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Colorado
Colorado
Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado
Colorado
as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state. It is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles (97 km) south of the Colorado
Colorado
State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet (1,839 m) the city stands over 1 mile (1.6 km) above sea level. This is higher than Denver, though some areas of the city are significantly higher and lower. Colorado
Colorado
Springs is situated near the base of one of the most famous American mountains, Pikes Peak, rising above 14,000 feet (4,300 m) on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States
United States
Olympic Committee, the United States
United States
Olympic Training Center, and USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, and a metro population of approximately 712,000,[11] ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, and the 40th most populous city in the United States.[12] The Colorado
Colorado
Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.[13] The city is included in the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range
Front Range
of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in Colorado
Colorado
and Wyoming, generally following the path of Interstate 25
Interstate 25
in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles (505 km2), making it the most extensive municipality in Colorado.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Metropolitan area 2.2 Climate

2.2.1 Seasonal climate 2.2.2 Climate data

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics 4 Economy

4.1 Defense industry 4.2 High-tech industry

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Religious institutions 5.3 Marijuana 5.4 In popular culture

6 Sports

6.1 Olympic sports 6.2 Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
International Hill Climb

6.2.1 Local teams (professional) 6.2.2 Local teams (college) 6.2.3 Rodeo

7 Parks, trails and open space

7.1 Parks 7.2 Trails

8 Government 9 Nearby military sites 10 Education

10.1 Elementary and middle schools 10.2 Higher education

11 Media 12 Transportation

12.1 Major highways and roads

12.1.1 Interstate highways 12.1.2 State highways 12.1.3 County and city roads

12.2 Air Transport 12.3 Railroads 12.4 Walkability 12.5 Mountain Metropolitan Transit

12.5.1 Mountain Metro Mobility 12.5.2 Mountain Metro Rides

13 Notable people 14 In popular culture 15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado
Colorado
and Timeline of Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado The Ute, Arapaho
Arapaho
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
peoples were the first to inhabit the area which would become Colorado
Colorado
Springs.[14] Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory
Jefferson Territory
on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28. Colorado
Colorado
City
City
at the Front Range
Front Range
confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859"[15] during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado
Colorado
Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver.

Replacing the 1883 original which burned earlier in the year, the 1898 Antlers Hotel (above) was torn down in 1964.

In 1871 the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font (later called Manitou Springs) and Fountain Colony, upstream and downstream respectively, of Colorado
Colorado
City.[16] Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed " Colorado
Colorado
Springs", and was officially incorporated.[17] The El Paso County seat
County seat
shifted from Colorado
Colorado
City in 1873 to the Town
Town
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs.[18] On December 1, 1880, Colorado
Colorado
Springs expanded northward with two annexations.[19] [20]

Mining in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado

People

Albert E. Carlton J. J. Hagerman Irving Howbert William Jackson Palmer Winfield Scott Stratton Charles L. Tutt Sr.

Coal mining areas

Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Cragmor Papeton Pikeview Roswell

Other mining topics

Colorado
Colorado
Midland Railway Midland Terminal Railway Golden Cycle Mining and Reduction Company Western Museum of Mining & Industry

v t e

The second period of annexations was during 1889–90, and included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado
Colorado
Springs, East End, and another North End addition.[19] In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, and by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers."[21] By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.[20]:10 From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station
Tesla Experimental Station
operated on Knob Hill,[22] and aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919.[23] Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, and in 1927 the original Colorado
Colorado
Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city.[23]

Space Command – Peterson AFB Building 1

In World War II
World War II
the United States
United States
Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942. This was only one of several military presences in and around Colorado
Colorado
Springs during the war.[24][25] In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base
Ent Air Force Base
was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command (ADC). The former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, which had been inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U.S. Air Force base.[26] The 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968 the University of Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Community College and Colorado
Colorado
Technical University were established in or near the city.[27][28] In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s.[29] On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition,[19] Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Canon, Ivywild, Skyway, and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation
Annexation
in September 2008. [19] Geography[edit]

View of Colorado
Colorado
Springs from Pikes Peak

The city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains
Southern Rocky Mountains
to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, and high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo.[30] According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles (504.1 km2), of which 194.6 square miles (503.9 km2) is land and 0.35 square miles (0.9 km2), or 0.19%, is water.[31] Metropolitan area[edit] Colorado
Colorado
Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, and urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that typically plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime, sprawl, and government budget issues. Many of the problems are indirectly or directly caused by the city's difficulty in coping with the large population growth experienced in the last twenty years, and the annexation of the Banning Lewis Ranch
Banning Lewis Ranch
area to accommodate further population growth of 175,000 future residents.[32] Climate[edit]

