Color television is a television transmission technology that includes
information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be
displayed in color on the television set. It is an improvement on the
earliest television technology, monochrome or black and white
television, in which the image is displayed in shades of gray
Television broadcasting stations and networks in most
parts of the world upgraded from black and white to color transmission
in the 1960s and 1970s. The invention of color television standards is
an important part of the history of television, and it is described in
the technology of television article.
Transmission of color images using mechanical scanners had been
conceived as early as the 1880s. A practical demonstration of
mechanically-scanned color television was given by
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird in
1928, but the limitations of a mechanical system were apparent even
then. Development of electronic scanning and display made an
all-electronic system possible. Early monochrome transmission
standards were developed prior to the Second World War, but civilian
electronics developments were frozen during much of the war. In August
1944, Baird gave the world's first demonstration of a practical fully
electronic color television display. In the United States,
commercially competing color standards were developed, finally
resulting in the
NTSC standard for color that retained compatibility
with the prior monochrome system. Although the
NTSC color standard was
proclaimed in 1953 and limited programming became available, it was
not until the early 1970s that color television in North America
outsold black and white or monochrome units.
Color broadcasting in
Europe was not standardized on the
PAL format until the 1960s.
Around 2006 countries began to switch from analog color television
technology to digital television. This changeover is now complete in
many developed countries, but analog television is still the standard
in many developing countries.
1.1 Early television
1.2 All-mechanical color
1.3 Hybrid systems
1.4 Fully electronic
1.4.1 FCC color
1.4.2 Compatible color
1.4.3 Second NTSC
2.1 North America
2.1.4 United States
Asia and the Pacific
2.3.1 Middle East
2.5 South America
4 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
The human eye's detection system in the retina consists primarily of
two types of light detectors: rod cells that capture light, dark, and
shapes/figures, and the cone cells that detect color. A typical retina
contains 120 million rods and 4.5 million to 6 million cones, which
are divided among three groups that are sensitive to red, green, and
blue light. This means that the eye has far more resolution in
brightness, or "luminance", than in color. However, post-processing in
the optic nerve and other portions of the human visual system combine
the information from the rods and cones to re-create what appears to
be a high-resolution color image.
The eye has limited bandwidth to the rest of the visual system,
estimated at just under 8 Mbit/s. This manifests itself in a number
of ways, but the most important in terms of producing moving images is
the way that a series of still images displayed in quick succession
will appear to be continuous smooth motion. This illusion starts to
work at about 16 frame/s, and common motion pictures use 24 frame/s.
Television, using power from the electrical grid, tunes its rate in
order to avoid interference with the alternating current being
supplied – in North America, some Central and South American
countries, Taiwan, Korea, part of Japan, the Philippines, and a few
other countries, this is 60 video fields per second to match the
60 Hz power, while in most other countries it is 50 fields per
second to match the 50 Hz power.
In its most basic form, a color broadcast can be created by
broadcasting three monochrome images, one each in the three colors of
red, green, and blue (RGB). When displayed together or in rapid
succession, these images will blend together to produce a full-color
image as seen by the viewer. One of the great technical challenges of
introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve
bandwidth, potentially three times that of the existing
black-and-white standards, and not use an excessive amount of radio
spectrum. In the United States, after considerable research, the
Television Systems Committee approved an all-electronic
system developed by
RCA which encoded the color information separately
from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of
the color information in order to conserve bandwidth. The brightness
image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television
sets at slightly reduced resolution, while color televisions could
decode the extra information in the signal and produce a
limited-resolution color display. The higher resolution
black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the eye
to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image. The
represented a major technical achievement.
Experiments in television systems using radio broadcasts date to the
19th century, but it was not until the 20th century that advances in
electronics and light detectors made development practical. A key
problem was the need to convert a 2D image into a "1D" radio signal;
some form of image scanning was needed to make this work. Early
systems generally used a device known as a "Nipkow disk", which was a
spinning disk with a series of holes punched in it that caused a spot
to scan across and down the image. A single photodetector behind the
disk captured the image brightness at any given spot, which was
converted into a radio signal and broadcast. A similar disk was used
at the receiver side, with a light source behind the disk instead of a
A number of such systems were being used experimentally in the 1920s.
The best-known was John Logie Baird's, which was actually used for
regular public broadcasting in Britain for several years. Indeed,
Baird's system was demonstrated to members of the Royal Society in
London in 1926 in what is generally recognized as the first
demonstration of a true, working television system. In spite of these
early successes, all mechanical television systems shared a number of
serious problems. Being mechanically driven, perfect synchronization
of the sending and receiving discs was not easy to ensure, and
irregularities could result in major image distortion. Another problem
was that the image was scanned within a small, roughly rectangular
area of the disk's surface, so that larger, higher-resolution displays
required increasingly unwieldy disks and smaller holes that produced
increasingly dim images. Rotating drums bearing small mirrors set at
progressively greater angles proved more practical than Nipkow discs
for high-resolution mechanical scanning, allowing images of 240 lines
and more to be produced, but such delicate, high-precision optical
components were not commercially practical for home
It was clear to a number of developers that a completely electronic
scanning system would be superior, and that the scanning could be
achieved in a vacuum tube via electrostatic or magnetic means.
Converting this concept into a usable system took years of development
and several independent advances. The two key advances were Philo
Farnsworth's electronic scanning system, and Vladimir Zworykin's
Iconoscope camera. The Iconoscope, based on Kálmán Tihanyi's early
patents, superseded the Farnsworth-system. With these systems, the BBC
began regularly scheduled black-and-white television broadcasts in
1936, but these were shut down again with the start of
World War II
World War II in
1939. In this time thousands of television sets had been sold. The
receivers developed for this program, notably those from Pye Ltd.,
played a key role in the development of radar.
By 22 March 1935, 180-line black-and-white television programs were
being broadcast from the Paul Nipkow TV station in Berlin. In 1936,
under the guidance of "Minister of Public Enlightenment and
Propaganda" Joseph Goebbels, direct transmissions from fifteen mobile
units at the Olympic Games in
Berlin were transmitted to selected
small television houses (Fernsehstuben) in
Berlin and Hamburg.
