The COLUMBIA GRAPHOPHONE COMPANY was one of the earliest gramophone
companies in the
United Kingdom . As COLUMBIA RECORDS, it became a
successful label in the 1950s and 1960s, but was eventually replaced
by the newly created
EMI Records , as part of an
consolidation. This in turn was absorbed by the
Warner Music Group .
* 1 Early history
* 2 As an
* 3 Phaseout of label by
EMI and trade mark transfer
* 4 Current ownership
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
In 1922, Columbia
Phonograph , as the American
Columbia Records was
then known, sold its UK subsidiary Columbia Graphophone. However, in
Graphophone bought its former parent for $2.5 million.
Odeon Records and
Parlophone Records were acquired. On 21
April 1931, the
Gramophone Company and the Columbia Graphophone
Company merged and formed a new company, ELECTRIC AND MUSICAL
EMI ). American anti-trust laws forced
EMI to sell its
American Columbia operations.
EMI continued to operate the Columbia record label in the UK until
the early 1970s, and everywhere else except for the US, Canada,
Mexico, Spain and Japan, until it sold its remaining interest in the
Columbia trademark to
Sony Music Entertainment in 1990.
Under EMI, English Columbia's output was mainly licensed recordings
from American Columbia until 1951 when American Columbia switched
British distribution to
Philips Records . English Columbia continued
to distribute American Columbia sister labels Okeh and Epic until 1968
when American Columbia's then parent
CBS moved distribution of all its
labels to the new
CBS Records created from the purchase of Oriole
Records (UK) in late 1964. The loss of American Columbia product had
forced English Columbia to groom its own talent such as
Russ Conway ,
Acker Bilk , John Barry ,
Cliff Richard , the Shadows , Helen Shapiro
Frank Ifield ,
Rolf Harris ,
Freddie and the Dreamers , the Dave
Clark Five ,
Shirley Bassey ,
Frankie Vaughan , Des O\'Connor , Ken
Dodd , the Animals , Herman\'s Hermits ,
Gerry and the Pacemakers
Gerry and the Pacemakers ,
the Seekers , the Yardbirds ,
Jeff Beck , and
Pink Floyd . Led by
avuncular A&R man
Norrie Paramor , the label was arguably the most
successful in Britain in the rock era prior to the beat boom .
In the mid 1960s, English Columbia added an audiophile imprint called
Studio 2 Stereo . During that time, the Columbia
was absorbed into the
Gramophone Company with the label maintaining
EMI has engaged in litigation with
CBS regarding the importing of
American records bearing the Columbia imprint into areas where EMI
owned the Columbia name.
Releases from the British Columbia
Graphophone Company appeared in
Japan under Toshiba Musical Industries , because a competitor, Nippon
Columbia , had no direct relations with the label.
PHASEOUT OF LABEL BY
EMI AND TRADE MARK TRANSFER
EMI decided to reserve the HMV label for classical repertoire and had
transferred HMV's remaining pop acts to Columbia and
EMI began to replace the Columbia label with the eponymous EMI
Records in January 1973. The last Columbia single was issued in
EMI sold its remaining interest in the Columbia name in 1990 to
Sony Music Entertainment (formerly
CBS Records), which already owned
Columbia Records in the U.S. and Canada. The formal reassignment of
British registered trade marks from EMI, including the "magic notes"
logo, took place in 1993.
Columbia Records trade mark in the UK and elsewhere, Sony
Music now prefers the "walking eye" logo previously used by the old
CBS Records, which is based on the
Columbia Records logo introduced in
the US and Canada in 1955. However, the "magic notes" logo is
occasionally used, usually to give a 'retro' feel (such as on the 2016
vinyl reissues of Pink Floyd's _Piper at the Gates of Dawn _ and _A
Saucerful of Secrets _).
The Columbia name was still on some
EMI releases between 1973 and
1990 (such as
Baltimora 's "
Tarzan Boy " in 1985, _Jeanne Mas _ and
Kiki Dee album _Angel Eyes_), but it had ceased acting as a
fully functioning label.
In Australia and Germany,
EMI continued using the Columbia label
throughout the 1970s and to at least 1980, but added the
EMI label in
Through its ownership of the former Columbia/
Parlophone Records' new owner
Warner Music Group assumed Columbia's
artist roster and catalogue. New reissues bear the Parlophone
Graphophone , a Bell name -webkit-column-width: 30em;
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* ^ _The Life and Times of Alan Dower Blumlein - R. W. Burns -
Google Books_. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
* ^ _Billboard - Google Books_. Books.google.com. 1968-05-11.
* ^ _The Rise & Fall of
EMI Records - Brian Southall - Google
Books_. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
Pink Floyd recorded their first three albums for Columbia
Graphophone, then switched to Harvest; some of their recordings for
Harvest were leased to the