The Info List - Columbia University

--- Advertisement ---

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY (COLUMBIA; officially COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan , New York City . It is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.

Columbia contains the oldest college in the state of New York and is the fifth chartered institution of higher learning in the United States, making it one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence . It was established as KING\'S COLLEGE by royal charter of George II of Great Britain and renamed COLUMBIA COLLEGE in 1784 following the American Revolutionary War . The college has produced numerous distinguished alumni . It has additionally been amongst the most selective colleges in the United States since its founding. With an undergraduate acceptance rate of 5.8%, it currently stands as the third most selective college in the United States and second most selective college in the Ivy League.

A 1787 charter placed the institution under a private board of trustees before it was renamed Columbia University in 1896 when the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights occupying 32 acres (13 ha) of land. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree . The university administers annually the Pulitzer Prize .

The university is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools, Columbia College , the School of Engineering and Applied Science , and the School of General Studies , as well as graduate schools such as Columbia Law School , Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons , and Columbia Business School . The university also has global research outposts in Amman , Beijing , Istanbul , Paris , Mumbai , Rio de Janeiro , Santiago , Asunción and Nairobi . It has affiliations with several other institutions nearby, including List College , Teachers College , Barnard College , and Union Theological Seminary , with joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America , University College London , Sciences Po , City University of Hong Kong , and the Juilliard School .

The university has graduated many notable alumni. Alumni and affiliates include 5 Founding Fathers of the United States – amongst these an author of the Declaration of Independence and an author of the United States Constitution ; 10 Justices of the United States Supreme Court ; 20 living billionaires; 123 Pulitzer Prize winners; 39 Academy Award winners; 3 United States Presidents ; 29 heads of state ; 101 National Academy members; 98 Nobel laureates ; 77 National Medal of Science winners ; 23 National Humanities Medal recipients. Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates.


* 1 History

* 1.1 Colonial * 1.2 18th century * 1.3 19th century to present

* 2 Campus

* 2.1 Morningside Heights * 2.2 Other campuses * 2.3 Sustainability

* 3 Academics

* 3.1 Undergraduate admissions and financial aid * 3.2 Organization * 3.3 Rankings * 3.4 Research

* 4 Student life

* 4.1 Students

* 4.1.1 Publications * 4.1.2 Broadcasting * 4.1.3 Debate and Model UN

* 4.2 Technology and entrepreneurship * 4.3 Athletics * 4.4 World Leaders Forum * 4.5 Other

* 5 Student activism

* 5.1 Protests of 1968 * 5.2 Protests against racism and apartheid * 5.3 Ahmadinejad speech controversy * 5.4 ROTC controversy

* 6 Traditions

* 6.1 Orgo Night * 6.2 Tree-Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies * 6.3 The Varsity Show

* 7 Notable people * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links


Main article: History of Columbia University


King's College Hall, 1770

Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts , the missionary arm of the Church of England , persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college; however, not until the founding of the College of New Jersey (the present Princeton University ) across the Hudson River in New Jersey did the City of New York seriously consider founding a college. In 1746 an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England , to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college.

Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson . Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church , located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan. The college was officially founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II , making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States.

In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper , a graduate of The Queen\'s College, Oxford , and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution , his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton . The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, and was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army . The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, which was seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College. The Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded King\'s Collegiate School .


The Gothic Revival Law School building on the Madison Avenue campus

After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, promising to make whatever changes to the school's charter the state might demand. The Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1, 1784, it passed "an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called King's College." The Act created a Board of Regents to oversee the resuscitation of King's College, and, in an effort to demonstrate its support for the new Republic, the Legislature stipulated that "the College within the City of New York heretofore called King's College be forever hereafter called and known by the name of Columbia College ," a reference to Columbia , an alternative name for America. The Regents finally became aware of the college's defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, which was headed by John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. In April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees.

On May 21, 1787, William Samuel Johnson , the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson , was unanimously elected President of Columbia College. Prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention . For a period in the 1790s, with New York City as the federal and state capital and the country under successive Federalist governments, a revived Columbia thrived under the auspices of Federalists such as Hamilton and Jay. Both President George Washington and Vice President John Adams attended the college's commencement on May 6, 1789, as a tribute of honor to the many alumni of the school who had been involved in the American Revolution. The Library at Columbia University, ca. 1900


Low Memorial Library

In November 1813, the College agreed to incorporate its medical school with The College of Physicians and Surgeons, a new school created by the Regents of New York, forming Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons . The college's enrollment, structure, and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the King's College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue , where it remained for the next forty years. During the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F.A.P. Barnard , the institution rapidly assumed the shape of a modern university. By this time, the college's investments in New York real estate became a primary source of steady income for the school, mainly owing to the city's expanding population. University president Seth Low moved the campus from 49th Street to its present location, a more spacious campus in the developing neighborhood of Morningside Heights . Under the leadership of Low's successor, Nicholas Murray Butler , who served for over four decades, Columbia rapidly became the nation's major institution for research, setting the "multiversity" model that later universities would adopt. Prior to becoming the president of Columbia University, Butler founded Teachers College , as a school to prepare home economists and manual art teachers for the children of the poor, with philanthropist Grace Hoadley Dodge . Teachers College came under the aegis of Columbia University in 1893 and became the University's Graduate School of Education.

Research into the atom by faculty members John R. Dunning , I. I. Rabi , Enrico Fermi and Polykarp Kusch placed Columbia's Physics Department in the international spotlight in the 1940s after the first nuclear pile was built to start what became the Manhattan Project . In 1928, Seth Low Junior College was established by Columbia University in order to mitigate the number of Jewish applicants to Columbia College. The college was closed in 1938 due to the adverse effects of the Great Depression and its students were subsequently absorbed into University Extension. In 1947, the program was reorganized as an undergraduate college and designated the School of General Studies in response to the return of GIs after World War II. In 1995, the School of General Studies was again reorganized as a full-fledged liberal arts college for non-traditional students (those who have had an academic break of one year or more, or are pursuing dual-degrees) and was fully integrated into Columbia's traditional undergraduate curriculum. Within the same year, the Division of Special Programs—later the School of Continuing Education, and now the School of Professional Studies —was established to reprise the former role of University Extension. While the School of Professional Studies only offered non-degree programs for lifelong learners and high school students in its earliest stages, it now offers degree programs in a diverse range of professional and inter-disciplinary fields. _ Alma Mater _

In the aftermath of World War II, the discipline of international relations became a major scholarly focus of the University, and in response, the School of International and Public Affairs was founded in 1946, drawing upon the resources of the faculties of political science, economics, and history.

During the 1960s Columbia experienced large-scale student activism , which reached a climax in the spring of 1968 when hundreds of students occupied buildings on campus. The incident forced the resignation of Columbia's President, Grayson Kirk and the establishment of the University Senate.

Though several schools within the university had admitted women for years, Columbia College first admitted women in the fall of 1983, after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard College , the all-female institution affiliated with the university, to merge the two schools. Barnard College still remains affiliated with Columbia, and all Barnard graduates are issued diplomas authorized by both Columbia University and Barnard College.

In the 1970s, Teachers College's departments ran joint Ph.D programs with the University in the disciplines of psychology, history, and anthropology and all Teachers College diplomas were conferred by Columbia University. Teachers College was soon established as the University's Faculty of Education and Department of Education.

During the late 20th century, the University underwent significant academic, structural, and administrative changes as it developed into a major research university. For much of the 19th century, the University consisted of decentralized and separate faculties specializing in Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science. In 1979, these faculties were merged into the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences . In 1991, the faculties of Columbia College, the School of General Studies, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the School of the Arts , and the School of Professional Studies were merged into the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, leading to the academic integration and centralized governance of these schools. In 2010, the School of International and Public Affairs , which was previously a part of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, became an independent faculty.


According to _New York _, Columbia University is the second largest landowner in New York City, after the Catholic Church.


College Walk

The majority of Columbia's graduate and undergraduate studies are conducted in Morningside Heights on Seth Low 's late-19th century vision of a university campus where all disciplines could be taught at one location. The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts principles by architects McKim, Mead, and White . Columbia's main campus occupies more than six city blocks , or 32 acres (13 ha), in Morningside Heights , New York City, a neighborhood that contains a number of academic institutions. The university owns over 7,800 apartments in Morningside Heights, housing faculty, graduate students, and staff. Almost two dozen undergraduate dormitories (purpose-built or converted) are located on campus or in Morningside Heights. Columbia University has an extensive underground tunnel system more than a century old, with the oldest portions predating the present campus. Some of these remain accessible to the public, while others have been cordoned off. Butler Library

The Nicholas Murray Butler Library, commonly known simply as Butler Library , is the largest single library in the Columbia University Library System , and is one of the largest buildings on the campus. Proposed as "South Hall" by the university's former President Nicholas Murray Butler as expansion plans for Low Memorial Library stalled, the new library was funded by Edward Harkness , benefactor of Yale's residential college system, and designed by his favorite architect, James Gamble Rogers . It was completed in 1934 and renamed for Butler in 1946. The library design is neo-classical in style. Its facade features an arcade of columns in the Ionic order above which are inscribed the names of great writers, philosophers, and thinkers, most of whom are read by students engaged in the Core Curriculum of Columbia College . As of 2012, Columbia\'s library system includes over 11.9 million volumes, making it the eighth largest library system and fifth largest collegiate library system in the United States. It has also been ranked among the United States' most beautiful libraries. Teachers College

Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places . Low Memorial Library , a National Historic Landmark and the centerpiece of the campus, is listed for its architectural significance. Philosophy Hall is listed as the site of the invention of FM radio . Also listed is Pupin Hall , another National Historic Landmark , which houses the physics and astronomy departments. Here the first experiments on the fission of uranium were conducted by Enrico Fermi . The uranium atom was split there ten days after the world's first atom-splitting in Copenhagen, Denmark . Union Theological Seminary

A statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French called _Alma Mater _ is centered on the front steps of Low Memorial Library . McKim, Mead & White invited French to build the sculpture in order to harmonize with the larger composition of the court and library in the center of the campus. Draped in an academic gown, the female figure of Alma Mater wears a crown of laurels and sits on a throne. The scroll-like arms of the throne end in lamps, representing sapientia and doctrina . A book signifying knowledge, balances on her lap, and an owl, the attribute of wisdom, is hidden in the folds of her gown. Her right hand holds a scepter composed of four sprays of wheat, terminating with a crown of King's College which refers to Columbia's origin as a Royalist institution in 1754. A local actress named Mary Lawton was said to have posed for parts of the sculpture. The statue was dedicated on September 23, 1903, as a gift of Mr. "> Panoramic view of the Morningside Heights campus as seen from Butler Library and facing Low Memorial Library


Lamont Campus Entrance Palisades , New York Medical Center in Washington Heights

In April 2007, the university purchased more than two-thirds of a 17 acres (6.9 ha) site for a new campus in Manhattanville , an industrial neighborhood to the north of the Morningside Heights campus. Stretching from 125th Street to 133rd Street, the new campus will house buildings for Columbia's Business School, School of International and Public Affairs, and the Jerome L. Greene Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior, where research will occur on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The $7 billion expansion plan includes demolishing all buildings, except three that are historically significant, eliminating the existing light industry and storage warehouses, and relocating tenants in 132 apartments. Replacing these buildings will be 6,800,000 square feet (630,000 m2) of space for the university. Community activist groups in West Harlem fought the expansion for reasons ranging from property protection and fair exchange for land, to residents' rights. Subsequent public hearings drew neighborhood opposition. Most recently, as of December 2008, the State of New York's Empire State Development Corporation approved use of eminent domain, which, through declaration of Manhattanville's "blighted" status, gives governmental bodies the right to appropriate private property for public use. On May 20, 2009, the New York State Public Authorities Control Board approved the Manhanttanville expansion plan and the first buildings are under construction.

New York-Presbyterian Hospital is affiliated with the medical schools of both Columbia University and Cornell University . According to _U.S. News ">'s "America's Best Hospitals 2009", it is ranked sixth overall and third among university hospitals. Columbia's medical school has a strategic partnership with New York State Psychiatric Institute , and is affiliated with 19 other hospitals in the U.S. and four hospitals overseas. Health-related schools are located at the Columbia University Medical Center , a 20 acres (8.1 ha) campus located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights , fifty blocks uptown. Other teaching hospitals affiliated with Columbia through the New York-Presbyterian network include the Payne Whitney Clinic in Manhattan, and the Payne Whitney Westchester, a psychiatric institute located in White Plains, New York. On the northern tip of Manhattan island (in the neighborhood of Inwood ), Columbia owns 26-acre (11 ha) Baker Field, which includes the Lawrence A. Wien Stadium as well as facilities for field sports, outdoor track, and tennis. There is a third campus on the west bank of the Hudson River , the 157-acre (64 ha) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and Earth Institute in Palisades , New York. A fourth is the 60-acre (24 ha) Nevis Laboratories in Irvington , New York for the study of particle and motion physics. A satellite site in Paris, France holds classes at Reid Hall .


Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library

In 2006, the university established the Office of Environmental Stewardship to initiate, coordinate and implement programs to reduce the university's environmental footprint. The U.S. Green Building Council selected the university's Manhattanville plan for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Neighborhood Design pilot program. The plan commits to incorporating smart growth, new urbanism and "green" building design principles. Columbia is one of the 2030 Challenge Partners, a group of nine universities in the city of New York that have pledged to reduce their greenhouse emissions by 30% within the next ten years. Columbia University adopts LEED standards for all new construction and major renovations. The University requires a minimum of Silver, but through its design and review process seeks to achieve higher levels. This is especially challenging for lab and research buildings with their intensive energy use; however, the university also uses lab design guidelines that seek to maximize energy efficiency while protecting the safety of researchers.

Every Thursday and Sunday of the month, Columbia hosts a greenmarket where local farmers can sell their produce to residents of the city. In addition, from April to November Hodgson's farm, a local New York gardening center, joins the market bringing a large selection of plants and blooming flowers. The market is one of the many operated at different points throughout the city by the non-profit group GrowNYC. Dining services at Columbia spends 36 percent of its food budget on local products, in addition to serving sustainably harvested seafood and fair trade coffee on campus. Columbia has been rated "B+" by the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card for its environmental and sustainability initiatives.



Van Am Quad College (left), SEAS (right)

Columbia University received 36,292 applications for its undergraduate class of 2020 (entering 2016). In early decision, 620 out of 3,520 applicants were admitted, for an acceptance rate of 17.61%. In regular decision, 1,573 out of 32,772 applicants were admitted, for an acceptance rate of 4.79%. For the Class of 2021, 2,185 out of 37,389 applicants were admitted for an overall acceptance rate of 5.8%, making Columbia the third most selective college in the United States behind Stanford and Harvard and the 2nd most selective college in the Ivy League. According to the 2012 college selectivity ranking by U.S. News however, the generous donation has helped change financial aid policy at Columbia. Annual gifts, fund-raising, and an increase in spending from the university's endowment have allowed Columbia to extend generous financial aid packages to qualifying students. As of 2008, undergraduates from families with incomes as high as $60,000 a year will have the projected cost of attending the university, including room, board, and academic fees, fully paid for by the university. That same year, the university ended loans for incoming and current students who were on financial aid, replacing loans that were traditionally part of aid packages with grants from the university. However, this does not apply to international students, transfer students, visiting students, or students in the School of General Studies. In the fall of 2010, admission to Columbia's undergraduate colleges Columbia College and the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) began accepting the Common Application . The policy change made Columbia one of the last major academic institutions and the last Ivy League university to switch to the Common Application.

Scholarships are also given to undergraduate students by the admissions committee. Designations include John W. Kluge Scholars, John Jay Scholars, C. Prescott Davis Scholars, Global Scholars, Egleston Scholars, and Science Research Fellows. Named scholars are selected by the admission committee from first-year applicants. According to Columbia, the first four designated scholars "distinguish themselves for their remarkable academic and personal achievements, dynamism, intellectual curiosity, the originality and independence of their thinking, and the diversity that stems from their different cultures and their varied educational experiences."





College of Physicians and Surgeons 1767

College of Dental Medicine 1852

Columbia Law School 1858

Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science 1864

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 1880

Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation 1881

Teachers College, Columbia University 1889

Columbia University School of Nursing 1892

Columbia University School of Social Work 1898

Graduate School of Journalism 1912

Columbia Business School 1916

Mailman School of Public Health 1922

School of International and Public Affairs 1946

School of General Studies 1947

School of the Arts 1948

School of Professional Studies 1995

_ Scholars' Lion_, Greg Wyatt (2004)

Columbia University is an independent, privately supported, nonsectarian institution of higher education. Its official corporate name is "The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York." The university's first Charter was granted in 1754 by King George II; however, its modern Charter was first enacted in 1787 and last amended in 1810 by the New York State Legislature. The university is governed by 24 Trustees, customarily including the President, who serves ex officio . The Trustees themselves are responsible for choosing their successors. Six of the 24 are nominated from a pool of candidates recommended by the Columbia Alumni Association. Another six are nominated by the Board in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University Senate. The remaining 12, including the President, are nominated by the Trustees themselves through their internal processes. The term of office for Trustees is six years. Generally, they serve for no more than two consecutive terms. The Trustees appoint the President and other senior administrative officers of the university, and review and confirm faculty appointments as required. They determine the university's financial and investment policies, authorize the budget, supervise the endowment, direct the management of the university's real estate and other assets, and otherwise oversee the administration and management of the university.

The University Senate was established by the Trustees after a university-wide referendum in 1969. It succeeded to the powers of the University Council, which was created in 1890 as a body of faculty, deans, and other administrators to regulate inter-Faculty affairs and consider issues of university-wide concern. The University Senate is a unicameral body consisting of 107 members drawn from all constituencies of the university. These include the president of the university, the Provost, the Deans of Columbia College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, all who serve ex officio, and five additional representatives, appointed by the President, from the university's administration. The President serves as the Senate's presiding officer. The Senate is charged with reviewing the educational policies, physical development, budget, and external relations of the university. It oversees the welfare and academic freedom of the faculty and the welfare of students.

The President of Columbia University , who is selected by the Trustees in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University Senate and who serves at the Trustees' pleasure, is the chief executive officer of the university. Assisting the President in administering the University are the Provost, the Senior Executive Vice President, the Executive Vice President for Health and Biomedical Sciences, several other vice presidents, the General Counsel, the Secretary of the University, and the deans of the Faculties, all of whom are appointed by the Trustees on the nomination of the President and serve at their pleasure. Lee C. Bollinger became the 19th President of Columbia University on June 1, 2002. A prominent advocate of affirmative action, he played a leading role in the twin Supreme Court cases— Grutter v Bollinger and Gratz v Bollinger —that upheld and clarified the importance of diversity as a compelling justification for affirmative action in higher education. A leading First Amendment scholar, he is widely published on freedom of speech and press, and serves on the faculty of Columbia Law School.

Columbia has three official undergraduate colleges: Columbia College (CC) , the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree, the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) is the engineering and applied science school offering the Bachelor of Science degree, and The School of General Studies (GS) , the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree to non-traditional students undertaking full- or part-time study.

The university is affiliated with Teachers College , Barnard College , and Union Theological Seminary , all located nearby in Morningside Heights. Of these, Barnard College and Teachers College are integrated as Faculties of the university. Furthermore, Teachers College is incorporated as an academic department of Columbia University, serving as the University's Graduate School of Education and Department of Education. Joint undergraduate programs are available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as through the Juilliard School .