In 1941 the first
NTSC meetings produced a single standard for US
broadcasts. US television broadcasts began in earnest in the immediate
post-war era, and by 1950 there were 6 million televisions in the
The basic idea of using three monochrome images to produce a color
image had been experimented with almost as soon as black-and-white
televisions had first been built.
Among the earliest published proposals for television was one by
Maurice Le Blanc in 1880 for a color system, including the first
mentions in television literature of line and frame scanning, although
he gave no practical details. Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik
patented a color television system in 1897, using a selenium
photoelectric cell at the transmitter and an electromagnet controlling
an oscillating mirror and a moving prism at the receiver. But his
system contained no means of analyzing the spectrum of colors at the
transmitting end, and could not have worked as he described it. An
Armenian inventor, Hovannes Adamian, also experimented with color
television as early as 1907. The first color television project is
claimed by him, and was patented in
Germany on March 31, 1908,
patent № 197183, then in Britain, on April 1, 1908, patent №
France (patent № 390326) and in
Russia in 1910 (patent
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first
color transmission on July 3, 1928, using scanning discs at the
transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each
spiral with filters of a different primary color; and three light
sources, controlled by the signal, at the receiving end, with a
commutator to alternate their illumination. The demonstration was
of a young girl wearing different colored hats.
Noele Gordon went on
to become a successful TV actress, famous for the soap opera
Crossroads. Baird also made the world's first color broadcast on
February 4, 1938, sending a mechanically scanned 120-line image from
Baird's Crystal Palace studios to a projection screen at London's
Mechanically scanned color television was also demonstrated by Bell
Laboratories in June 1929 using three complete systems of
photoelectric cells, amplifiers, glow-tubes, and color filters, with a
series of mirrors to superimpose the red, green, and blue images into
one full color image.
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As was the case with black-and-white television, an electronic means
of scanning would be superior to the mechanical systems like Baird's.
The obvious solution on the broadcast end would be to use three
conventional Iconoscopes with colored filters in front of them to
produce an RGB signal. Using three separate tubes each looking at the
same scene would produce slight differences in parallax between the
frames, so in practice a single lens was used with a mirror or prism
system to separate the colors for the separate tubes. Each tube
captured a complete frame and the signal was converted into radio in a
fashion essentially identical to the existing black-and-white systems.
The problem with this approach was there was no simple way to
recombine them on the receiver end. If each image was sent at the same
time on different frequencies, the images would have to be "stacked"
somehow on the display, in real time. The simplest way to do this
would be to reverse the system used in the camera; arrange three
separate black-and-white displays behind colored filters and then
optically combine their images using mirrors or prisms onto a suitable
screen, like frosted glass.
RCA built just such a system in order to
present the first electronically scanned color television
demonstration on February 5, 1940, privately shown to members of the
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission at the
RCA plant in Camden, New
Jersey. This system, however, suffered from the twin problems of
costing at least three times as much as a conventional black-and-white
set, as well as having very dim pictures, the result of the fairly low
illumination given off by tubes of the era. Projection systems of this
sort would become common decades later, however, with improvements in
Another solution would be to use a single screen, but break it up into
a pattern of closely spaced colored phosphors instead of an even
coating of white. Three receivers would be used, each sending its
output to a separate electron gun, aimed at its colored phosphor.
Although obvious, this solution was not practical. The electron guns
used in monochrome televisions had limited resolution, and if one
wanted to retain the resolution of existing monochrome displays, the
guns would have to focus on individual dots three times smaller. This
was beyond the state of the art at the time.
Instead, a number of hybrid solutions were developed that combined a
conventional monochrome display with a colored disk or mirror. In
these systems the three colored images were sent one after each other,
in either complete frames in the "field-sequential color system", or
for each line in the "line-sequential" system. In both cases a colored
filter was rotated in front of the display in sync with the broadcast.
Since three separate images were being sent in sequence, if they used
existing monochrome radio signaling standards they would have an
effective refresh rate of only 20 fields, or 10 frames, a second, well
into the region where flicker would become visible. In order to avoid
this, these systems increased the frame rate considerably, making the
signal incompatible with existing monochrome standards.
The first practical example of this sort of system was again pioneered
by John Logie Baird. In 1940 he publicly demonstrated a color
television combining a traditional black-and-white display with a
rotating colored disk. This device was very "deep", but was later
improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely
practical device resembling a large conventional console. However,
Baird was not happy with the design, and as early as 1944 had
commented to a British government committee that a fully electronic
device would be better.
In 1939, Hungarian engineer
Peter Carl Goldmark introduced an
electro-mechanical system while at CBS, which contained an Iconoscope
CBS field-sequential color system was partly mechanical,
with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the
television camera at 1,200 rpm, and a similar disc spinning in
synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver
set. The system was first demonstrated to the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) on August 29, 1940, and shown to the
press on September 4.
CBS began experimental color field tests using film as early as August
28, 1940, and live cameras by November 12.
NBC (owned by RCA) made
its first field test of color television on February 20, 1941. CBS
began daily color field tests on June 1, 1941. These color systems
were not compatible with existing black-and-white television sets, and
as no color television sets were available to the public at this time,
viewing of the color field tests was restricted to
RCA and CBS
engineers and the invited press. The
War Production Board
War Production Board halted the
manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from
April 22, 1942 to August 20, 1945, limiting any opportunity to
introduce color television to the general public.
This live image of Paddy Naismith was used to demonstrate John Logie
Baird's first all-electronic color television system, which used two
projection CRTs. The two-color image would be similar to the basic
As early as 1940, Baird had started work on a fully electronic system
he called the "Telechrome". Early
Telechrome devices used two electron
guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate. The phosphor was
patterned so the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the
patterning or the other. Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a
reasonable limited-color image could be obtained. He also demonstrated
the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image (called
"stereoscopic" at the time). Baird's demonstration on August 16, 1944
was the first example of a practical color television system. Work
Telechrome continued and plans were made to introduce a
three-gun version for full color. However, Baird's untimely death in
1946 ended development of the
Similar concepts were common through the 1940s and 50s, differing
primarily in the way they re-combined the colors generated by the
three guns. The
Geer tube was similar to Baird's concept, but used
small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces,
instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface. The
three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power
of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors. The
Chromatron used a set of focusing wires to select the colored
phosphors arranged in vertical stripes on the tube.