Pikes Peak, the easternmost "14er" in the United States

Colorado
Colorado
Springs has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), and its location just east of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
affords it the rapid warming influence from chinook winds during winter but also subjects it to drastic day-to-day variability in weather conditions.[33] The city has abundant sunshine year-round, averaging 243 sunny days per year,[34][35] and receives approximately 16.5 inches (419 mm) of annual precipitation. Due to unusually low precipitation for several years after flooding in 1999, Colorado
Colorado
Springs enacted lawn water restrictions in 2002. These were lifted in 2005.[30] Colorado
Colorado
Springs is one of the most active lightning strike areas in the United States. This natural phenomenon led Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
to select Colorado
Colorado
Springs as the preferred location to build his lab and study electricity.[36] Seasonal climate[edit] Winters range from mild to moderately cold, with December, the coldest month, averaging 30.8 °F (−0.7 °C); historically January has been the coldest month, but, in recent years, December has had both lower daily maxima and minima.[37] Typically, there are 5.2 nights with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows and 23.6 days where the high does not rise above freezing,[38] and extended sub-zero (°F) cold snaps are possible but infrequent. Snowfall is usually moderate and remains on the ground briefly because of direct sun, with the city receiving 38 inches (97 cm) per season, although the mountains to the west often receive in excess of triple that amount; March is the snowiest month in the region, both by total accumulation and number of days with measurable snowfall. In addition, 8 of the top 10 heaviest 24-hour snowfalls have occurred from March to May.[38] Summers are warm, with July, the warmest month, averaging 70.9 °F (21.6 °C), and 18 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually. Due to the high elevation and aridity, nights are usually relatively cool and rarely does the low remain above 70 °F (21 °C).[38] Dry weather generally prevails, but brief afternoon thunderstorms are common, especially in July and August when the city receives the majority of its annual rainfall, due to the North American Monsoon.[39] The first autumn freeze and the last freeze in the spring, on average, occur on October 2 and May 6, respectively; the average window for measurable snowfall (≥0.1 in or 0.25 cm) is October 21 through April 25. Extreme temperatures range from 101 °F (38 °C) on June 26, 2012 and most recently on June 21, 2016, down to −27 °F (−33 °C) on February 1, 1951 and December 9, 1919.[40] Climate data[edit]

Climate data for Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado
Colorado
(Airport), 1981–2010 normals

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 73 (23) 77 (25) 81 (27) 87 (31) 94 (34) 101 (38) 100 (38) 99 (37) 95 (35) 87 (31) 78 (26) 77 (25) 101 (38)

Average high °F (°C) 43.2 (6.2) 44.8 (7.1) 52.1 (11.2) 59.8 (15.4) 69.1 (20.6) 79.0 (26.1) 84.8 (29.3) 81.6 (27.6) 74.5 (23.6) 63.0 (17.2) 51.0 (10.6) 42.1 (5.6) 62.1 (16.7)

Average low °F (°C) 17.7 (−7.9) 19.5 (−6.9) 26.0 (−3.3) 33.3 (0.7) 42.7 (5.9) 51.3 (10.7) 56.9 (13.8) 55.7 (13.2) 47.3 (8.5) 35.8 (2.1) 25.2 (−3.8) 17.5 (−8.1) 35.7 (2.1)

Record low °F (°C) −26 (−32) −27 (−33) −16 (−27) −3 (−19) 15 (−9) 27 (−3) 37 (3) 34 (1) 20 (−7) −6 (−21) −12 (−24) −27 (−33) −27 (−33)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.31 (7.9) 0.34 (8.6) 1.00 (25.4) 1.41 (35.8) 2.02 (51.3) 2.50 (63.5) 2.83 (71.9) 3.34 (84.8) 1.19 (30.2) 0.82 (20.8) 0.40 (10.2) 0.34 (8.6) 16.51 (419.4)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.5 (14) 4.8 (12.2) 7.9 (20.1) 4.9 (12.4) 0.7 (1.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 3.1 (7.9) 4.6 (11.7) 5.9 (15) 37.8 (96)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.9 4.7 7.6 8.3 10.6 10.2 11.5 13.6 7.3 5.0 4.6 4.3 91.6

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.1 4.2 5.7 3.5 0.7 0 0 0 0.3 1.8 3.8 4.6 28.7

Source: NOAA (extremes 1894–present)[38]

Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic View of Downtown Colorado
Colorado
Springs

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1880 4,226

1890 11,140

163.6%

1900 21,085

89.3%

1910 29,078

37.9%

1920 30,105

3.5%

1930 33,237

10.4%

1940 36,789

10.7%

1950 45,472

23.6%

1960 70,194

54.4%

1970 135,517

93.1%

1980 215,105

58.7%

1990 281,140

30.7%

2000 360,890

28.4%

2010 416,427

15.4%

Est. 2016 465,101 [9] 11.7%

U.S. Decennial Census[41]

As of the 2010 census, the population of Colorado
Colorado
Springs was 416,427[42] (40th most populous U.S. city), and the population of the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area was 645,613 in 2010 (84th most populous MSA),[43] and the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor in Colorado
Colorado
was an estimated 4,166,855. As of the April 2010 census:[44] 78.8% White, 16.1% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 6.3% Black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.5% Some other race, 5.1% Two or more races. Mexican Americans made up 14.6% of the city's population. The median age in the city was 35 years.[45][nb 1] Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
were 70.7% of the population,[47] compared to 86.6% in 1970.[48]