_ARWU _ 7

_FORBES _ 16



_ARWU _ 9

_QS _ 20

_TIMES _ 16

_U.S. NEWS vertical-align: top;">



Biological Sciences 14

Business 9

Chemistry 10

Computer Science 15

Earth Sciences 5

Economics 9

Education 7

Engineering 13

English 3

Fine Arts 6

Health Care Management 22

History 6

Law 5

Mathematics 9

Medicine: Primary Care 51

Medicine: Research 6

Nursing: Doctorate 5

Nursing: Master's 8

Nursing–Anesthesia 22

Nursing–Midwifery 12

Occupational Therapy 11

Physical Therapy 36

Physics 11

Political Science 7

Psychology 17

Public Affairs 19

Public Health 5

Social Work 6

Sociology 11

Statistics 14



Arts & Humanities 16

Biology & Biochemistry 11

Chemistry 85

Clinical Medicine 10

Computer Science 44

Economics & Business 7

Engineering 68

Environment/Ecology 29

Geosciences 4

Immunology 15

Materials Science 66

Mathematics 14

Microbiology 22

Molecular Biology & Genetics 18

Neuroscience & Behavior 8

Pharmacology & Toxicology 63

Physics 14

Plant & Animal Science 210

Psychiatry/Psychology 6

Social Sciences "> St. Paul\'s Chapel

Columbia University was ranked 3rd among U.S. national universities for 2016 by Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education and first among Ivy League universities was ranked 4th overall among U.S. national universities for 2016 by _ U.S. News & World Report _. Individual colleges and schools were also nationally ranked by _U.S. News "> Dodge Hall

Columbia was the first North American site where the uranium atom was split. The College of Physicians and Surgeons played a central role in developing the modern understanding of neuroscience with the publication of _ Principles of Neural Science _, described by historian of science Katja Huenther as the "neuroscience 'bible'". The book was written by a team of Columbia researchers that included Nobel Prize winner Eric Kandel , James H. Schwartz , and Thomas Jessell . Columbia was the birthplace of FM radio and the laser . The MPEG-2 algorithm of transmitting high quality audio and video over limited bandwidth was developed by Dimitris Anastassiou , a Columbia professor of electrical engineering. Biologist Martin Chalfie was the first to introduce the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in labeling cells in intact organisms. Other inventions and products related to Columbia include Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) technology for making LCDs, System Management Arts (SMARTS), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (which is used for audio, video, chat, instant messaging and whiteboarding), pharmacopeia , Macromodel (software for computational chemistry), a new and better recipe for glass concrete, Blue LEDs , and Beamprop (used in photonics). Columbia scientists have been credited with about 175 new inventions in the health sciences each year. More than 30 pharmaceutical products based on discoveries and inventions made at Columbia are on the market today. These include Remicade (for arthritis), Reopro (for blood clot complications), Xalatan (for glaucoma), Benefix , Latanoprost (a glaucoma treatment), shoulder prosthesis, homocysteine (testing for cardiovascular disease), and Zolinza (for cancer therapy). Columbia Technology Ventures (formerly Science and Technology Ventures), as of 2008 , manages some 600 patents and more than 250 active license agreements. Patent-related deals earned Columbia more than $230 million in the 2006 fiscal year, according to the university, more than any university in the world. Columbia owns many unique research facilities, such as the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information dedicated to telecommunications and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies , which is an astronomical observatory affiliated with NASA .



_Demographics of student body – 2014_



BLACK 7.2% 4.1%

HISPANIC 12.8% 5.7%



WHITE 38.1% 32.6%

NON-RESIDENTS 13.4% 34.3%

UNKNOWN 6.2% 10.5%

Earl Hall

In fall 2014, Columbia University's student population was 29,870 (8,559 students in undergraduate programs and 21,311 in postgraduate programs), with 39% of the student population identifying themselves as a minority and 28% born outside of the United States. Twenty-six percent of students at Columbia have family incomes below $60,000, making it one of the most socioeconomically diverse top-tier colleges. Sixteen percent of students at Columbia receive Federal Pell Grants, which mostly go to students whose family incomes are below $40,000. Fifteen percent of students are the first member of their family to attend a four-year college.

On-campus housing is guaranteed for all four years as an undergraduate. Columbia College and the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) share housing in the on-campus residence halls. First-year students usually live in one of the large residence halls situated around South Lawn: Hartley Hall , Wallach Hall (originally Livingston Hall), John Jay Hall , Furnald Hall or Carman Hall. Upperclassmen participate in a room selection process, wherein students can pick to live in a mix of either corridor- or apartment-style housing with their friends. The Columbia University School of General Studies and graduate schools have their own apartment-style housing in the surrounding neighborhood.

Columbia University is home to many fraternities, sororities , and co-educational Greek organizations. Approximately 10–15% of undergraduate students are associated with Greek life. There has been a Greek presence on campus since the establishment in 1836 of the Delta Chapter of Alpha Delta Phi . The InterGreek Council is the self-governing student organization that provides guidelines and support to its member organizations within each of the three councils at Columbia, the Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, and Multicultural Greek Council. The three council presidents bring their affiliated chapters together once a month to meet as one Greek community. The InterGreek Council meetings provide opportunity for member organizations to learn from each other, work together and advocate for community needs.


One of the earliest logos of Columbia University Press

Columbia University is home to a rich diversity of undergraduate, graduate, and professional publications. The _Columbia Daily Spectator _ is the nation's second-oldest student newspaper; and _The Blue and White _, a monthly literary magazine established in 1890, has recently begun to delve into campus life and local politics in print and on its daily blog, dubbed the _Bwog_. _ The Morningside Post _ is a student-run multimedia news publication. Its content: student-written investigative news, international affairs analysis, opinion, and satire.

Political publications include _The Current _, a journal of politics, culture and Jewish Affairs; the _Columbia Political Review _, the multi-partisan political magazine of the Columbia Political Union; and _AdHoc_, which denotes itself as the "progressive" campus magazine and deals largely with local political issues and arts events.

Arts and literary publications include _The Columbia Review_, the nation's oldest college literary magazine; _Columbia_, a nationally regarded literary journal ; the _Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism_; and _The Mobius Strip_, an online arts and literary magazine. _ Inside New York _ is an annual guidebook to New York City, written, edited, and published by Columbia undergraduates. Through a distribution agreement with Columbia University Press , the book is sold at major retailers and independent bookstores. Pupin Hall (right), Union Theological Seminary (center) Riverside Church (left)

Columbia is home to numerous undergraduate academic publications. The _Journal of Politics _Publius_ is an undergraduate journal of politics established in 2008 and published biannually; the _Columbia East Asia Review_ allows undergraduates throughout the world to publish original work on China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Vietnam and is supported by the Weatherhead East Asian Institute ; and _ The Birch _, is an undergraduate journal of Eastern European and Eurasian culture that is the first national student-run journal of its kind; the _Columbia Political Review_, the undergraduate magazine on politics operated by the Columbia Political Union; the _Columbia Economics Review_, the undergraduate economic journal on research and policy supported by the Columbia Economics Department; and the _Columbia Science Review_ is a science magazine that prints general interest articles, faculty profiles, and student research papers.

_The Fed _ a triweekly satire and investigative newspaper, and the _ Jester of Columbia _, the newly (and frequently) revived campus humor magazine both inject humor into local life. Other publications include _The Columbian_, the undergraduate colleges' annually published yearbook the _Gadfly_, a biannual journal of popular philosophy produced by undergraduates; and _Rhapsody in Blue_, an undergraduate urban studies magazine. Professional journals published by academic departments at Columbia University include _Current Musicology_ and _ The Journal of Philosophy _. During the spring semester, graduate students in the Journalism School publish _The Bronx Beat_, a bi-weekly newspaper covering the South Bronx. Teachers College publishes the _ Teachers College Record_, a journal of research, analysis, and commentary in the field of education, published continuously since 1900.

Founded in 1961 under the auspices of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, the _ Columbia Journalism Review _ (CJR) examines day-to-day press performance as well as the forces that affect that performance. The magazine is published six times a year, and offers a reporting, analysis, criticism, and commentary. CJR.org, its web site, delivers real-time criticism and reporting, giving CJR a presence in the ongoing conversation about the media.


Earl Hall

Columbia is home to two pioneers in undergraduate campus radio broadcasting, WKCR-FM and CTV. WKCR , the student run radio station that broadcasts to the Tri-State area, claims to be the oldest FM radio station in the world, owing to the university's affiliation with Major Edwin Armstrong . The station went operational on July 18, 1939, from a 400-foot antenna tower in Alpine, New Jersey, broadcasting the very first FM transmission in the world. Initially, WKCR wasn't a radio station, but an organization concerned with the technology of radio communications. As membership grew, however, the nascent club turned its efforts to broadcasting. Armstrong helped the students in their early efforts, donating a microphone and turntables when they designed their first makeshift studio in a dorm room. The station has its studios on the second floor of Alfred Lerner Hall on the Morningside campus with its main transmitter tower at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan . Columbia Television (CTV) is the nation's second oldest Student television station and home of CTV News, a weekly live news program produced by undergraduate students.

Debate And Model UN

The Philolexian Society is a literary and debating club founded in 1802, making it the oldest student group at Columbia, as well as the third oldest collegiate literary society in the country. The society annually administers the Joyce Kilmer Bad Poetry Contest. The Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team competes in tournaments around the country as part of the American Parliamentary Debate Association , and hosts both high school and college tournaments on Columbia's campus, as well as public debates on issues affecting the university.

The Columbia International Relations Council and Association (CIRCA), oversees Columbia's Model United Nations activities. CIRCA hosts college and high school Model UN conferences, hosts speakers influential in international politics to speak on campus, trains students from underprivileged schools in New York in Model UN and oversees a competitive team, which travels to colleges around the country and to an international conference every year. The competitive team consistently wins best and outstanding delegation awards and is considered one of the top teams in the country.