In the immediate post-war era the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) was inundated with requests to set up new television stations.
Worrying about congestion of the limited number of channels available,
the FCC put a moratorium on all new licenses in 1948 while considering
the problem. A solution was immediately forthcoming; rapid development
of radio receiver electronics during the war had opened a wide band of
higher frequencies to practical use, and the FCC set aside a large
section of these new
UHF bands for television broadcast. At the time,
black and white television broadcasting was still in its infancy in
the U.S., and the FCC started to look at ways of using this newly
available bandwidth for color broadcasts. Since no existing television
would be able to tune in these stations, they were free to pick an
incompatible system and allow the older
VHF channels to die off over
The FCC called for technical demonstrations of color systems in 1948,
and the Joint Technical Advisory Committee (JTAC) was formed to study
CBS displayed improved versions of its original design, now
using a single 6 MHz channel (like the existing black-and-white
signals) at 144 fields per second and 405 lines of resolution. Color
Television Inc. demonstrated its line-sequential system, while Philco
demonstrated a dot-sequential system based on its beam-index
tube-based "Apple" tube technology. Of the entrants, the
was by far the best-developed, and won head-to-head testing every
While the meetings were taking place it was widely known within the
RCA was working on a dot-sequential system that was
compatible with existing black-and-white broadcasts, but
to demonstrate it during the first series of meetings. Just before the
JTAC presented its findings, on August 25, 1949,
RCA broke its silence
and introduced its system as well. The JTAC still recommended the CBS
system, and after the resolution of an ensuing
RCA lawsuit, color
broadcasts using the
CBS system started on June 25, 1951. By this
point the market had changed dramatically; when color was first being
considered in 1948 there were fewer than a million television sets in
the U.S., but by 1951 there were well over 10 million. The idea that
VHF band could be allowed to "die" was no longer practical.
During its campaign for FCC approval,
CBS gave the first
demonstrations of color television to the general public, showing an
hour of color programs daily Mondays through Saturdays, beginning
January 12, 1950, and running for the remainder of the month, over
WOIC in Washington, D.C., where the programs could be viewed on eight
16-inch color receivers in a public building. Due to high public
demand, the broadcasts were resumed February 13–21, with several
evening programs added.
CBS initiated a limited schedule of color
broadcasts from its New York station
WCBS-TV Mondays to Saturdays
beginning November 14, 1950, making ten color receivers available for
the viewing public. All were broadcast using the single color
CBS owned. The New York broadcasts were extended by
coaxial cable to Philadelphia's WCAU-TV beginning December 13, and
to Chicago on January 10, making them the first network color
After a series of hearings beginning in September 1949, the FCC found
RCA and CTI systems fraught with technical problems, inaccurate
color reproduction, and expensive equipment, and so formally approved
CBS system as the U.S. color broadcasting standard on October 11,
1950. An unsuccessful lawsuit by
RCA delayed the first commercial
network broadcast in color until June 25, 1951, when a musical variety
special titled simply Premiere was shown over a network of five East
CBS affiliates. Viewing was again restricted: the program
could not be seen on black-and-white sets, and Variety estimated that
only thirty prototype color receivers were available in the New York
area. Regular color broadcasts began that same week with the
daytime series The World Is Yours and Modern Homemakers.
CBS color broadcasting schedule gradually expanded to twelve
hours per week (but never into prime time), and the color network
expanded to eleven affiliates as far west as Chicago, its
commercial success was doomed by the lack of color receivers necessary
to watch the programs, the refusal of television manufacturers to
create adapter mechanisms for their existing black-and-white sets,
and the unwillingness of advertisers to sponsor broadcasts seen by
almost no one.
CBS had bought a television manufacturer in April,
and in September 1951, production began on the only CBS-Columbia color
television model, with the first color sets reaching retail stores on
September 28. But it was too little, too late. Only 200 sets
had been shipped, and only 100 sold, when
CBS discontinued its color
television system on October 20, 1951, ostensibly by request of the
National Production Authority for the duration of the Korean War, and
bought back all the
CBS color sets it could to prevent lawsuits by
David Sarnoff later
charged that the NPA's order had come "out of a situation artificially
created by one company to solve its own perplexing problems" because
CBS had been unsuccessful in its color venture.
While the FCC was holding its JTAC meetings, development was taking
place on a number of systems allowing true simultaneous color
broadcasts, "dot-sequential color systems". Unlike the hybrid systems,
dot-sequential televisions used a signal very similar to existing
black-and-white broadcasts, with the intensity of every dot on the
screen being sent in succession.
Georges Valensi demonstrated an encoding scheme that would
allow color broadcasts to be encoded so they could be picked up on
existing black-and-white sets as well. In his system the output of the
three camera tubes were re-combined to produce a single "luminance"
value that was very similar to a monochrome signal and could be
broadcast on the existing
VHF frequencies. The color information was
encoded in a separate "chrominance" signal, consisting of two separate
signals, the original blue signal minus the luminance (B'–Y'), and
red-luma (R'–Y'). These signals could then be broadcast separately
on a different frequency; a monochrome set would tune in only the
luminance signal on the
VHF band, while color televisions would tune
in both the luminance and chrominance on two different frequencies,
and apply the reverse transforms to retrieve the original RGB signal.
The downside to this approach is that it required a major boost in
bandwidth use, something the FCC was interested in avoiding.
RCA used Valensi's concept as the basis of all of its developments,
believing it to be the only proper solution to the broadcast problem.
However, RCA's early sets using mirrors and other projection systems
all suffered from image and color quality problems, and were easily
bested by CBS's hybrid system. But solutions to these problems were in
the pipeline, and
RCA in particular was investing massive sums (later
estimated at $100 million) to develop a usable dot-sequential tube.
RCA was beaten to the punch by the Geer tube, which used three B&W
tubes aimed at different faces of colored pyramids to produce a color
image. All-electronic systems included the Chromatron,
beam-index tube that were being developed by various companies. While
investigating all of these, RCA's teams quickly started focusing on
the shadow mask system.