City
City
Hall

City
City
Hall in 2008

Economy[edit] Colorado
Colorado
Springs' economy is driven primarily by the military, the high-tech industry, and tourism, in that order. The city is currently experiencing some growth mainly in the service sectors. The unemployment rate for the city as of October 2015 was 3.9%, a decrease from 4.8% in October 2014 and 7.3% in November 2013[49] and compared to 3.8% for the state[50] and 5.0% for the nation.[51] Defense industry[edit] The defense industry plays a major role in the Colorado
Colorado
Springs economy, with some of the city's largest employers coming from the sector.[52] A large segment of this industry is dedicated to the development and operation of various projects for missile defense. With its close ties to defense, the aerospace industry has also influenced the Colorado
Colorado
Springs economy. Although some defense corporations have left or downsized city campuses, a slight growth trend is still recorded. Significant defense corporations in the city include Boeing, General Dynamics, Harris Corporation, SAIC, ITT, L-3 Communications, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman.[53][54][55] The Space Foundation is based in Colorado
Colorado
Springs. High-tech industry[edit] A large percentage of Colorado
Colorado
Springs' economy is based on manufacturing high tech and complex electronic equipment. The high tech sector in the Colorado
Colorado
Springs area has decreased its overall presence from 2000 to 2006 (from around 21,000 down to around 8,000), with notable reductions in information technology and complex electronic equipment.[56] Due to a slowing in tourism, the high tech sector still remains second to the military in terms of total revenue generated and employment.[citation needed] Current trends project the high tech employment ratio will continue to decrease in the near future.[57][58][59][60] High tech
High tech
corporations with connections to the city include: Verizon Business, a telecommunications firm, had nearly 1300 employees in 2008.[61] Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
has a large sales, support, and SAN storage engineering center for the computer industry.[62][63][64] Storage Networking Industry Association is the home of the SNIA Technology Center.[65] Agilent, spun off from HP in 1999 as an independent, publicly traded company.[citation needed] Intel
Intel
had 250 employees in 2009.[66] The facility is now used for the centralized unemployment and social services complex.[citation needed] Broadcom
Broadcom
(formerly LSI Corporation) designs semiconductors and software that accelerate storage and networking in datacenters and mobile networks.[citation needed] Microchip Technology
Microchip Technology
(formerly Atmel), is a chip fabrication organization.[67] Cypress Semiconductor Colorado
Colorado
Design Center is a chip fabrication research and development site.[citation needed] The Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
facility was sold to Sanmina-SCI in 1996.[68] Culture[edit] Tourism[edit] Almost immediately following the arrival of railroads beginning in 1871, the city's location at the base of Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
and the Rocky Mountains made it a popular tourism destination. Tourism is the third largest employer in the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
region, accounting for more than 16,000 jobs.[69][citation needed] Nearly 5 million visitors come to the area annually, contributing $1.35 billion in revenue.[70] Colorado
Colorado
Springs has more than 55 attractions and activities in the area,[71] including Garden of the Gods, United States
United States
Air Force Academy, the ANA Money Museum, Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Zoo, Colorado
Colorado
Springs Fine Arts Center, Old Colorado
Colorado
City
City
and the U.S. Olympic Training Center.[72] The downtown Colorado
Colorado
Springs Visitor Information Center offers free area information to leisure and business travelers.[71] The Cultural Office of the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Region (COPPeR), also located downtown, supports and advocates for the arts throughout the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Region. It operates the PeakRadar website to communicate city events.[73] Religious institutions[edit]

Focus on the Family
Focus on the Family
Visitors Center

Although houses of worship of almost every major world religion can be found in the city, Colorado
Colorado
Springs has in particular attracted a large influx of Evangelical Christians and Christian organizations in recent years. At one time Colorado
Colorado
Springs was counted to be the national headquarters for 81 different religious organizations, earning the city the tongue-in-cheek nicknames "the Evangelical Vatican"[74] and "The Christian Mecca." Religious groups with regional or international headquarters in Colorado
Colorado
Springs include:

Andrew Wommack Ministries[75] Association of Christian Schools International[76] Biblica[77] Children's HopeChest[78] Christian and Missionary Alliance[79] Community Bible Study[80] Compassion International[81] David C. Cook[82] Development Associates International[83] Engineering Ministries International[84] Family Talk[85]

Focus on the Family[86] Global Action[87] HCJB[88] Hope & Home[89] The Navigators[90] One Child Matters[91] Roman Catholic Diocese of Colorado
Colorado
Springs[92] VisionTrust[93] WAY-FM Media Group[94] Young Life[95]

