duarte Blvd Claremont Ave Ft. Washington Ave Cabrini Blvd Sylvan Pl

Lower East Side

Allen / Pike Baxter / Centre Market Pl Bowery Centre Division Chrystie Coenties Slip Eldridge Street Elizabeth Essex Forsyth Lafayette Doyers Rivington Ludlow Mott Mulberry Orchard Park Row Spring University Pl

Lower West Side

Church / Trinity Pl Greenwich Hudson Jones Macdougal Patchin Pl Sullivan Gay Thompson Varick Washington W Broadway / LaGuardia Pl Weehawken West Bank

East–West

Downtown

Roosevelt Chambers E Broadway Henry Madison Cherry Worth N Moore Beach Broome Canal Hester Grand Delancey Stanton Houston Vandam 1st–14th

Bleecker Bond Great Jones 4th Waverly Pl / Washington Square N Astor Pl / Washington Mews / Stuyvesant / Macdougal Aly 8th / St. Mark's Pl / Greenwich Ave Christopher Charles 14th

Midtown

15th–59th

23rd 34th 42nd 45th / George Abbott Way 47th 50th 51st 52nd / Swing Alley / St of Jazz 53rd 54th 55th 57th 59th / Central Park
Central Park
S

Uptown

60th–215th

66th / Peter Jennings Way 72nd 74th 79th 85th 86th 89th 93rd 95th 96th 110th / Cathedral Pkwy / Central Park
Central Park
N 112th 116th 120th 122nd / Mother Hale Way / Seminary Row 125th / Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd 130th / Astor Row 132nd 135th 139th / Strivers' Row 145th 155th 181st 187th Bogardus Pl Dyckman Plaza Lafayette

Intersections

Circles

Columbus Duke Ellington Frederick Douglass

Squares

Chatham Cooper Duarte Duffy Foley Gramercy Grand Army Hanover Herald Hudson Jackson Lincoln Madison Mulry Pershing Petrosino Sherman Stuyvesant Times Tompkins Union Verdi Washington Zuccotti

Financial District

Nassau Gold William Broad South Whitehall Bridge Brewers / Stone State Pearl Marketfield Wall Albany Liberty Cortlandt Maiden Dey Fulton Vesey / Ann Theatre Alley

Italics indicate streets no longer in existence. All entries are streets unless otherwise noted See also: Manhattan
Manhattan
addre

.