In July 1938 the shadow mask color television was patented by Werner
Flechsig (1900–1981) in Germany, and was demonstrated at the
International radio exhibition
Berlin in 1939. Most CRT color
televisions used today are based on this technology. His solution to
the problem of focusing the electron guns on the tiny colored dots was
one of brute-force; a metal sheet with holes punched in it allowed the
beams to reach the screen only when they were properly aligned over
the dots. Three separate guns were aimed at the holes from slightly
different angles, and when their beams passed through the holes the
angles caused them to separate again and hit the individual spots a
short distance away on the back of the screen. The downside to this
approach was that the mask cut off the vast majority of the beam
energy, allowing it to hit the screen only 15% of the time, requiring
a massive increase in beam power to produce acceptable image
In spite of these problems in both the broadcast and display systems,
RCA pressed ahead with development and was ready for a second assault
on the standards by 1950.
The possibility of a compatible color broadcast system was so
compelling that the
NTSC decided to re-form, and held a second series
of meetings starting in January 1950. Having only recently selected
CBS system, the FCC heavily opposed the NTSC's efforts. One of the
FCC Commissioners, R. F. Jones, went so far as to assert that the
engineers testifying in favor of a compatible system were "in a
conspiracy against the public interest".
Unlike the FCC approach where a standard was simply selected from the
existing candidates, the
NTSC would produce a board that was
considerably more pro-active in development.
CBS color even got on the air, the U.S. television
industry, represented by the National
Television System Committee,
worked in 1950–1953 to develop a color system that was compatible
with existing black-and-white sets and would pass FCC quality
RCA developing the hardware elements. ("Compatible
color," a phrase from advertisements for early sets, appears in the
song "America" of West Side Story, 1957.)
RCA first made publicly
announced field tests of the dot sequential color system over its New
York station WNBT in July 1951. When
CBS testified before Congress
in March 1953 that it had no further plans for its own color
National Production Authority dropped its ban on the
manufacture of color television receivers, and the path was open
NTSC to submit its petition for FCC approval in July 1953,
which was granted on December 17. The first publicly announced
network demonstration of a program using the
NTSC "compatible color"
system was an episode of NBC's
Kukla, Fran and Ollie
Kukla, Fran and Ollie on August 30,
1953, although it was viewable in color only at the network's
headquarters. The first network broadcast to go out over the air
NTSC color was a performance of the opera
Carmen on October 31,
See also: Timeline of the introduction of color television in
Color broadcasts from the United States were available to Canadian
population centers near the border since the mid-1950s. At the
NTSC color broadcasting was officially introduced into
Canada in 1966, less than one percent of Canadian households had a
color television set.
Color television in Canada was launched on
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's (CBC) English language TV
service on September 1, 1966. Private television broadcaster CTV
also started colorcasts in early September 1966. The CBC's
French-language TV service, Radio-Canada, was broadcasting color
programming for 15 hours a week in 1968. Full-time color
transmissions started in 1974 on the CBC, with other private sector
broadcasters in the country doing so by the end of the 1970s.
Cuba in 1958 became the second country in the world to introduce color
television broadcasting, with Havana's Channel 12 using standards
established by the
NTSC Committee of United States Federal
Communications Commission in 1940, and American technology patented by
the American electronics company RCA, or Radio Corporation of America.
But the color transmissions ended when broadcasting stations were
seized in the
Cuban Revolution in 1959, and did not return until 1975,
using equipment acquired from Japan's NEC Corporation, and SECAM
equipment from the Soviet Union, adapted for the American NTSC
Guillermo González Camarena independently invented and developed a
field-sequential tricolor disk system in México in the late 1930s,
for which he requested a patent in México on August 19 of 1940 and in
the USA in 1941. González Camarena produced his color television
system in his laboratory Gon-Cam for the Mexican market and exported
it to the Columbia College of Chicago, who regarded it as the best
system in the world. Goldmark actually applied patent for the
same field-sequential tricolor system in USA on September 7 of
1940; while González Camarena made his application in México
nineteen days before, on August 19 of 1940.
On August 31, 1946 González Camarena sent his first color
transmission from his lab in the offices of The Mexican League of
Radio Experiments at Lucerna St. No. 1, in Mexico City. The video
signal was transmitted at a frequency of 115 MHz. and the audio
in the 40 metre band. He obtained authorization to make the first
publicly announced color broadcast in Mexico, on February 8, 1963, of
the program Paraíso Infantil on Mexico City's XHGC-TV, using the NTSC
system which had by now been adopted as the standard for color
González Camarena also invented the Simplified Mexican
system as a much more simpler and cheaper alternative to the NTSC
system. Due to its simplicity, NASA used a modified version of the
Color TV system in his Voyager mission of 1979, to
take pictures and video of Jupiter.
CT-100 at the
SPARK Museum of Electrical Invention
SPARK Museum of Electrical Invention playing Superman.
Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U.S. in 1953,
high prices and the scarcity of color programming greatly slowed its
acceptance in the marketplace. The first national color broadcast (the
1954 Tournament of Roses Parade) occurred on January 1, 1954, but over
the next dozen years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local
programming, continued to be in black-and-white. In 1956 NBC's The
Perry Como Show became the first live network television series to
present a majority of episodes in color. CBS's The Big Record,
starring pop vocalist Patti Page, was the first television show
broadcast in color for the entire 1957-1958 season; its production
costs were greater than most movies were at the time not only because
of all the stars featured on the hour-long extravaganza but the
extremely high-intensity lighting and electronics required for the new
RCA TK-41 cameras. It was not until the mid-1960s that color sets
started selling in large numbers, due in part to the color transition
of 1965 in which it was announced that over half of all network
prime-time programming would be broadcast in color that autumn. The
first all-color prime-time season came just one year later.
NBC made the first coast-to-coast color broadcast when it telecast the
Tournament of Roses Parade
Tournament of Roses Parade on January 1, 1954, with public
demonstrations given across the United States on prototype color
receivers by manufacturers RCA, General Electric, Philco, Raytheon,
Hallicrafters, Hoffman, Pacific Mercury, and others. A color model
Westinghouse H840CK15 ($1,295, or equivalent to $11,801 in 2017)
became available in the New York area on February 28, 1954 and is
generally agreed to be the first production receiver using
offered to the public; a less expensive color model from RCA
(CT-100) reached dealers in April 1954. Television's first prime
time network color series was The Marriage, a situation comedy
broadcast live by
NBC in the summer of 1954. NBC's anthology
Ford Theatre became the first network color filmed series that
Early color telecasts could be preserved only on the black-and-white
kinescope process introduced in 1947. It was not until September 1956
NBC began using color film to time-delay and preserve some of its
live color telecasts.