Marijuana[edit] Main article: Colorado
Colorado
Amendment 64 § Local option Although Colorado
Colorado
voters approved Colorado
Colorado
Amendment 64, a constitutional amendment in 2013 legalizing retail sales of marijuana for recreational purposes, the Colorado
Colorado
Springs city council voted not to permit retail shops in the city, as was allowed in the amendment.[96] Medical marijuana outlets continue to operate in Colorado
Colorado
Springs.[97] As of 2015, there were 91 medical marijuana clinics in the city, which reported sales of $59.6 million in 2014, up 11 percent from the previous year but without recreational marijuana shops.[98] On April 26, 2016 Colorado
Colorado
Springs city council decided to extend the current six-month moratorium to eighteen months with no new licenses to be granted until May 2017. On July 27, 2017 the Cannabist published an article with a link to a scholarly paper where the author suggest the city will give up 25.4 million dollars in tax revenue and fees if the city continues to thwart the industry from opening within the city limits[99][100]. On March 1, 2018 there were 131 medical marijuana centers and no recreational cannabis stores[101]. In popular culture[edit] Main article: Colorado
Colorado
Springs in popular culture Colorado
Colorado
Springs has been the subject of or setting for many books, movies and television shows, and is a frequent backdrop for political thrillers and military-themed stories because of its many military installations and vital importance to the United States' continental defense. Notable television series using the city as a setting include Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
and the Stargate
Stargate
series Stargate
Stargate
SG-1, as well as the films WarGames
WarGames
and The Prestige.[102] In a North Korean propaganda video released in April 2013, Colorado Springs was inexplicably singled out as one of four targets for a missile strike. The video failed to pinpoint Colorado
Colorado
Springs on the map, instead showing a spot somewhere in Louisiana.[103] The documentary television series Homicide Hunter, in which former Colorado
Colorado
Springs police detective Joseph Kenda recounts cases of homicide from his career, is set in Colorado
Colorado
Springs. Sports[edit] Olympic sports[edit]

United States
United States
Olympic Committee headquarters and training facility

Colorado
Colorado
Springs, dubbed Olympic City
City
USA, is home to the United States Olympic Training Center and the headquarters of the United States Olympic Committee and the United States
United States
Anti-Doping Agency.[104] In addition, 24 of the United States' national federations for individual Olympic sports have their headquarters in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, including: US bobsled, fencing, figure skating, basketball, boxing, cycling, judo, field hockey, hockey, swimming, shooting, table tennis, taekwondo, triathlon, volleyball, pentathlon, handball, and wrestling associations and organizations. Further, over 50 national sports organizations (non-Olympic) headquarter in Colorado
Colorado
Springs. These include the National Strength and Conditioning Association, Sports Incubator, a various non-Olympic Sports (such as USA Ultimate), and more.[105] Colorado
Colorado
Springs and Denver
Denver
hosted the 1962 World Ice Hockey Championships.[nb 2] The city has a long association with the sport of figure skating, having hosted the U.S. Figure Skating
U.S. Figure Skating
Championships six times and the World Figure Skating Championships five times. It is home to the World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame and the Broadmoor Skating Club, a notable training center for the sport. In recent years, the World Arena has hosted skating events such as Skate America
Skate America
and the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships.[106] Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
International Hill Climb[edit] See also: Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
International Hill Climb The Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
International Hill Climb (PPIHC), also known as The Race to the Clouds, is an annual invitational automobile and motorcycle hill climb to the summit of Pikes Peak, every year on the last Sunday of June. The first running of the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Hill Climb was promoted by Spencer Penrose. Penrose had finished widening the narrow carriage road into a much wider " Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Highway." He decided to encourage tourists to visit by creating a race to the clouds. The PPIHC takes place on a 12.42 mile (19.99 km) public toll-road boasting 156 turns, while competitors climb 4,720 ft. (1,440 m.) from the 9,390 ft. (2,862 m.) start line at mile 7 marker on the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Highway to the 14,115 ft. (4,300 m) finish line at the summit. The race is self-sanctioned and is the most diverse one day motorsports event in the world with everything from Sidecars, Motorcycles, Semi-Trucks, and 1,400+hp EV & Unlimited Racers being able to compete in the same event. The highway wasn't completely paved until 2011.[107] Local teams (professional)[edit]

Name Sport Founded League Venue

Colorado
Colorado
Springs Sky Sox Baseball 1988 Pacific Coast League Security Service Field
Security Service Field
[108]

Colorado
Colorado
Springs Switchbacks FC Soccer 2015 United Soccer League Weidner Field
Weidner Field
[109]