Pupin Hall , the physics building, showing the rooftop observatory Mathematics Hall

The Columbia University Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs (CORE) was founded in 1999. The student-run group aims to foster entrepreneurship on campus. Each year CORE hosts dozens of events, including talks, #StartupColumbia, a conference and venture competition for $250,000, and Ignite@CU, a weekend for undergrads interested in design, engineering, and entrepreneurship. Notable speakers include Peter Thiel , Jack Dorsey , Alexis Ohanian , Drew Houston , and Mark Cuban . By 2006, CORE had awarded graduate and undergraduate students over $100,000 in seed capital.

CampusNetwork, an on-campus social networking site called Campus Network that preceded Facebook, was created and popularized by Columbia engineering student Adam Goldberg in 2003. Mark Zuckerberg later asked Goldberg to join him in Palo Alto to work on Facebook, but Goldberg declined the offer. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science offers a minor in Technical Entrepreneurship through its Center for Technology, Innovation, and Community Engagement. SEAS' entrepreneurship activities focus on community building initiatives in New York and worldwide, made possible through partners such as Microsoft Corporation .

Columbia is a top supplier of young engineering entrepreneurs for New York City. Over the past 20 years, graduates of Columbia established over 100 technology companies. Mayor Bloomberg has provided over $6.7 million towards entrepreneurial programs that partner with Columbia and other universities in New York. Professor Chris Wiggins of the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science is working in conjunction with Professors Evan Korth of New York University and Hilary Mason, chief scientist at bit.ly to facilitate the growth of student tech-startups in an effort to transform a traditionally financially centered New York City into the next Silicon Valley . Their website, hackny.org, is a gathering ground of ideas and discussions for New York's young entrepreneurial community, the Silicon Alley .

On June 14, 2010, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg launched the NYC Media Lab to promote innovations in New York's media industry. Situated at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering , the lab is a consortium of Columbia University, New York University , and New York City Economic Development Corporation acting to connect companies with universities in new technology research. The Lab is modeled after similar ones at MIT and Stanford . A $250,000 grant from the New York City Economic Development Corporation was used to establish the NYC Media Lab. Each year, the lab will host a range of roundtable discussions between the private sector and academic institutions. It will support research projects on topics of content format, next-generation search technologies, computer animation for film and gaming, emerging marketing techniques, and new devices development. The lab will also create a media research and development database. Columbia University will coordinate the long-term direction of the media lab as well as the involvement of its faculty and those of other universities.


Lawrence A. Wien Stadium Main article: Columbia Lions See also: C-Rock

A member institution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in Division I FCS , Columbia fields varsity teams in 29 sports and is a member of the Ivy League . The football Lions play home games at the 17,000-seat Robert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium . The Baker Athletics Complex also includes facilities for baseball, softball, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, track and rowing, as well as the new Campbell Sports Center opened in January 2013. The basketball, fencing, swimming nevertheless, the team went further toward the NCAA title than any Ivy League soccer team in history. The football program unfortunately is best known for its record of futility set during the 1980s: between 1983 and 1988, the team lost 44 games in a row, which is still the record for the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision . The streak was broken on October 8, 1988, with a 16-13 victory over archrival Princeton University . That was the Lions' first victory at Wien Stadium, which had been opened during the losing streak and was already four years old. A new tradition has developed with the Liberty Cup. The Liberty Cup is awarded annually to the winner of the football game between Fordham and Columbia Universities, two of the only three NCAA Division I football teams in New York City. The tradition began in 2002, a year after the Fordham-Columbia game was postponed due to the September 11 attacks.

Former students include Baseball Hall of Famers Lou Gehrig and Eddie Collins , football Hall of Famer Sid Luckman , Marcellus Wiley , and world champion women's weightlifter Karyn Marshall . On May 17, 1939, fledgling NBC broadcast a doubleheader between the Columbia Lions and the Princeton Tigers at Columbia's Baker Field, making it the first televised regular athletic event in history.


World Leaders Forum at Low Memorial Library

Established in 2003 by university president Lee C. Bollinger , the World Leaders Forum at Columbia University provides the opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students alike to listen to world leaders in government, religion, industry, finance, and academia. The World Leaders Forum is a year-around event series that strives to provide a platform for uninhibited speech among nations and cultures, while educating students about problems and progress around the globe.

All Columbia undergraduates and graduates as well as students of Barnard College and other Columbia affiliated schools can register to participate in the World Leaders Forum using their student IDs. Even for individuals who do not have the privilege to attend the event live, they can watch the forum via online videos on Columbia University's website.

Past forum speakers include former President of the United States Bill Clinton , the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee , Former President of Ghana John Agyekum Kufuor , President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai , Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin , President of the Republic of Mozambique Joaquim Alberto Chissano , President of the Republic of Bolivia Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert , President of the Republic of Romania Ion Iliescu , President of the Republic of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga , the first female President of Finland Tarja Halonen , President Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Iraq President Jalal Talabani , the 14th Dalai Lama , President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , financier George Soros , Mayor of New York City Michael R. Bloomberg , President Václav Klaus of the Czech Republic, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan , and Al Gore .


Access to Columbia is enhanced by the 116th Street – Columbia University subway station (1 train) on the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line .

The Columbia University Orchestra was founded by composer Edward MacDowell in 1896, and is the oldest continually operating university orchestra in the United States. Undergraduate student composers at Columbia may choose to become involved with Columbia New Music, which sponsors concerts of music written by undergraduate students from all of Columbia's schools.

There are a number of performing arts groups at Columbia dedicated to producing student theater, including the Columbia Players, King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe (KCST), Columbia Musical Theater Society (CMTS), NOMADS (New and Original Material Authored and Directed by Students), LateNite Theatre, Columbia University Performing Arts League (CUPAL), Black Theatre Ensemble (BTE), sketch comedy group Chowdah, and improvisational troupes Alfred and Fruit Paunch. The Columbia University Marching Band tells jokes during the campus tradition of Orgo Night. _ The Thinker _ (_Le Penseur_) at Columbia University

The Columbia Queer Alliance is the central Columbia student organization that represents the bisexual, lesbian, gay, transgender, and questioning student population. It is the oldest gay student organization in the world, founded as the Student Homophile League in 1967 by students including lifelong activist Stephen Donaldson . Columbia University campus military groups include the U.S. Military Veterans of Columbia University and Advocates for Columbia ROTC. In the 2005–06 academic year, the Columbia Military Society, Columbia's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates, was renamed the Hamilton Society for "students who aspire to serve their nation through the military in the tradition of Alexander Hamilton ".

The university also houses an independent nonprofit organization, Community Impact, which strives to serve disadvantaged people in the Harlem, Washington Heights, and Morningside Heights communities. From its earliest inception as a single service initiative formed in 1981 by Columbia University undergraduates, Community Impact has grown into Columbia University's largest student service organization. CI provides food, clothing, shelter, education, job training, and companionship for residents in its surrounding communities. CI consists of a dedicated corps of about 950 Columbia University student volunteers participating in 25 community service programs, which serve more than 8,000 people each year.



Hamilton Hall was occupied by protesting students in 1968 Main article: Columbia University protests of 1968

Students initiated a major demonstration in 1968 over two main issues. The first was Columbia's proposed gymnasium in neighboring Morningside Park ; this was seen by the protesters to be an act of aggression aimed at the black residents of neighboring Harlem . A second issue was the Columbia administration's failure to resign its institutional membership in the Pentagon 's weapons research think-tank, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). Students barricaded themselves inside Low Library , Hamilton Hall , and several other university buildings during the protests, and New York City police were called onto the campus to arrest or forcibly remove the students.

The protests achieved two of their stated goals. Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and scrapped the plans for the controversial gym, building a subterranean physical fitness center under the north end of campus instead. A popular myth states that the gym's plans were eventually used by Princeton University for the expansion of its athletic facilities, but as Jadwin Gymnasium was already 50% complete by 1966 (when the Columbia gym was announced) this was clearly not correct. At least 30 Columbia students were suspended by the administration as a result of the protests. Many of the Class of '68 walked out of their graduation and held a countercommencement on Low Plaza with a picnic following at Morningside Park, the place where the protests began. The protests hurt Columbia financially as many potential students chose to attend other universities and some alumni refused to donate money to the school. Allan Bloom , a professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago , believed that the protest efforts at Columbia were responsible for pushing higher education further toward the liberal left. As a result of the protests, Bloom stated, "American universities were no longer places of intellectual and academic debate, but rather places of 'political correctness' and liberalism."


School of Arts

Further student protests, including hunger strike and more barricades of Hamilton Hall and the Business School during the late 1970s and early 1980s, were aimed at convincing the university trustees to divest all of the university's investments in companies that were seen as active or tacit supporters of the apartheid regime in South Africa. A notable upsurge in the protests occurred in 1978, when following a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the student uprising in 1968, students marched and rallied in protest of university investments in South Africa. The Committee Against Investment in South Africa (CAISA) and numerous student groups including the Socialist Action Committee, the Black Student Organization and the Gay Students group joined together and succeeded in pressing for the first partial divestment of a U.S. university.

The initial (and partial) Columbia divestment, focused largely on bonds and financial institutions directly involved with the South African regime. It followed a year-long campaign first initiated by students who had worked together to block the appointment of former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to an endowed chair at the university in 1977.

Broadly backed by student groups and many faculty members the Committee Against Investment in South Africa held teach-ins and demonstrations through the year focused on the trustees ties to the corporations doing business with South Africa. Trustee meetings were picketed and interrupted by demonstrations culminating in May 1978 in the takeover of the Graduate School of Business.