Ampex introduced a color videotape recorder
in 1958, which
NBC used to tape An Evening With Fred Astaire, the
oldest surviving network color videotape. This system was also used to
unveil a demonstration of color television for the press. On May 22,
1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower visited the WRC-TV
NBC studios in
Washington, D.C. and gave a speech touting the new technology's
merits. His speech was recorded in color, and a copy of this videotape
was given to the Library of Congress for posterity.
Several syndicated shows had episodes filmed in color during the
1950s, including The Cisco Kid, The Lone Ranger, My Friend Flicka, and
Adventures of Superman. The first two were carried by some stations
equipped for color telecasts well before
NBC began its regular weekly
color dramas in 1959, beginning with the Western series Bonanza.
NBC was at the forefront of color programming because its parent
RCA manufactured the most successful line of color sets in the
1950s, and by 1959
RCA was the only remaining major manufacturer of
CBS and ABC, which were not affiliated with set
manufacturers and were not eager to promote their competitor's
product, dragged their feet into color.
CBS broadcast color
specials and sometimes aired its big weekly variety shows in color,
but it offered no regularly scheduled color programming until the fall
of 1965. At least one
CBS show, The Lucy Show, was filmed in color
beginning in 1963 but continued to be telecast in black and white
through the end of the 1964–65 season. ABC delayed its first color
programs until 1962, but these were initially only broadcasts of the
cartoon shows The Flintstones,
The Jetsons and Beany and Cecil.
The DuMont network, although it did have a television-manufacturing
parent company, was in financial decline by 1954 and was dissolved two
The relatively small amount of network color programming, combined
with the high cost of color television sets, meant that as late as
1964 only 3.1 percent of television households in the U.S. had a color
set. But by the mid-1960s, the subject of color programming turned
into a ratings war. A 1965 ARB study that proposed an emerging trend
in color television set sales convinced
NBC that a full shift to color
would gain a ratings advantage over its two competitors. As a
NBC provided the catalyst for rapid color expansion by
announcing that its prime time schedule for fall 1965 would be almost
entirely in color. ABC and
CBS followed suit and over half of
their combined prime-time programming also was in color that season,
but they were still reluctant to telecast all their programming in
color due to production costs. All three broadcast networks were
airing full color prime time schedules by the 1966–67 broadcast
season, and ABC aired its last new black-and-white daytime programming
in December 1967. Public broadcasting networks like NET, however,
did not use color for a majority of their programming until 1968. The
number of color television sets sold in the U.S. did not exceed
black-and-white sales until 1972, which was also the first year that
more than fifty percent of television households in the U.S. had a
color set. This was also the year that "in color" notices before
color television programs ended, due to the rise in
color television set sales, and color programming having become the
In a display of foresight, Disney had filmed many of its earlier shows
in color so they were able to be repeated on NBC, and since most of
Disney's feature-length films were also made in color, they could now
also be telecast in that format. To emphasize the new feature, the
series was re-dubbed Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color, which
premiered in September 1961, and retained that moniker until 1969.
By the mid-1970s the only stations broadcasting in black-and-white
were a few high-numbered
UHF stations in small markets, and a handful
of low-power repeater stations in even smaller markets such as
vacation spots. By 1979, even the last of these had converted to color
and by the early 1980s, B&W sets had been pushed into niche
markets, notably low-power uses, small portable sets, or use as video
monitor screens in lower-cost consumer equipment. By the late 1980s,
even those areas switched to color sets.
Color broadcasting in Hawaii started in September 1965, and in Alaska
a year later. One of the last television stations in
North America to convert to color, WQEX (now WINP-TV) in Pittsburgh,
started broadcasting in color on October 16, 1986 after its
black-and-white transmitter, which dated from the 1950s, broke down in
February 1985 and the parts required to fix it were no longer
available. The then-owner of WQEX,
PBS member station WQED, diverted
some of its pledge money into getting a color transmitter for WQEX.
Early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop
versions nearly as bulky and heavy, so in practice, they remained
firmly anchored in one place. The introduction of GE's relatively
compact and lightweight Porta-
Color set in the spring of 1966 made
watching color television a more flexible and convenient proposition.
In 1972, sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of
black-and-white sets. Also in 1972, the last holdout among daytime
network programs converted to color, resulting in the first completely
all-color network season.
The first regular color broadcasts in Europe were by the United
Kingdom's BBC2 beginning on July 1, 1967 (PAL). West Germany's first
broadcast occurred in August (PAL), followed by the Netherlands in
September (PAL), and by
France in October (SECAM). Norway, Sweden,
Finland, Austria, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary all
started regular color broadcasts before the end of 1969. Ireland's
national TV station RTÉ began using color in 1968 for recorded
programmes; the first outside broadcast made in color for RTÉ
Television was when Ireland hosted the
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest in
Dublin in 1971. The
PAL system spread through most of Western
More European countries introduced color television using the PAL
system in the 1970s and early 1980s; examples include
Belgium (1971), Yugoslavia/
Spain (1972, but not fully
implemented until 1978),
Portugal (1976, but not fully
implemented until 1980),
Albania (1981), and
Turkey (1981) and Romania
(1983, but not fully implemented until 1990). In Italy there were
debates to adopt a national color television system, the ISA,
developed by Indesit, but that idea was scrapped. As a result, Italy
was one of the last European countries to officially adopt the PAL
system in 1977.
France, Luxembourg, and most of the Eastern Bloc along with their
overseas territories opted for SECAM.
SECAM was a popular choice in
countries with a lot of hilly terrain, and technologically backward
countries with a very large installed base of monochrome equipment,
since the greater ruggedness of the
SECAM signal could cope much
better with poorly maintained equipment. However, for many countries
the decision was more down to politics than technical merit.