Local teams (college)[edit] The local colleges feature many sports teams. Notable among them are the following nationally competitive NCAA Division I teams: United States Air Force Academy (Falcons) Football, Basketball and Hockey,[110] Colorado
Colorado
College (Tigers) Hockey, and Women's Soccer.[111] Colorado
Colorado
Springs also boasts three top-ranked Division III collegiate ultimate programs: Air Force Afterburn (Open), Colorado College Wasabi (Open), and Colorado
Colorado
College Strata (Women's). The Mountain West Conference
Mountain West Conference
and the National Collegiate Hockey Conference is based in Colorado
Colorado
Springs. Rodeo[edit] Colorado
Colorado
Springs is home to the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame
Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame
and the headquarters of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association. Colorado
Colorado
Springs was the original headquarters of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR) from its founding in 1992 until 2005, when the organization was moved to Pueblo; the PBR used to hold an annual Built Ford Tough Series event at the World Arena
World Arena
from 2001 until 2005 when the organization made the move to Pueblo.[citation needed] Parks, trails and open space[edit] Main article: Parks in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado See also: List of parks in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado There are 136 neighborhood, 8 community, 7 regional parks and 5 sports complexes totaling 9,000 acres managed by the city's Parks, Recreation and Cultural Services. They also manage 500 acres of trails, which are 160 miles of park trails and 105 miles of urban trails. There are 5,000 acres of open spaces in 48 open space areas.[112] Parks[edit] One of the most popular areas in Colorado
Colorado
Springs is the park on its western edge, Garden of the Gods, considered by many to be the most beautiful park in the world.[113] It is a National Natural Landmark with 300 foot sandstone rock formations often viewed against a backdrop of the snow-capped mountains of Pikes Peak. The park offers a variety of annual events, one of the most popular of which is the Starlight Spectacular; a recreational bike ride held every summer to benefit the Trails and Open Space Coalition of Colorado
Colorado
Springs.[114] Colorado
Colorado
Springs has several major parks, such as Palmer Park, America the Beautiful Park (Confluence Park), Memorial Park, and Monument Valley Park.[115] The Austin Bluffs Park also affords a place of recreation in eastern Colorado
Colorado
Springs. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa),[116][117] Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii),[118][119] narrowleaf yucca (Yucca angustissima, syn. Yucca glauca)[120] and prickly pear cactus (Opuntia macrorhiza)[121] are some of the more common flora endemic to the Front Range
Front Range
in Colorado
Colorado
Springs.

Garden of the Gods

Ackerman Overlook near United States
United States
Air Force Academy off Interstate 25 in Colorado
Colorado
Springs is named for Jasper D. Ackerman (1896–1988), a banker and rancher.[122]

Pulpit Rock, in Pikeview (North Colorado
Colorado
Springs)

Trails[edit] Three trails, the New Santa Fe Regional Trail, Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Greenway and Fountain Creek Regional Trail, form a continuous path from Palmer Lake, through Colorado
Colorado
Springs, to Fountain, Colorado. The majority of the trail between Palmer Lake and Fountain is a soft surface breeze gravel trail. A major segment of the trail within the Colorado
Colorado
Springs city limits is paved. The Urban Trail system within Colorado
Colorado
Springs consists of more than 110 miles of multi-use trail for biking, jogging, roller blading and walking. The trails, except Monument Valley Park
Monument Valley Park
trails, may be used for equestrian traffic. Motorized vehicles are not allowed on the trails. Many of the trails are interconnected, having main "spine" trails, like the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Greenway, that lead to secondary trails.[123][124][125] Government[edit] On November 2, 2010, Colorado
Colorado
Springs voters adopted a council-strong mayor form of government. The City
City
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs transitioned to the new system of government in 2011. Under the council-strong mayor system of government, the mayor is the chief executive and the city council is the legislative branch. The mayor is a full-time elected position and not a member of the city council. The city council has nine members total, six of which represent one of six equally populated districts each. The remaining three members are elected "at-large".[126] The mayor has veto authority, with the city council having the ability to override a mayoral veto by a two-thirds majority vote (6 out of 9). Colorado
Colorado
Springs City
City
Hall was built from 1902 to 1904 on land donated by W. S. Stratton.[127]

Nearby military sites[edit]

United States
United States
Air Force Academy Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Air Force Station Peterson Air Force Base Schriever Air Force Base Fort Carson
Fort Carson
Army Base

Education[edit] Elementary and middle schools[edit]

Public schools The city's public schools are divided into several districts:

Widefield School District 3 (south end) Academy School District 20 (north end) Colorado
Colorado
Springs School District 11 (center of the city) Falcon School District 49 (east side) Fountain- Fort Carson
Fort Carson
School District 8 (far south end) Harrison School District 2 (south central area) James Irwin Charter Schools (east central area) Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain School District 12 (southwest corner) Colorado
Colorado
School for the Deaf and Blind. Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Charter Academy, CIVA Charter School and The Classical Academy are charter schools.[citation needed]

Private schools

The Colorado
Colorado
Springs School[128] Colorado
Colorado
Springs Christian Schools Evangelical Christian Academy Fountain Valley School of Colorado Hilltop Baptist School Springs Adventist Academy St. Mary's High School Divine Redeemer Catholic School Pauline Memorial Catholic School Corpus Christi Catholic School Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Christian School The University School of Colorado
Colorado
Springs.[citation needed] Colorado
Colorado
School for the Deaf and Blind is a residential school.[citation needed]

Higher education[edit] Bachelors and graduate degree programs are offered at these colleges and universities in the city:

Doolittle Hall on the campus of the United States
United States
Air Force Academy

Colorado
Colorado
College CollegeAmerica University of Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Springs (UCCS)[129] Colorado
Colorado
Technical University Remington College[130] Colorado
Colorado
Christian University, Colorado
Colorado
Springs Center Campus[131] The Citadel Campus of Colorado
Colorado
State University-Pueblo DeVry University The University of the Rockies[132]

The United States
United States
Air Force Academy is a military school for officer candidates.[133] IntelliTec College is a technical training school. Pikes Peak Community College offers a two-year degree program.[134][135] Media[edit] Main article: Media in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado In March 2016 there were six newspapers actively publishing in Colorado
Colorado
Springs including the newspaper with the largest circulation in the state. Colorado-Pueblo MSA is the 90th largest broadcast market in the US. There are 24 digital television stations in Colorado Springs and 34 radio stations. Transportation[edit] Major highways and roads[edit] Interstate highways[edit] Colorado
Colorado
Springs is primarily served by two interstate highways. I-25 runs north and south through Colorado, and traverses the city for nearly 18 miles (29 km), entering the city south of Circle Drive and exiting north of North Gate Blvd. In El Paso County it is known as Ronald Reagan Highway.[nb 3] US 24 runs across the central mountains, through the city, and onto the plains. From west to east in Colorado Springs, US 24 follows the western portion of Cimarron Street and the Midland Expressway, a 2-mile concurrent section with I-25/US 87 between exits 139 and 141, part of Fountain Blvd, an expressway called the Martin Luther King Bypass, part of South Powers Blvd (where it is concurrent with Colorado
Colorado
21), and the easternmost portion of Platte Avenue out of the city. State highways[edit] A number of state highways serve the city. State Highway 21 is a major east side semi-expressway from Black Forest to Fountain. It is widely known as Powers Boulevard. State Highway 83 runs north-south from Denver
Denver
to northern Colorado
Colorado
Springs. State Highway 94 runs east-west from western Cheyenne
Cheyenne
County to eastern Colorado
Colorado
Springs. State Highway 115 begins in Cañon City
City
and runs up Nevada Avenue. US 85 and SH 115 are concurrent between Lake Avenue and I-25. US 85 enters the city at Fountain and was signed at Venetucci Blvd, Lake Avenue, and Nevada Avenue.[nb 4] County and city roads[edit] In November 2015, voters in Colorado
Colorado
Springs overwhelmingly passed ballot measure 2C, dedicating funds from a temporary sales tax increase to much needed road and infrastructure improvements over five years. This temporary increase is estimated to bring in approximately $50M annually, which will be used solely to improve roads and infrastructure. The Ballot measure passed by a margin of approximately 65–35%,[140] and was championed by newly elected Mayor John Suthers. In 2004, the voters of Colorado
Colorado
Springs and El Paso County established the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Rural Transportation Authority[141] and adopted a 1% sales tax dedicated to improving the region's transportation infrastructure. Together with state funding for the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Metro Interstate Expansion (COSMIX) (2007 completion) and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16 (2008 completion), significant progress has been made since 2003 in addressing the transportation needs of the area. In early 2010, the city of Colorado
Colorado
Springs approved an expansion of the northernmost part of Powers Boulevard in order to create an Interstate 25
Interstate 25
bypass commonly referred to as the Copper Ridge Expansion.[142][nb 5] Air Transport[edit] Colorado
Colorado
Springs Airport (COS), six miles to the southeast, is the second-largest commercial airport in the state. Peterson Air Force Base is a tenant of the airport. Railroads[edit] Freight service is provided by Union Pacific
Union Pacific
and BNSF. Currently there is no intercity passenger service. Walkability[edit] A 2011 study by Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Colorado
Colorado
Springs 34th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[144]

A Metro bus drives past a parking garage in downtown Colorado
Colorado
Springs.

Mountain Metropolitan Transit[edit] Mountain Metropolitan Transit
Mountain Metropolitan Transit
(MMT) is the primary source of clean, safe, and economical public transportation services in the Pikes Peak region providing over 11,000 one-way trips per day. In addition to bus routes within the City
City
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Mountain Metro Transit provides service into Manitou Springs, north to the Chapel Hills Mall, east to Peterson Air Force Base
Peterson Air Force Base
and south into the Widefield area. Mountain Metro Mobility[edit] Mountain Metro Mobility is an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) federally mandated complementary ADA paratransit service, which provides demand-response service for individuals with mobility needs that prevent them from using the fixed-route bus system. Mountain Metro Rides[edit] Mountain Metro Rides offers alternative transportation options to residents of the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Region. The program is designed to reduce congestion and pollution by encouraging people to commute by carpool, vanpool, bicycling or walking. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado

Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
sitting in the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Experimental Station with his "magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts

In popular culture[edit]

Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
was set in Colorado
Colorado
Springs from 1867-1876

Sister cities[edit]