Students protest Ahmadinejad's invitation to speak at Columbia University

The School of International and Public Affairs extends invitations to heads of state and heads of government who come to New York City for the opening of the fall session of the United Nations General Assembly. In 2007, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was one of those invited to speak on campus. Ahmadinejad accepted his invitation and spoke on September 24, 2007, as part of Columbia University's World Leaders Forum. The invitation proved to be highly controversial. Hundreds of demonstrators swarmed the campus on September 24 and the speech itself was televised worldwide. University President Lee C. Bollinger tried to allay the controversy by letting Ahmadenijad speak, but with a negative introduction (given personally by Bollinger). This did not mollify those who were displeased with the fact that the Iranian leader had been invited onto the campus. Columbia students, though, turned out en masse to listen to the speech on the South Lawn. An estimated 2,500 undergraduates and graduates came out for the historic occasion.

During his speech, Ahmadinejad criticized Israel 's policies towards the Palestinians ; called for research on the historical accuracy of the Holocaust ; raised questions as to who initiated the 9/11 attacks ; defended Iran's nuclear power program , criticizing the UN's policy of sanctions on his country; and attacked U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. In response to a question about Iran's treatment of women and homosexuals , he asserted that women are respected in Iran and that "In Iran, we don't have homosexuals like in your country... In Iran, we do not have this phenomenon. I don't know who told you this." The latter statement drew laughter from the audience. The Manhattan District Attorney's Office accused Columbia of accepting grant money from the Alavi Foundation to support faculty "sympathetic" to Iran's Islamic republic.


Beginning in 1969, during the Vietnam War, the university did not allow the U.S. military to have Reserve Officers\' Training Corps (ROTC) programs on campus, though Columbia students could participate in ROTC programs at other local colleges and universities. At a forum at the university during the 2008 presidential election campaign , both John McCain and Barack Obama said that the university should consider reinstating ROTC on campus. After the debate, the President of the University, Lee C. Bollinger , stated that he did not favor reinstating Columbia's ROTC program, because of the military's anti-gay policies. In November 2008, Columbia's undergraduate student body held a referendum on the question of whether or not to invite ROTC back to campus, and the students who voted were almost evenly divided on the issue. ROTC lost the vote (which would not have been binding on the administration, and did not include graduate students, faculty, or alumni) by a fraction of a percentage point.

In April 2010 during Admiral Mike Mullen 's address at Columbia, President Lee C. Bollinger stated that the ROTC would be readmitted to campus if the admiral's plans for revoking the don\'t ask, don\'t tell policy were successful. In February 2011 during one of three town-hall meetings on the ROTC ban, former Army staff sergeant Anthony Maschek, a Purple Heart recipient for injuries sustained during his service in Iraq, was booed and hissed at by some students during his speech promoting the idea of allowing the ROTC on campus. In April 2011 the Columbia University Senate voted to welcome the ROTC program back on campus. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus and Columbia University President Lee C. Bollinger signed an agreement to reinstate Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) program at Columbia for the first time in more than 40 years on May 26, 2011. The agreement was signed at a ceremony on board the USS Iwo Jima , docked in New York for the Navy's annual Fleet Week.


For more details on this topic, see Columbia traditions .


From 1975 until 2016, on the day before the Organic Chemistry exam—which is often on the first day of finals—at precisely the stroke of midnight, the Columbia University Marching Band occupied Butler Library to distract diligent students from studying. After a forty-five minutes or so of jokes and music, the procession then moved out to the lawn in front of Hartley, Wallach and John Jay residence halls to entertain the residents there. The band then plays at other locations around Morningside Heights, including the residential quadrangle of Barnard College , where students of the all-women's school, in mock-consternation, rain trash – including notes and course packets – and water balloons upon them from their dormitories above. The band tends to close their Orgo Night performances before Furnald Hall, known among students as the more studious and reportedly "anti-social" residence hall, where the underclassmen in the band serenade the graduating seniors with an entertaining, though vulgar, mock-hymn to Columbia, composed of quips that poke fun at the stereotypes about the Columbia student body.

In December 2016, University administrators banned the Marching Band from performing its Orgo Night show in its traditional Butler Library location, setting off a storm of protests and accusations that University President Lee C. Bollinger was censoring the Band's speech. Concerned alumni initiated an organized campaign to restore the Orgo Night show by publishing a series of pamphlets addressing the issues. University administration continued to prohibit the traditional Orgo Night performance during the spring semester of 2017, prompting the Marching Band to again stage the show outside the library on May 4, 2017 as continued objections from alumni persist. University administrators sent a letter to concerned alumni on April 27, 2017 claiming to be "working closely" with the current Band leadership concerning the future of Orgo Night, but the statement turned out to be false. Band leadership had received no communications or outreach from the university and the administrators had refused to engage in any discussion about the future of the Orgo Night tradition.


Tree-Lighting at College Walk

The campus Tree-Lighting Ceremony was inaugurated in 1998. It celebrates the illumination of the medium-sized trees lining College Walk in front of Kent and Hamilton Halls on the east end and Dodge and Journalism Halls on the west, just before finals week in early December. The lights remain on until February 28. Students meet at the sun-dial for free hot chocolate, performances by _a cappella_ groups, and speeches by the university president and a guest.

Immediately following the College Walk festivities is one of Columbia's older holiday traditions, the lighting of the Yule Log. The Christmas ceremony dates to a period prior to the American Revolutionary War , but lapsed before being revived by University President Nicholas Murray Butler in the early 20th century. A troop of students dressed as Continental Army soldiers carry the eponymous log from the sun-dial to the lounge of John Jay Hall, where it is lit amid the singing of seasonal carols. The Christmas ceremony is accompanied by a reading of _ A Visit From St. Nicholas _ by Clement Clarke Moore and _ Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus _ by Francis Pharcellus Church .


The Varsity Show is an annual musical written by and for students and was established in 1894, making it one of Columbia's oldest traditions. Past writers and directors have included Columbians Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein , Lorenz Hart , I.A.L. Diamond , and Herman Wouk . The show has one of the largest operating budgets of all university events.


Main article: List of Columbia University people

As of 2011, Columbia alumni included three United States Presidents, 26 foreign Heads of State, ten Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (including three Chief Justices) and 39 Nobel winners . As of 2011, alumni also have received more than 35 National Book Awards and 123 Pulitzer Prizes . Today, two United States Senators and 16 Chief Executives of Fortune 500 companies hold Columbia degrees, as do three of the 25 richest Americans and 20 living billionaires. Five Founding Fathers including a member of the Committee of Five are alumni of Columbia University, then named "King's College".

Former U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt attended the law school. Other more recent political figures educated at Columbia include former U.S President Barack Obama , Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Ruth Bader Ginsburg , former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright , former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan , U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder , and U.S. Solicitor General Donald Verrilli Jr. Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the thirteenth president of Columbia University from 1948 to 1953. The university has also educated 26 foreign heads of state , including President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili , President of East Timor Jose Ramos Horta , President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves and other historical figures such as Wellington Koo , Radovan Karadžić , Gaston Eyskens , and T. V. Soong . The author of India's constitution and Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was also an alumnus of Columbia.

Alumni of Columbia have occupied top positions in Wall Street and the rest of the business world. Notable members of the Astor family attended Columbia, while some recent business graduates include investor Warren Buffett , former CEO of PBS and NBC Larry Grossman, and chairman of Wal-Mart S. Robson Walton . CEO's of top Fortune 500 companies include James P. Gorman of Morgan Stanley , Robert J. Stevens of Lockheed Martin , Philippe Dauman of Viacom , Ursula Burns of Xerox , and Vikram Pandit of Citigroup . Notable labor organizer and women's educator Louise Leonard McLaren received her degree of Master of Arts from Columbia.

In science and technology, Columbia alumni include: founder of IBM Herman Hollerith ; inventor of FM radio Edwin Armstrong ; Francis Mechner ; integral in development of the nuclear submarine Hyman Rickover ; founder of Google China Kai-Fu Lee ; scientists Stephen Jay Gould , Robert Millikan , Helium–neon laser inventor Ali Javan and Mihajlo Pupin ; chief-engineer of the New York City Subway , William Barclay Parsons ; philosophers Irwin Edman and Robert Nozick ; economist Milton Friedman ; and psychologist Harriet Babcock .

Many Columbia alumni have gone on to renowned careers in the arts, such as the composers Richard Rodgers , Oscar Hammerstein II , Lorenz Hart , and Art Garfunkel . Four United States Poet Laureates received their degrees from Columbia. Columbia alumni have made an indelible mark in the field of American poetry and literature, with such people as Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg , pioneers of the Beat Generation , and Langston Hughes , a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance , all having attended the university. Other notable writers who attended Columbia include authors Isaac Asimov , J.D. Salinger , Upton Sinclair , Danielle Valore Evans , and Hunter S. Thompson .

University alumni have also been very prominent in the film industry, with 28 alumni and former students winning a combined 39 Academy Awards (as of 2011), second in the world only to New York University (NYU). Some notable Columbia alumni that have gone on to work in film include directors Sidney Lumet (_12 Angry Men _) and Kathryn Bigelow (_ The Hurt Locker _), screenwriters Howard Koch (_Casablanca _) and Joseph L. Mankiewicz (_ All About Eve _), and actors James Cagney and Ed Harris .