A drawback of
SECAM for production is that, unlike
PAL or NTSC,
certain post-production operations of encoded
SECAM signals are not
really possible without a significant drop in quality. As an example,
a simple fade to black is trivial in
NTSC and PAL: you just reduce the
signal level until it is zero. However, in
SECAM the color difference
signals, which are frequency modulated, need first to be decoded to
e.g. RGB, then the fade-to-black is applied, and finally the resulting
signal is re-encoded into SECAM. Because of this, much
editing was actually done using
PAL equipment, then the resultant
signal was converted to SECAM. Another drawback of
SECAM is that comb
filtering, allowing better color separation, is not possible in TV
receivers. This was not, however, much of a drawback in the early days
SECAM as such filters did not become readily available in high-end
TV sets before the 1990s.
The first regular color broadcasts in
SECAM were started on October 1,
1967, on France's Second Channel (ORTF 2e chaîne). In
France and the
UK color broadcasts were made on
UHF frequencies, the
VHF band being
used for legacy black and white, 405 lines in UK or 819 lines in
France, until the beginning of the 1980s. Countries elsewhere that
were already broadcasting 625-line monochrome on
VHF and UHF, simply
transmitted color programs on the same channels.
Some British television programs, particularly those made by or for
ITC Entertainment, were shot on color film before the introduction of
color television to the UK, for the purpose of sales to U.S. networks.
The first British show to be made in color was the drama series The
Adventures of Sir Lancelot (1956–57), which was initially made in
black and white but later shot in color for sale to the
NBC network in
the United States. Other British color television programs include
Stingray (1964–1965), which was the first British TV show to be
filmed entirely in color, Thunderbirds (1965–1966) and Captain
Scarlet and the Mysterons (1967–1968). However, most UK series
predominantly made using videotape, such as
Doctor Who (1963–89;
2005–present) did not begin color production until later, with the
Doctor Who episodes not airing until 1970.
Asia and the Pacific
NHK and NTV introduced color television, using a variation
NTSC system (called NTSC-J) on September 10, 1960, making it
the first country in
Asia to introduce color television. The
Philippines (1960) and
Taiwan (1969) also adopted the
Other countries in the region instead used the
PAL system, starting
Australia (1967, but not fully implemented until 1975), and then
Thailand (1969; this country converted from a 525-line system to 625
Hong Kong (1970), the
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China (1971), New
North Korea (1974),
but not fully implemented until 1982),
Kazakhstan (1978), Vietnam
Malaysia (1978, but not fully implemented until 1980),
India (1979, but not fully implemented until 1982),
South Korea did not introduce color television
(using NTSC) until 1980 (full-time color transmissions began in 1981),
although it was already manufacturing color television sets for
Cambodia was the last country in
Asia to introduce color
television, officially introduced in 1981 using the
PAL system, with
full-time color transmissions since 1985.
Nearly all of the countries in the Middle East use PAL. The first
country in the Middle East to introduce color television was Iraq in
1967. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, and
Qatar followed in the mid-1970s, but Israel, Lebanon, and Cyprus
continued to broadcast in black and white until the early 1980s.
Israeli television even erased the color signals using a device called
The first color television service in Africa was introduced on the
Tanzanian island of Zanzibar, in 1973, using PAL. In 1973 also,
Mauritius broadcast the OCAMM Conference, in color, using
SECAM. At the time,
South Africa did not have a television service at
all, owing to opposition from the apartheid regime, but in 1976, one
was finally launched.
PAL for color transmissions
in 1974 in the then Benue Plateau state in the north central region of
the country, but countries such as
Zimbabwe continued with
black and white until 1984. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service
(SLBS) started television broadcasting in 1963 as a cooperation
between the SLBS and commercial interests; coverage was extended to
all districts in 1978 when the service was also upgraded to color.
In contrast to most other countries in the Americas, which had adopted
NTSC, Brazil began broadcasting in color using PAL-M. Its first color
transmission was on February 19, 1972. However Ecuador was the first
South American country to use
NTSC color. Its first color transmission
was on November 5, 1974. In 1978, Argentina started broadcasting in
PAL-N in connection with the country's hosting of the FIFA
World Cup. Some countries in South America, including Bolivia, Chile,
Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay, continued to broadcast in black and white
until the early 1980s.
Cor Dillen, director and later
CEO of the South American branch of
Philips, was responsible for bringing color television to South
There are three main analog broadcast television systems in use around
PAL (Phase Alternating Line),
NTSC (National Television
System Committee), and
SECAM (Séquentiel Couleur à
Color with Memory).
The system used in The Americas and part of the Far East is NTSC. Most
of Asia, Western Europe, Australia, Africa, and Eastern South America
PAL (though Brazil uses a hybrid
PAL-M system). Eastern Europe and
France uses SECAM. Generally, a device (such as a television) can
only read or display video encoded to a standard which the device is
designed to support; otherwise, the source must be converted (such as
when European programs are broadcast in North America or vice versa).
This table illustrates the differences:
Color Subcarrier Frequency
Digital television broadcasting standards, such as ATSC, DVB-T,
DVB-T2, and ISDB, have superseded these analog transmission standards
in many countries.
^ Michael Reilly, "Calculating the speed of sight", New Scientist,
July 28, 2006
Television System Committee (1951–1953), [Report and
Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12–19, with Some supplementary
references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of
transmission standards for color television before the Federal
Communications Commission, n.p., 1953], 17 v. illus., diagrams.,
tables. 28 cm. LC Control No.:54021386 Library of Congress Online
^ "Television", The World Book Encyclopedia 2003: 119
^ M. Le Blanc, "Etude sur la transmission électrique des impressions
lumineuses", La Lumière Electrique, vol. 11, December 1, 1880, p.
^ R. W. Burns, Television: An International History of the Formative
Years, IET, 1998, p. 98. ISBN 0-85296-914-7.
^ Western technology and Soviet economic development: 1945 to 1965, by
Antony C. Sutton, Business & Economics - 1973, p. 330
^ The History of Television, 1880-1941, by Albert Abramson, 1987, p.
^ A. Rokhlin, Tak rozhdalos' dal'novidenie (in Russian) Archived April
24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ John Logie Baird,
Television Apparatus and the Like, U.S. patent,
filed in U.K. in 1928.
^ Baird Television: Crystal Palace
Television Studios. Previous color
television demonstrations in the U.K. and U.S. had been via closed
^ Kenyon Kilbon, Pioneering in Electronics: A Short History of the
Origins and Growth of
RCA Laboratories, Radio Corporation of America,
1919 to 1964, Chapter Nine – Television:
Monochrome to Color, 1964.