Bishkek
Bishkek
mayor Arstanbek Nogoev
Arstanbek Nogoev
presents a gift for Colorado
Colorado
Springs mayor Lionel Rivera to a US airman at Manas Air Base, in a ceremony aimed at reviving ties between the two sister cities.[145]

Sister cities
Sister cities
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs include:

Fujiyoshida, Japan[146] (1962) Kaohsiung, Taiwan (1983) Smolensk, Russia (1993) Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
(1994) Nuevo Casas Grandes, Mexico (1996) Bankstown, Australia (1999) Palmas, Brazil (2002).[147]

Colorado
Colorado
Springs' sister city organization began when Colorado
Colorado
Springs became partners with Fujiyoshida. The torii gate erected to commemorate the relationship stands at the corner of Bijou Street and Nevada Avenue, and is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks. The torii gate, crisscrossed bridge and shrine, located in the median between Platte and Bijou Streets in downtown Colorado
Colorado
Springs, were a gift to Colorado
Colorado
Springs, erected in 1966 by the Rotary Club of Colorado
Colorado
Springs to celebrate the friendship between the two communities. A plaque near the torii gate states that "the purpose of the sister city relationship is to promote understanding between the people of our two countries and cities". The Fujiyoshida Student exchange program has become an annual event.[citation needed] To strengthen relations between the two cities, the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Youth Symphony regularly invites the Taiko drummers from the city to participate in a joint concert in the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Center. The orchestra played in Bankstown, Australia, in 2002 and again in June 2006 as part of their tours to Australia and New Zealand.[citation needed] Also, in 2006 and 2010, the Bankstown TAP (Talent Advancement Program), performed with the Youth Symphony, and the Colorado
Colorado
Springs Children's Chorale, as a part of the annual "In Harmony" program.[citation needed] A notable similarity between Colorado
Colorado
Springs and its sister cities are their geographic positions: three of the seven cities are also located near the base of a major mountain or mountain range.[148] See also[edit]

Colorado
Colorado
portal

Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Complex Garden of the Gods Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Highway Pikes Peak

Notes[edit]

^ As of the census[46] of 2000 (limited only to the city limits and not including the very diverse Fort Carson
Fort Carson
area which many view as being a part of the Colorado
Colorado
Springs metropolitan area), there were 360,890 people, 141,516 households, and 93,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,942.9 people per square mile (750.2/km²). There were 148,690 housing units at an average density of 800.5 per square mile (309.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.7% White, 6.6% African American, 0.9% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 5.0% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. 12.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 141,516 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males. (Note: City
City
statistics do not include the demographic influence of five local military bases). The median income for a household in the city was $45,081, and the median income for a family was $53,478. Males had a median income of $36,786 versus $26,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,496. About 6.1% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. ^ This nullifies a popular Canadian claim that the 2008 IIHF World Championships in Quebec City
Quebec City
and Halifax marked the first time this event was organized on the American continent. However, the 2008 event was the first World Championship on the American continent in which NHL players were eligible to compete. ^ In order to combat congestion the Colorado
Colorado
Department of Transportation widened the Interstate 25
Interstate 25
corridor throughout the city from four lanes (two in each direction) to six lanes in a program called COSMIX. Ultimately, the plan is to make the interstate eight lanes through the city when funding becomes available.[136] This plan is similar in nature to Denver's T-Rex expansion plan.[citation needed] Work has been completed to expand Interstate 25
Interstate 25
from 4 to 6 lanes between Woodmen Road (exit 149, the northern terminus for the COSMIX project) and Monument (exit 161).[137][138] ^ In addition, there were plans to develop a " Front Range
Front Range
Toll Road", a privately owned turnpike, which would begin south of Pueblo and end around Fort Collins. This toll road would allow rail and truck traffic to avoid the more highly traveled parts of I-25 along the Front Range. Initially, the project had support but has since been highly contested because of the need to condemn the land of many private citizens, through the use of eminent domain, to make room for the corridor.[139] ^ The project developers also have hopes of increasing business at the future I-25 Powers Boulevard connection by building a 2.8 million sq. ft. shopping mall on the East side of the Powers exit.[142] Developers hope to have the project finished by 2013, but have a deadline of 2018.[143]

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Springs". Air Force Link. United States: Department of Defense. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007 inconsistent citations   ^ "US-Japan Sister Cities by State". Asia Matters for America. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center. Retrieved November 20, 2015.  ^ "Conheça os Deputados – Portal
Portal
da Câmara do Deputados (in Portuguese)" (in Portuguese). .camara.gov.br. Retrieved January 19, 2013.  ^ " City
City
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs – Topic Pages". Springsgov.com. July 6, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Find more about Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Coloradoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

City
City
of Colorado
Colorado
Springs official website Colorado
Colorado
Springs Fine Arts Center " Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado". C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Cities Tour. November 2014. 

v t e

Colorado
Colorado
Springs

Colorado
Colorado
Springs metropolitan area

General topics

Buildings Companies Geography History

Timeline

Mining industry Organizations People from Colorado
Colorado
Springs Tallest buildings Tuberculosis treatment