* Notable Columbia University alumni include:


Alexander Hamilton , Founding Father of the United States , the first United States Secretary of the Treasury , King's College *

John Jay , Founding Father of the United States , the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court , King's College *

Gouverneur Morris , Founding Father of the United States , author of the United States Constitution and Senator from New York, King's College *

Barack Obama , 44th President of the United States and Nobel laureate, Columbia College *

Neil Gorsuch , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States , Columbia College *

Theodore Roosevelt , President of the United States and Nobel laureate , Columbia Law School *

Franklin D. Roosevelt , President of the United States, Columbia Law School *

Ruth Bader Ginsburg , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States , Columbia Law School *

Herman Hollerith , co-founder of IBM , Columbia University School of Mines *

Robert Kraft , billionaire, owner of the New England Patriots, Chairman and CEO of the Kraft Group , Columbia College *

Warren Buffett , CEO of Berkshire Hathaway and one of the world\'s wealthiest people , Columbia Business School *

Milton Friedman , Nobel laureate, Columbia University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences *

Madeleine Albright , first female Secretary of State , Columbia University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences *

Lou Gehrig , 2-time AL MVP, 6-time World Series Champion, and member of Baseball Hall of Fame , Columbia College *

Sid Luckman , NFL MVP , 4-time NFL Champion , member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame , and member of the College Football Hall of Fame , Columbia College *

Richard Rodgers , legendary Emmy ; Grammy ; Oscar ; and Tony award-winning composer, Pulitzer Prize winner, Columbia College *

Oscar Hammerstein II , 8-time Tony Award winner, 2-time Academy Award winner, Columbia College *

Allen Ginsberg , founder of Beat Generation , Columbia College *

Kate McKinnon , actress and cast member of _ Saturday Night Live _


* New York City portal * University portal

* The Bancroft Prize * Barnard Center for Research on Women * Columbia/Barnard Hillel , a Jewish student organization at Columbia University * Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning * Columbia-Chicago School of Economics * Columbia Glacier , a glacier in Alaska , U.S., named for Columbia University * Columbia Grammar ">

* ^ Founding Fathers include: Alexander Hamilton , John Jay , Robert R. Livingston , Egbert Benson , and Gouverneur Morris . * ^ Foreign heads of state include: Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali , Giuliano Amato , Hafizullah Amin , Nahas Angula , Marek Belka , Fernando Henrique Cardoso , Gaston Eyskens , Mark Eyskens , Jose Ramos Horta , Lee Huan , Toomas Hendrik Ilves , Wellington Koo , Benjamin Mkapa , Mikhail Saakashvili , Mohammad Musa Shafiq , Salim Ahmed Salim , Ernesto Samper , Tang Shaoyi , Abdul Zahir , Zhou Ziqi , Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz , Sun Fo , Chen Gongbo , Nwafor Orizu Juan Bautista Sacasa , and T. V. Soong .


* ^ Universitas Columbiae Neo Eboracensis image miami.edu * ^ _A_ _B_ Moore, Nathanal Fischer (1846). _A Historical Sketch of Columbia_. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 53–60. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Columbia University (2012). " Columbia University at a Glance". Retrieved April 12, 2012. * ^ As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017. * ^ "Full-time faculty distribution by school/division, Fall 2004-Fall 2014". Columbia University Office of Planning and Institutional Research. March 19, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Full-time, part-time headcount and full-time equivalent enrollment by degree status, Fall 2014". Columbia University Office of Planning and Institutional Research. September 9, 2014. * ^ "Logo – Columbia University in the City of New York". _www.columbia.edu_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ "Columbia Visual Identity Color Guide". _ccit.college.columbia.edu_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ "A Practical Guide to Columbia’s Standards of Visual Identity" (PDF). _columbia.edu_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ "Design Guidelines – Columbia University in the City of New York". _www.columbia.edu_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ Chapman, Ross (September 7, 2016). "Nobody Knows What Columbia Blue Is". _Bwog_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ Berenson, Tessa. "U.S. Schools Claim Most Top Spots in 2015 Rankings". _Time_. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "The 24 most prestigious universities in the world, according to Times Higher Education". _Business Insider_. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "World’s most prestigious universities 2016". _Times Higher Education (THE)_. 2016-05-04. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ Strauss, Karsten. " Columbia University – pg.10". _Forbes_. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "Best Global Universities". _U.S. News and World Report_. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "ARWU World Universities". _ARWU_. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "The Course of History". Columbia University. 2004. Retrieved November 22, 2004. * ^ "CC and SEAS admit 5.8 percent of applicants - Columbia Daily Spectator". _columbiaspectator.com_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "A Brief History of Columbia". Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ "Residential Life". Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ "Member Institutions". Association of American Universities. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Seymour Topping. "Pulitzer Administration". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University Global Centers". Columbia University. Retrieved May 4, 2011. * ^ "Dual LLB JD Program between Columbia University and UCL". Retrieved June 3, 2016. * ^ "Dual BA Program Between Columbia University and Sciences Po". Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ "Joint Bachelor\'s Degree Program between City University of Hong Kong and Columbia University". Retrieved August 12, 2016. * ^ "Columbia-Juilliard Exchange". * ^ Michael C. Dorf. "Two Centuries of "Columbian" Constitutionalism". Columbia University: Living Legacies. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Marie Thibault. "In Pictures: Billionaire University". _Forbes_. Retrieved April 12, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Columbia Arts Alumni". Columbia University. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011. * ^ "The Presidents of the United States – Biographical Sketches". US National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Members By Parent Institution". _National Academy of Engineering_. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Columbia". Retrieved October 15, 2012. * ^ "Harvard Nobel Laureates". Retrieved December 14, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ McCaughey, Robert (2003). _Stand, Columbia : A History of Columbia University in the City of New York_. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-231-13008-2 . * ^ Keppel, Fredrick Paul (1914). _Columbia_. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 26. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Matthews, Brander; John Pine; Harry Peck; Munroe Smith (1904). _A History of Columbia University: 1754–1904_. London, England: Macmillan Company. pp. 8–10. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Butler, Nicholas Murray (1912). _An Official Guide to Columbia University_. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. p. 3. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Butler 1912 , p. 3 * ^ Schecter, Barnet (2002). _The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution_. Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1374-2 . * ^ McCullough, David (2005). _1776 _. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2671-4 . * ^ "No. 12910". _ The London Gazette _. August 7, 1787. p. 373. * ^ Matthews 1904 , p. 59 * ^ _A_ _B_ _A History of Columbia University, 1754–1904_. New York: Macmillan. 1904. ISBN 1-4021-3737-0 . * ^ Moore 1846 , pp. 65–70 * ^ Groce, C. G. (1937). _William Samuel Johnson: A Maker of the Constitution_. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Matthews 1904 , p. 74 * ^ McCaughey, Robert (December 10, 2003). "Leading American University Producers of PhDs, 1861–1900". _Stand, Columbia – A History of Columbia University_. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ Butler 1912 , pp. 5–8 * ^ "Columbia University\'s Lunatic Past." _Ephemeral New York_ website. May 5, 2008 * ^ "A Brief History of Columbia". Columbia University. * ^ _A_ _B_ McCaughey, Robert (2012). _Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University_. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231503556 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "History - Columbia University in the City of New York". _www.columbia.edu_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ Broad, William J. (October 30, 2007). "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project". _The New York Times_. Retrieved October 30, 2007. * ^ _Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York ... – Robert A. McCaughey – Google Books_. Books.google.com. Retrieved January 5, 2014. * ^ " Columbia Daily Spectator 3 April 1928 — Columbia Spectator". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "School of General Studies: History". Columbia School of General Studies. Retrieved June 10, 2011. * ^ "What makes GS different from Columbia\'s traditional undergraduate colleges?". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "University Senate". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "History – Columbia University School of Professional Studies". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "History – Columbia University in the City of New York". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2005). _1968: The Year That Rocked The World_. New York, New York: Random House. pp. 194–199. ISBN 0-345-45582-7 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Bradley, Stefan (2009). _ Harlem vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960s_. New York, New York: University of Illinois. pp. 5–19, 164–191. ISBN 978-0-252-03452-7 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Reception honors anniversary of CC coeducation Columbia Daily Spectator. Columbiaspectator.com. Retrieved on September 7, 2013. * ^ "Partnership with Columbia". * ^ "GSAS at a Glance – Columbia University – Graduate School of Arts and Sciences". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "History – Faculty of Arts and Sciences". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ Soler, Alina. "Columbia University". _New York _. Retrieved July 17, 2017. * ^ Duncan, Steve (March 31, 2006). "Finding History In Radioactive Storage Rooms". _Undercity.org_. Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Duncan, Steve (July 20, 2005). "Old Coal Hoppers, Columbia University". _Undercity.org_. Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Butler Library: Self-Guided Tour" (PDF). Columbia University. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Libraries and Collections: Fast Facts". Columbia University. Retrieved April 11, 2013. * ^ "The Nation\'s Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. Retrieved April 11, 2013. * ^ Wienerbronner, Danielle (November 9, 2010). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2011. * ^ Carolyn Pitts (1987). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Low Memorial Library, Columbia" (PDF). National Park Service. * ^ " National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University--Accompanying photos" (PDF). National Park Service. 1983. * ^ Robert D. Colburn (July 2002) National Historic Landmark Nomination: Philosophy Hall, National Park Service and _Accompanying 13 photos, exterior and interior, from c.1922-2001_ * ^ Smithsonian American Art Museum's Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture. "Alma Mater (sculpture)". The Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ Meredith Foster (February 11, 2011). "The Myth of the College Sweetheart". _The Eye_. Columbia Spectator. Archived from the original on March 7, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ "What Is the Mace? A Guide to Columbia\'s Icons". Columbia University Record. May 19, 1999. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Richard P. Dober. "The Steps at Low Library" (PDF). Dober, Lidsky, Craig and Associates, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University Steps". Project for Public Spaces. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ " Manhattanville in West Harlem". Retrieved April 1, 2007. * ^ Williams, Timothy (November 20, 2006). "In West Harlem Land Dispute, It\'s Columbia vs. Residents". _The New York Times_. * ^ Williams, Timothy (September 21, 2008). "2 Gas Stations, and a Family\'s Resolve, Confront Columbia Expansion Plan". _The New York Times_. Retrieved March 28, 2010. * ^ Astor, Maggie; Kim Kirschenbaum (December 18, 2008). "M\'ville Expansion Clears Last Major Hurdle, State Approves Eminent Domain". _Columbia Spectator_. Retrieved August 12, 2009. * ^ "Columbia Manhattanville Project". _Press Release_. May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on May 6, 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2009. * ^ "NYP: Weschster". New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ " Manhattanville in West Harlem". Columbia University. Archived from the original on December 12, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Projects: Green Buildings". Columbia Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Columbia Greenmarket". GrowNYC. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University Green Report Card". The College Sustainability Report Card. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University Green Report Card". College Sustainability Report Card. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Jackson, Abby (April 1, 2016). " Ivy League acceptance rates for the class of 2020". _Business Insider_. Retrieved April 1, 2016. * ^ U.S. News & World Report, Americas Best Rankings 2012, National University Rankings, Selectivity Ranking (the former is available only in the print edition and--for purchase--in the online premium edition) * ^ "Financial Aid Statistics". Columbia University. * ^ " Columbia University Tuition And Costs". Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ "Sign In". Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ " Columbia University to Offer Financial Aid to More Students". _The New York Times_. March 11, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2010. * ^ Steinberg, Jacques (March 23, 2010). "Columbia, Michigan and Connecticut Among 25 Colleges to Add Common Application". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "The Named Scholars". Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ "Schools of Columbia University". Columbia University. Retrieved June 20, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cite error: The named reference Columbia.edu was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ "Board of Trustees". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University Senate". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "Office of the President: Lee Bollinger". Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ "Schools of Columbia University". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ " Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 16, 2016. * ^ "America\'s Top Colleges". _Forbes_. July 5, 2016. * ^ "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings". _U.S. News & World Report_. September 12, 2016. * ^ " Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016. * ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2018". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. * ^ "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016. * ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2017". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 25, 2016. * ^ " Columbia University - U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". _U.S. News & World Report_. Retrieved 13 May 2017. * ^ " Columbia University - U.S. News Best Global University Rankings". _U.S. News & World Report_. Retrieved 20 July 2017. * ^ "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings". _Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education_. Retrieved October 23, 2016. * ^ "National University Rankings". _U.S. News & World Report_. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2015. * ^ "National University Rankings: Columbia University". _U.S. News & World Report_. Retrieved November 3, 2015. * ^ DI releases Design School Rankings for 2013, Archinect News, Reporting rankings from DesignIntelligence for best Architecture and Design Schools. By James P. Cramer of DI. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2012. * ^ Education Portalhttp://education-portal.com/top_journalism_colleges.html * ^ "Top 10 Journalism Schools in the U.S". Education-portal.com. Retrieved October 30, 2010. * ^ "Faculty Columbia University Office of Undergraduate Admissions". Studentaffairs.columbia.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2010.