V.K. Zworykin with Frederick Olessi, Iconoscope: An Autobiography of
Vladimir Zworykin, Chapter 10 –
Television Becomes a Reality,
1945–1954, 1971. "The system used two color filters in combination
with photocells and a flying spot scanner for pickup." Alfred V.
Roman, The Historical Development of
doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1967, p. 49.
^ "The World's First High Definition Colour
^ a b Peter C. Goldmark, assignor to Columbia Broadcasting System,
Color Television", U.S. Patent 2,480,571, filed September 7, 1940.
^ Current Broadcasting 1940
Television Success in Test", The New York Times, August 30,
1940, p. 21.
Television Achieves Realism", The New York Times, September
5, 1940, p. 18.
Television System Transmits Images in Full Color", Popular
Science, December 1940, p. 120.
Television Success in Test," New York Times, August 30, 1940,
p. 21. "
CBS Demonstrates Full
Color Television," Wall Street Journal,
September 5, 1940, p. 1. "
Television Hearing Set," New York Times,
November 13, 1940, p. 26.
^ Ed Reitan, RCA-
Color Firsts in
^ "Making of Radios and Phonographs to End April 22," New York Times,
March 8, 1942, p. 1. "Radio Production Curbs Cover All Combinations,"
Wall Street Journal, June 3, 1942, p. 4. "WPB Cancels 210 Controls;
Radios, Trucks in Full Output," New York Times, August 21, 1945, p. 1.
^ Bob Cooper, "Television: The Technology That Changed Our Lives",
^ Hempstead, Colin (2005). Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology.
Routledge. p. 824.
^ Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000, McFarland
& Company, 2003, pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-7864-1220-8
^ Baird Television: The World's First High Definition Colour
^ "Washington Chosen for First
Color Showing; From Ages 4 to 90,
Audience Amazed", The Washington Post, January 13, 1950, p. B2.
Color TV Tests To Be Resumed In Washington", The Washington Post,
February 12, 1950, p. M5.
Television To Make Public Debut In N.Y. Next Week", The
Wall Street Journal, November 9, 1950, p. 18.
Television (advertisement), New York Daily News,
November 13, 1950, p. .
^ "You Can See The Blood on
Color Video," The Washington Post, January
15, 1950, p. L1. "Video
Color Test Begins on C.B.S.," New York Times,
November 14, 1950, p. 44.
Color Preview Seen By 2,000 in Philadelphia", The Wall Street
Journal, December 16, 1950, p. 10.
CBS to Display
Color Video in City Next Week", Chicago Tribune,
January 6, 1951, television and radio section, p. C4.
^ "Preview of
Color TV Wins City's Acclaim", Chicago Tribune,
January 10, 1951, p. A8.
Color Video Presents a 'First'," New York Times, June 26,
1951, p. 31.
^ Four-hundred guests watched the premiere commercial broadcast on
eight color receivers at a
CBS studio in New York, as no color
receivers were available to the general public. "C.B.S.
Presents a 'First"", New York Times, June 26, 1951, p. 31. A total of
about 40 color receivers was available in the five cities on the color
CBS affiliate in Washington had three receivers and a
monitor. "First Sponsored TV in
Color Praised by WTOP Audience", The
Washington Post, June 26, 1951, p. 1. Most of the remainder of the
prototype color receivers were given to advertisers sponsoring the
color broadcasts. "Today, June 25, 1951, is a turning point in
broadcasting history" (WTOP-TV advertisement), The Washington Post,
June 25, 1951, p. 10.
^ Ed Reitan, "Progress of
CBS Colorcasting", Programming for the CBS
Color System Network Affiliates", Programming for the
Color System Makes
Television Set Makers See Red", Wall Street
Journal, October 17, 1950, p. 1. Three exceptions among the major
television manufacturers were Philco, which offered 11 models that
CBS color broadcasts in black-and-white; and Westinghouse
and Admiral, which offered adapters to receive color broadcasts in
black and white. "
Philco Offers 11 TV Sets To Receive
Color TV in
Black and White", Wall Street Journal, June 4, 1951, p. 9.
"Westinghouse to Sell Adapter for
Color TV Signals", Wall Street
Journal, August 7, 1951, p. 18.
^ "Hytron's Deal With
CBS Seen TV
Color Aid", The Washington Post,
April 12, 1951, p. 15.
CBS Subsidiary Starts Mass Production of
Wall Street Journal, September 13, 1951, p. 18.
Color Sets To Go On Sale Soon", Billboard, October 6, 1951,
^ "Text of Note to
Color Set Halt", Billboard, October 27,
1951, p. 5
Color TV Shelved As a Defense Step," New York Times, October 20,
1951, p. 1. "Action of Defense Mobilizer in Postponing
Color TV Poses
Many Question for the Industry," New York Times, October 22, 1951, p.
23. Ed Reitan,
CBS Field Sequential
Color System Archived January 5,
2010, at the Wayback Machine., 1997
^ "NPA Refs Verbal Slugfest in M-90 Revamp Study;
Color TV Future
Dim", Billboard, February 16, 1952, p. 5.
RCA to Test
Color TV System On Three Shows Daily Beginning Today",
The Wall Street Journal, July 9, 1951, p. 3.
CBS Says Confusion Now Bars
Color TV," Washington Post, March 26,
1953, p. 39.
^ "N.P.A. Decides to End Restrictions on Output Of
Color TV Sets", The
Wall Street Journal, March 21, 1953, p. 1.
^ "F.C.C. Rules
Color TV Can Go on Air at Once," New York Times,
December 19, 1953, p. 1.
NBC Launches First Publicly-Announced
Television Show," Wall
Street Journal, August 31, 1953, p. 4.
^ Ed Reitan, RCA-
NBC Firsts in Television.
^ Jack Gould, "
Television in Review: Further Thoughts on Color", The
New York Times, November 2, 1953, p. 34. Prototype color TV sets had
been distributed to
NBC executives, advertisers, TV retailers,
and journalists in the New York City area.
^ a b c d CBC Staff (September 5, 1991). "CBC in Living Colour". CBC
News. Ottawa. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved
Color It Expensive". The Calgary Herald. Calgary, Alberta.
1966-09-01. p. 4. Retrieved 2012-04-14.