Flag

Culture

Broadmoor World Arena Colorado
Colorado
Springs City
City
Auditorium Colorado
Colorado
Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado
Colorado
Springs Philharmonic Cultural Office of the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Region In popular culture Parks Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Center for the Performing Arts Pioneers Museum Religious institutions

Government

Colorado
Colorado
Springs City
City
Hall Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Library District

Emergency services

Hospitals (Penrose Hospital) Police

Education

Colorado
Colorado
College Colorado
Colorado
Technical University Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Community College United States
United States
Air Force Academy University of Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Springs

Transportation

Colorado
Colorado
Springs Airport Colorado
Colorado
Springs East Airport (private) Front Range
Front Range
Express (FREX)

Media

Colorado
Colorado
Springs Business Journal Colorado
Colorado
Springs Independent The Gazette

Sports

Blizzards Sky Sox Switchbacks United Air Force Falcons Colorado
Colorado
College Tigers

men's ice hockey

UCCS Mountain Lions

Neighborhoods and historic places

Banning Lewis Ranch Boulder Crescent Place Historic District Broadmoor Cragmor Ivywild Knob Hill Old Colorado
Colorado
City Old North End Historic District Pikeview (Pinecliff) Roswell Papeton (Venetian Village) St. Peter's Dome See also National Register of Historic Places in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado

Attractions

Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Zoo Garden of the Gods Glen Eyrie Manitou Springs, Colorado Old Colorado
Colorado
City Parks Peterson Air and Space Museum Pikes Peak ProRodeo Hall of Fame Seven Falls United States
United States
Olympic Training Center Western Museum of Mining & Industry Will Rogers Shrine of the Sun World Figure Skating Hall of Fame

Military

Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Air Force Station Fort Carson North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
(NORAD) Peterson Air Force Base Schriever Air Force Base

Colorado United States

v t e

Municipalities and communities of El Paso County, Colorado, United States

County seat: Colorado
Colorado
Springs

Cities

Colorado
Colorado
Springs Fountain Manitou Springs

Towns

Calhan Green Mountain Falls‡ Monument Palmer Lake Ramah

CDPs

Air Force Academy Black Forest Cascade-Chipita Park Cimarron Hills Ellicott Fort Carson Gleneagle Peyton Rock Creek Park Security-Widefield Stratmoor Woodmoor

Unincorporated communities

Alta Vista Cascade Chipita Park Cragmor Crystola‡ Eastonville Elsmere Falcon Ivywild Midway Minnehaha Old Colorado
Colorado
City Rush Shirley Truckton Venetian Village (formerly Papeton) Wigwam Yoder

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

 State of Colorado

Denver
Denver
(capital)

Topics

Index Coloradans Elections Federal lands Geography Government Highways History

Timeline

Images Law Military Mountains Museums Public Defender Paleontology Rivers Symbols Transportation Tourist attractions

Seal of Colorado

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

Central Colorado Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Eastern Plains Front Range Grand Valley High Plains High Rockies Mineral Belt Northern Colorado Northwestern Colorado Piedmont Plateau Roan Plateau Roaring Fork Valley San Luis Valley Sangre de Cristo Mountains South-Central Colorado Southwest Colorado Uinta Mountains Uintah Basin Western Slope

Municipalities

Akron Alamosa Arvada Aspen Aurora Boulder Breckenridge Brighton Broomfield Cañon City Castle Rock Centennial Colorado
Colorado
Springs Commerce City Cortez Craig Delta Denver Durango Englewood Erie Evans Fairplay Federal Heights Fort Collins Fort Morgan Fountain Golden Glenwood Springs Grand Junction Greeley Greenwood Village Gunnison La Junta Lafayette Lakewood Lamar Leadville Littleton Longmont Louisville Loveland Montrose Northglenn Parker Platteville Pueblo Salida Steamboat Springs Sterling Superior Thornton Trinidad Vail Westminster Wheat Ridge Windsor

Counties

Adams Alamosa Arapahoe Archuleta Baca Bent Boulder Broomfield Chaffee Cheyenne Clear Creek Conejos Costilla Crowley Custer Delta Denver Dolores Douglas Eagle El Paso Elbert Fremont Garfield Gilpin Grand Gunnison Hinsdale Huerfano Jackson Jefferson Kiowa Kit Carson La Plata Lake Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Logan Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray Park Phillips Pitkin Prowers Pueblo Rio Blanco Rio Grande Routt Saguache San Juan San Miguel Sedgwick Summit Teller Washington Weld Yuma

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Colorado

Michael Hancock (Denver) John Suthers ( Colorado
Colorado
Springs) Steve Hogan (Aurora) Karen Weitkunat (Fort Collins) Adam Paul (Lakewood) Erik Hansen (Thornton) Bob Frie (Arvada) Nancy McNally (Westminster) Barbara Vidmar (Pueblo) City Council President Cathy Noon (Centennial) Matthew Appelbaum (Boulder)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236868852 LCCN: n79084

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