* ^ "Nobel Prize Winners: Current Faculty". Columbia University. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Faculty". Columbia University Office of Undergraduate Admissions. 2005. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Membership Directory". _Institute of Medicine of the National Academies_. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ BRIAN TUMULTY (April 13, 2015). "Half of N.Y. colleges pay profs less than $100K". _Ithaca Journal_. Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ Guenther, Katja (2015). _Localization and Its Discontents: A Genealogy of Psychoanalysis and the Neuro Disciplines_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-226-28820-8 . * ^ "Columbia To Go" (PDF). Columbia University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2007. * ^ Herper, Matthew (July 26, 2001). "Biotech\'s Glowing Breakthrough". _Forbes_. Retrieved February 27, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "New Inventions / New Discoveries" (PDF). Columbia University Science and Technology Ventures. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Science and Technology Ventures – Success Stories". Columbia University Science and Technology Ventures. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. * ^ Reedy, Katie (November 28, 2006). "Patents Bring in the Cash to Columbia". Columbia Spectator. Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Headcount enrollment by school, race/ethnicity, and citizenship, Fall 2014". Columbia University Office of Planning and Institutional Research. September 12, 2014. * ^ See Demographics of the United States for references. * ^ "Housing and Dining". Columbia University Office of Student Affairs. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Office of Undergraduate Admissions site about Campus Life. Retrieved September 12, 2007. * ^ "The Alpha Delta Phi Society: About Us". Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Fraternity and Sorority Life at Columbia". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "Columbia Daily Spectator". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Blue & White". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "The Columbia Current". * ^ "Columbia Political Review". Retrieved December 26, 2008. * ^ "AdHoc". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "The Columbia Review". Archived from the original on August 4, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism". Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006. * ^ "The Mobius Strip". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Inside New York". Archived from the original on July 3, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2009. * ^ "Journal of Politics & Society". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Publius: About". Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "East Asia Review: About Us". East Asia Review. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "The Birch". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "History and Vision". Columbia Science Review. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "The Fed". Archived from the original on August 4, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "Jester of Columbia". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "The Columbian". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011.

* ^ "The Gadfly: About". The Gadlfy. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "The Rhapsody". Columbia University. Archived from the original on June 24, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ "Current Musicology". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "The Journal of Philosophy". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ Michael Rennick (January 14, 2008). "About the Journal". TCRecord. Retrieved February 22, 2010. * ^ "About Us: Mission Statement". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ ""The Original FM": The Columbia University Radio Club". Columbia University. 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2013. * ^ "CTV News". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "CTV". Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "History". Philolexian Society. February 1, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Jaynes, Gregory (December 5, 1987). "No, Not a Curse But a Jersey Prize For Worst Verse". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team". Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "CIRCA – About". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "CIRCA – Traveling team awards". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ Jon Swartz, USA TODAY (September 17, 2013). "Square\'s Jack Dorsey goes recruiting in NYC". _USA TODAY_. Retrieved August 3, 2015.