^ Roberto Diaz-Martin, "The Recent History of Satellite Communications
in Cuba", Selection of a
Color Standard, in Beyond the Ionosphere:
Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (NASA SP-4217, 1997).
^ González Camarena, Guillermo (filed in Mexico August 19, 1940,
filed in USA 1941, patented 1942). "Chromoscopic adapter for
television equipment". Patent No. US 2,296,019. United States Patent
Office. Retrieved 2017-04-22. Check date values in: date=
^ Newcomb, Horace (2004). Encyclopedia of Television, second edition.
1 A-C. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 1484. ISBN 1-57958-411-X.
^ "Historia de la televisión en México". Boletín de la Sociedad
Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística. Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía
y Estadística. 97-99: 287. 1964.
^ Leslie Solomon (July 1964). "Simplified Mexican
Color TV" (PDF).
Electronics World. 72 (1): 48 and 71.
^ ^ *Enrique Krauze – Guillermo Gonzalez-Camarena Jr. "50 años de
la televisión mexicana" (50th anniversary of Mexican T.V.) – Year
1999 Mexican T.V. Documentary produced by Editorial Clío &
Televisa, broadcast on 2000
^ Butler, Jeremy G. (2006). Television: Critical Methods and
Applications. Psychology Press. p. 290.
Television in Review: N.B.C. Color," New York Times, January 5,
1954, p. 28. Two days earlier Admiral demonstrated to their
distributors the prototype of Admiral's first color television set
planned for consumer sale using the
NTSC standards, priced at $1,175
(equivalent to $10,707 in 2017). It is not known when the later
commercial version of this receiver was first sold. Production was
extremely limited, and no advertisements for it were published in New
York or Washington newspapers. "First Admiral
Color TV," New York
Times, December 31, 1953, p. 22. "Admiral's First
Color TV Set," Wall
Street Journal, December 31, 1953, p. 5. "TV Firm Moves to Golden
Pittsburgh Press, February 23, 1954, p. 9.
^ Westinghouse display ad, New York Times, February 28, 1954, p. 57.
Only 30 sets were sold in its first month. "
Color TV Reduced by
Westinghouse," April 2, 1954, p. 36.
^ RCA's manufacture of color sets started March 25, 1954, and 5,000
Model CT-100's were produced. Initially $1,000, its price was cut to
$495 in August 1954 ($4.51 thousand in today's dollars). "R.C.A.
Halves Cost of
Color TV Sets," New York Times, August 10, 1954, p. 21.
^ "News of TV and Radio," New York Times, June 20, 1954, p. X11.
^ After 15 episodes in color, Ford reduced costs by making only every
third episode in color. "Ford Cuts Back on
Color Film", Billboard,
October 30, 1954, p. 6. The syndicated Cisco Kid had been filmed in
color since 1949 in anticipation of color broadcasting. "'Cisco Kid'
for TV Via Pact With Ziv", Billboard, September 24, 1949, p. 47. "Ziv
to Shoot All New Series in B & W and
Color Versions", Billboard,
April 4, 1953, p. 10.
^ Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000, McFarland,
2003, p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7864-1220-4.
RCA made about 95 percent of the color television sets sold in the
U.S. in 1960. Peter Bart, "Advertising:
Color TV Set Output Spurred,"
New York Times, July 31, 1961, p. 27.
^ "ABC to Go Tint at First Sponsor Nibble", Billboard, September 4,
1954, p. 8.
^ "Chasing the Rainbow," Time, June 30, 1958.
^ The Flintstones, The Jetsons, and Beany and Cecil. "A.B.C.-TV To
Color Programs," New York Times, April 1, 1962, p. 84. "More
Color," New York Times, September 23, 1962, p. 145. Ed Reitan, RCA-NBC
Television Archived December 19, 2008, at the Wayback
Machine.. Jack Gould, "Tinted TV Shows Its Colors," New York Times,
November 29, 1964, p. X17.
^ Clarke Ingram, The DuMont
Television Network, Chapter Seven: Finale
Archived August 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. The small amount of
color programming that DuMont broadcast in 1954–1955 (mostly its
show Sunday Supplement) was all from color films.
^ a b http://www.tvobscurities.com/articles/color60s/
^ The exceptions being
I Dream of Jeannie
I Dream of Jeannie and Convoy.
^ The game show Everybody's Talking. CBS's daytime soap opera The
Secret Storm was the last network show to switch to color after airing
its last black-and-white performance on March 11, 1968, making it the
last black-and-white series on commercial network television. The last
black-and-white series on network television was MisteRogers'
Neighborhood on the non-commercial NET. Production of this series
switched over to color in August 1968.
Television Facts and Statistics – 1939 to 2000,
– The First 75 Years.
^ Walt Disney anthology television series
^ "THE ADVENT OF COLOUR TELEVISION: 1971". RTÉ Archives. 18 April
2006. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
^ The adoption of color television in Italy (Italian).
^ Mass Media, Towards the Millennium: The South African Handbook of
Mass Communication, Arrie De Beer, J.L. van Schaik, 1998, page 56
^ TV in
South Africa marks its 40th anniversary, channel24, 5 January
^ A Concise Encyclopedia of Zimbabwe, Donatus Bonde, Mambo Press,
1988, page 410
^ World Broadcasting: A Comparative View, Alan Wells, Greenwood
Publishing Group, 1996, page 173
^ http://www.paradiso-design.net/TVsystems_worldwide.html World TV
Block diagram of color television sets
Wells, Alan (1997), World Broadcasting: a comparative view, Greenwood
Publishing Group, p. 173, ISBN 1-56750-245-8
Television in Color, April 1944 one of the earliest magazine articles
detailing the new technology of color television
Color Controversy, LIFE February 27, 1950 Article about FCC
debating which color television system to approve for US broadcasts.
Analog television broadcasting topics
405-line ( System A )
525-line ( System J , System M )
625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H ,
System I , System K , System L , System N )
819-line ( System E , System F )
Back porch and front porch
Horizontal scan rate
Horizontal blanking interval
Nominal analogue blanking
Vertical blanking interval
Multichannel television sound
Quadrature amplitude modulation
Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB)
Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station
Output power of an analog TV transmitter
Split sound system
Direct-broadcast satellite television
Frequencies & Bands
Television channel frequencies
Field strength in free space
Field strength meter
Zero reference pulse