* ^ Cormier, Amanda (October 7, 2010). "Columbia\'s Web 3.0". The Eye. Archived from the original on November 2, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010. * ^ "Engaged Entrepreneurship". Columbia University. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Kathleen, Mary (June 7, 2010). "Mecca on the Hudson?". _The Deal_. Archived from the original on September 8, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010. * ^ Wortham, Jenna (March 6, 2010). "New York Isn\'t Silicon Valley, and That\'s Why They Like It". _The New York Times_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Mayor Bloomberg launches NYC Media Lab" (Press release). The City of New York. June 14, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010. * ^ "Athletics". Columbia University. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Columbia Athletics Highlight". Columbia University. 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Losing streak – WikiCU, the Columbia University wiki encyclopedia. Wikicu.com. Retrieved on September 7, 2013. * ^ Carft, Julie (July 29, 1989). "Image is Heavy Burden – Weightlifter Karyn Marshall Feels Pressure to Project \'Femininity, Intelligence\'". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved October 2, 2009. * ^ Lidz, Franz (March 21, 1988). "A Lift For Wall Street". _Sports Illustrated_. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2009. * ^ Baker Field: Birthplace of Sports Television Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .. Columbia University. * ^ "20th-Century Greats". Columbia University. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "About the World Leaders Forum". Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ "World Leaders Forum: Frequently Asked Questions". Worldleaders.columbia.edu. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Participants Columbia University World Leaders Forum". Worldleaders.columbia.edu. Retrieved October 30, 2010. * ^ " Columbia University Orchestra". _Columbia University Orchestra_. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ "CUPAL: Member Organizations". Columbia University of Performing Arts. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Orgo Night! A Columbia University Marching Band Tradition". Columbia University Marching Band. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "About Us". Columbia Queer Alliance. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ _Queer Man on Campus: A History of Non-heterosexual College Men, 1945–2000_. Psychology Press. 2002. p. 167. ISBN 0-415-93336-6 . * ^ " Columbia University Hamilton Society: About". Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Community Impact". Columbia University. Retrieved December 29, 2010. * ^ "Columbia\'s Radicals of 1968 Hold a Bittersweet Reunion". _The New York Times _. April 28, 2008. * ^ " Columbia University – 1968". Retrieved August 3, 2015. * ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "Gym Groundbreaking Will Be Held Next Month", _ Columbia Spectator _, September 29, 1966. * ^ George Keller. _Columbia College Today_ (PDF). Columbia University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Bradley, Stefan (2009). _ Harlem vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960s_. New York, New York: University of Illinois. pp. 5–19, 164–191, 174. ISBN 978-0-252-03452-7 . * ^ " Disinvestment from South Africa#University campuses " * ^ "Columbia Senate Supports Selling South African Stocks Selectively". _The New York Times_. May 7, 1978. * ^ "Trustees vote for divestiture from backers of S. African government". Columbia Spectator. June 8, 1978. * ^ "400 sign petition against offering Kissinger faculty post". Columbia Spectator. March 3, 1977. * ^ "Demonstration at Columbia". _New York Daily News_. May 2, 1978. * ^ "Student Sit-in at Columbia". _New York Post_. May 2, 1978. * ^ "President Bollinger\'s Statement About President Ahmadinejad\'s Scheduled Appearance". Columbia News. September 19, 2007. * ^ "Candidates Speak Out On Ahmadinejad Visit". CBS News. September 24, 2007. * ^ " Iran president in NY campus row". BBC News Online. September 25, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2010. * ^ Vincent, Isabel (November 22, 2009). "Schools\' Iran $ pipeline". _New York Post_. Retrieved February 8, 2013. * ^ Feith, David J., "Duty, Honor, Country… and Columbia", _National Review_, September 15, 2008. Archived September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Army ROTC at Fordham University Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . Accessed September 9, 2010 * ^ "U.S. Air Force ROTC – College Life – College". Afrotc.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "AFROTC Detachment 560, " The Bronx Bombers", CROSS-TOWN SCHOOLS.". Archived from the original on April 27, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2009. * ^ NAVY ROTC IN NEW YORK CITY Archived June 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ McGurn, William, "A Columbia Marine To Obama: Help!", _Wall Street Journal_, September 30, 2008, Page 17. * ^ Colleges and Universities with NROTC Units Archived August 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Karni, Annie, "", _New York Post_, February 20, 2011. * ^ , "Huff Post College", April 2, 2011. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2011. "Navy and Columbia Sign NROTC Agreement," May 26, 2011 * ^ "Orgo Night! A Columbia University Marching Band Tradition". Columbia University Marching Band Legacy. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ This Year, Columbia Event Finds Joke Fodder in Sexual Assault Debate. May 8, 2015, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/09/nyregion/columbia-bands-traditional-show-includes-jokes-about-sexual-assault-debate.html?_r=0 * ^ "University denies marching band access to Butler Library for Orgo Night – Columbia Daily Spectator". _columbiaspectator.com_. Retrieved January 20, 2017. * ^ "Bollinger defends University\'s decision to ban Orgo Night from Butler – Columbia Daily Spectator". _columbiaspectator.com_. Retrieved January 20, 2017. * ^ "In Defense of Orgo Night". Retrieved January 20, 2017. * ^ "University stands by decision to ban Orgo Night from Butler as alumni pressure mounts - Columbia Daily Spectator". _columbiaspectator.com_. Retrieved July 11, 2017. * ^ http://bwog.com/2017/04/28/call-out-columbias-fake-love-for-cumb/ * ^ Jason Hollander. "Holiday Season Ushered In With Tree-Lighting Ceremony". Columbia University News. Retrieved April 15, 2011. * ^ Hollander, Jason (December 3, 1999). "Holiday Season Ushered In With Tree-Lighting Ceremony". _Columbia News_. Retrieved August 10, 2006. * ^ "The Varsity Show, April 15–18". Columbia University. January 10, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2006. * ^ "Columbia 250 – Columbia Nobel Laureates". C250.columbia.edu. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Columbia University: About Columbia: Columbia\'s Nobel Laureates". Columbia.edu. Retrieved April 15, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Columbia University". The Best Colleges. 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011. * ^ "The 400 Richest Americans – Forbes.com". _Forbes_. September 21, 2006. * ^ Chernow, Ron (2004). _Alexander Hamilton_. Penguin Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-59420-009-0 . * ^ "A Brief Biography of John Jay". _The Papers of John Jay_. Columbia University. 2002. * ^ Dangerfield, George (1960). _Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746–1813_. New York, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "Egbert Benson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Wright, Jr., Robert K (1987). "Gouverneur Morris". _Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution_. United States Army Center of Military History . CMH Pub 71-25. Retrieved April 13, 2011. * ^ "Columbia News Announcement". Columbia.edu. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Tribute: The Legacy of Ruth Bader Ginsburg and WRP Staff". American Civil Liberties Union. March 7, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Albright, Madeleine (2003). _Madam Secretary: A Memoir_. Miramax. p. 71. ISBN 0-7868-6843-0 . * ^ Martin, Justin (October 15, 2009). _Greenspan: The Man behind Money_. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basic Books. pp. 27–31. ISBN 0-7382-0275-4 . * ^ Tucker-Hamilton, Racine; Hickey, Matthew (December 17, 2004). "Interview with Eric H. Holder, Jr." (Interview). _Oral history project_. The History Makers. Retrieved November 18, 2008. * ^ "Columbia 250: Dwight Eisenhower". Columbia University. Retrieved May 3, 2011. * ^ Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali. "Experiences In Arab Affairs". Harvard University. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Daniel Peterson (November 29, 2007). "An Interview with Giuliano Amato". The Florentine. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Amstutz, Bruce (1994). _Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation_. DIANE Publishing. p. 303. ISBN 0-7881-1111-6 . * ^ "Namibia PM is Nahas Angula...Educated in the US". _Newsday_. October 13, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "The Biography of Marek Belka". United Nations. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Fulbright Association. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients" (PDF). Columbia University. p. 8. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Alyssa Smith (October 7, 2010). "State Building Challenges in Timor Leste". Columbia Communique. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ Kerry Brown (December 12, 2010). " Lee Huan obituary". _The Guardian_. UK. Retrieved April 18, 2010. * ^ Herb Jackson. "From Estonia to Leonia". Estonian Office of the President. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Columbia 250: Wellington Koo". Columbia University. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Benjamin Mkapa". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Profile: Mikhail Saakashvili". BBC News Online. January 25, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ "Historical Note on Afghanistan" (PDF). United Nations. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ "Biography of Salim Ahmed Salim". United Nations. Retrieved April 18, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "U.S. Students yesterday, world leaders tomorrow". U.S. Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Reilly, Taylor (1997). _Science and Football III_. Taylor and Francis. p. 348. ISBN 0-419-22160-3 . * ^ Gerth, Karl (2004). _China made: Consumer Culture and the creation of the nation_. Harvard University. p. 224. ISBN 0-674-01654-8 . * ^ "Charlemagne: Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz". The Economist. November 1, 2001. Retrieved June 17, 2011. * ^ Boorman, Howard (1970). _Biographical dictionary of Republican China_. Columbia University Press. pp. 163–165. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Reilly, Thomas (1997). _Science and Football III_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-419-22160-3 . * ^ "Education: Prince with a Purpose". Time Magazine. January 1, 1945. Retrieved June 17, 2011. * ^ "Juan Bautista Sacasa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 17, 2011. * ^ " T. V. Soong (Song Ziwen) – A Prominent Businessman and Politician in Republic of China". Cultural China. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. * ^ "Alumnus, Author of Indian Constitution Honored.". * ^ "Letters To The Editor; The Interesting Career Of John Jacob Astor Ii. A Man Of Broad And Generous Sympathies Who Appreciated The Responsibilities Of Wealth". _The New York Times_. August 24, 1890. Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ Reynolds, Cuyler (1914). _Genealogical and family history of southern New York and the Hudson River Valley_. Lewis Historical Pub. Co. p. 1263. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "World\'s Billionaires: Warren Buffett". _Forbes Magazine_. March 1, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011. * ^ Murray, Michael (1999). _Encyclopedia of Television News_. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 1-57356-108-8 . * ^ Serwer, Andy (November 15, 2004). "The Waltons: Inside America\'s Richest Family". _Fortune_. Retrieved April 12, 2011. * ^ The Age (2009). Melbourne-raised Gorman new chief of Morgan Stanley. Retrieved September 13, 2009. * ^ "Robert J. Stevens". Lockheed Martin. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Business Profile: Philippe P. Dauman". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ _Xerox\'s next CEO: Ursula Burns_. Fortune Magazine. May 22, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Office of the Secretary of The University". Columbia University. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2011. * ^ Sicherman, Barbara; Green, Carol Hurd (1993). _Notable American women : the modern period ; a biographical dictionary_ (6th pring. ed.). Cambridge, Mass : Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press. p. 453. ISBN 978-0-674-62733-8 . Retrieved March 17, 2015. * ^ "Herman Hollerith". IBM. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Tsividis, Yannis (Spring 2002). "Edwin Armstrong: Pioneer of the Airwaves". Columbia Alumni Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2011. * ^ Allen, Thomas (2007). _Rickover: Father of the Nuclear Navy_. Brassey's. p. 12. ISBN 1-57488-704-1 . * ^ Richmond Ezer Escolar (June 11, 2008). "Google Conquers China: An Interview with Kai-Fu Lee". Columbia Business School Chazen Web Journal. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2012. * ^ Green, Michelle (1986). "Stephen Jay Gould: driven by a hunger to learn and to write". _People_ 25 (June 2): 109-114. * ^ David Goodstein. "In the Case of Robert Andrews Millikan" (PDF). _American Scientist_: 54–60. * ^ "Michael Pupin". Columbia University: Department of Physics. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "William Barclay Parsons". Columbia University. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "Irwin Edman". Columbia University. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Ryan, Alan (January 30, 2001). "Obituary: Professor Robert Nozick". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University 250: Milton Friedman". Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy, eds. (2000). _The biographical dictionary of women in science : pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century._ New York, NY : Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 0-415-92039-6 . * ^ Rodgers, Richard. _Musical Stages: An Autobiography_ (2002 Reissue), pp. 12, 20–21, 44. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81134-0 * ^ Hischak, Thomas (2007). _The Rodgers and Hammerstein Encyclopedia_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 0-313-34140-0 . * ^ Hughson Mooney, "Lorenz Hart" Archived September 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ., PBS, Excerpted from the _DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, SUPPLEMENT 3_: 1941–1945. American Council of Learned Societies, 1973. Reprinted by permission of the American Council of Learned Societies, retrieved April 18, 2011 * ^ Herman, Jan (February 6, 1977). "TV Makes You Famous; Rock \'n Roll Makes You Rich". _ Gannett News Service _. * ^ _Literature Resource Center_: "The Beat Generation". Retrieved November 13, 2013. * ^ " Columbia University 250: Langston Hughes". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ " Columbia University 250: Isaac Asimov". Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ Alexander, Paul (1999). _Salinger: A Biography_. Los Angeles: Renaissance. ISBN 1-58063-080-4 . * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_: "Upton Sinclair". Retrieved April 15, 2011. * ^ "Award winning writer Danielle Evans featured in Southeastern\'s ‘Common Read’ program". Southeastern Louisiana University. Retrieved March 23, 2017. * ^ Thompson, Hunter (1998). Douglas Brinkley, ed. _The Proud Highway: Saga of a Desperate Southern Gentleman_ (1st ed.). Ballantine Books . p. 139. ISBN 0-345-37796-6 . * ^ "Film Obituaries; Sidney Lumet". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. April 9, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ "School of the Arts Alumna Kathryn Bigelow Wins Major British Film Award". Columbia University. February 22, 2010. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011. * ^ Gussow, Mel (August 18, 1995). "Howard Koch, a Screenwriter For \'Casablanca,\' Dies at 93". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Flint, Peter (February 6, 1993). "Joseph L. Mankiewicz, Literate Skeptic of the Cinema, Dies at 83.". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 11, 2011. * ^ Flint, Peter (March 31, 1986). " James Cagney Is Dead at 86; Master of Pugnacious Grace". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 14, 2011. * ^ "Ed Harris: Full Biography". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 17, 2011.


* Robert A. McCaughey: _Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, 1754–2004_, Columbia University Press, 2003, ISBN 0231130082 * _Living Legacies at Columbia_, ed. by Wm Theodore De Bary, Columbia University Press, 2006, ISBN 0231138849


_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY _.

* Official website * {{URL _example.com__optional