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The Colony
Colony
of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer
Boer
Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces.[2] It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.[3] It was originally only about half the size of the present province, with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( KwaZulu
KwaZulu
in Zulu).[2] Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually the Boers
Boers
accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony. The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s. Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India.[2] As a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban
Durban
became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India.[4]

Contents

1 British settlement 2 British annexation 3 Growth of the colony 4 Boer
Boer
War and aftermath 5 Sugar
Sugar
and Indian labourers 6 Governors of the Colony
Colony
of Natal (1843–1910)

6.1 Special
Special
Commissioner 6.2 Lieutenant-governors 6.3 Governors

7 Prime Ministers of the Colony
Colony
of Natal (1893–1910) 8 Demographics

8.1 1904 Census

9 References

British settlement[edit] In 1823 Francis Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with other merchants of Cape Town, formed a company to trade with the natives of the south-east coast. In the brig "Salisbury", commanded by James S. King, who had been a midshipman in the navy, Farewell visited Port Natal, St Lucia and Delagoa Bays. The voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port. He went on with ten companions, among them Henry Francis Fynn. All the rest save Farewell and Fynn speedily returned to the Cape, but the two who remained were joined by three sailors, John Cane, Henry Ogle and Thomas Holstead. Farewell, Fynn and the others went to the royal kraal of Shaka, and, having cured him of a wound and made him various presents, obtained a document, dated 7 August 1824, ceding to "F. G. Farewell & Company entire and full possession in perpetuity" of a tract of land including "the port or harbour of Natal". On the 27th of the same month Farewell declared the territory he had acquired a British possession. In 1825 he was joined by King, who had meantime visited England and had obtained from the government a letter of recommendation to Lord Charles Somerset, governor of the Cape, granting King permission to settle at Natal. Farewell, King and Fynn made independent settlements at various parts of the bay.[2] In 1834, a petition from Cape Town
Cape Town
merchants asking for the creation of a British colony at Natal was met by the statement that the Cape finances would not permit the establishment of a new dependency. The merchants, however, dispatched an expedition under Dr Andrew Smith to inquire into the possibilities of the country, and the favourable nature of his report induced a party of Boers
Boers
under Piet Uys
Piet Uys
to go thither also. Both Dr Smith and Uys travelled overland through Kaffraria, and were well received by the English living at the bay. The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony. At the same time the settlers, who numbered about 50, sent a memorial to the governor calling attention to the fact that they were acknowledged rulers over a large tract of territory south of the Tugela River, and asking that this territory should be proclaimed a British colony and that a governor and council be appointed. To all these requests no official answer was returned. The settlers had been joined in the year named (1835) by Allen Francis Gardiner, a naval officer, whose chief object was the evangelization of the natives. With the support of the traders he founded a mission station on the hill overlooking the bay. In 1837 Gardiner was given authority by the British government to exercise jurisdiction over the traders. They, however, refused to acknowledge Gardiner's authority, and from the Cape government he received no support.[2] The next wave of immigration consisted of Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
fleeing British rule in Cape Colony, who pushed out the English settlers at Port Natal. In May 1838 the Boers
Boers
took control of the port and soon afterwards established the Natalia Republic. The Republic suffered from disorganized government and poor relations with the Zulus. On 2 December 1841, Sir George Thomas Napier, governor of Cape Colony, issued a proclamation declaring his intent to resume British military occupation of Port Natal. Most of the Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
left by 1843.[2][5] British annexation[edit] Natal was proclaimed a British Colony
Colony
in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
in 1844. However, it was not until the end of 1845 that an effective administration was installed with Martin West as lieutenant-governor that the power of the Boer
Boer
Volksraad
Volksraad
finally came to an end. In April 1842 Lord Stanley, then Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted. Various measures were proposed which would but have aggravated the situation. Finally, in deference to the strongly urged views of Sir George Napier, Lord Stanley, in a despatch of 13 December, received in Cape Town
Cape Town
on 23 April 1843, consented to Natal becoming a British colony. The institutions adopted were to be as far as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people, but it was a fundamental condition "that there should not be in the eye of the law any distinction or disqualification whatever, founded on mere difference of colour, origin, language or creed". Sir George then appointed Henry Cloete (a brother of Colonel Cloete) a special commissioner to explain to the Natal volksraad the decision of the government.[2] There was a considerable party of Natal Boers
Boers
still strongly opposed to the British, and they were reinforced by numerous bands of Boers who came over the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
from Winburg
Winburg
and Potchefstroom. Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg
Winburg
(who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the "war party" attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty. In these circumstances the task of Henry Cloete was one of great difficulty and delicacy. He behaved with the utmost tact and got rid of the Winburg
Winburg
and Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
burghers by declaring that he should recommend the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
as the northern limit of Natal. On 8 August 1843 the Natal volksraad unanimously agreed to the terms proposed by Lord Stanley. Many of the Boers
Boers
who would not acknowledge British rule trekked once more over the mountains into what are now the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and Transvaal provinces. At the end of 1843 there were not more than 500 Dutch families left in Natal.[2] Cloete, before returning to the Cape, visited Mpande
Mpande
and obtained from him a valuable concession. Hitherto the Tugela from source to mouth had been the recognized frontier between Natal and Zululand. Mpande gave up to Natal all the territory between the Buffalo and Tugela rivers, now forming Klip River county.[2] Growth of the colony[edit] The colony's early population growth was driven by settlement from the United Kingdom between 1849 and 1851,[6] with approximately 4500 emigrants between 1848 and 1851. From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country. At the same time schools were established and various churches began or increased their work in the colony. John Colenso, appointed bishop of Natal, arrived in 1854. In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony
Cape Colony
was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the Crown. At the time the population of settlers and their descendants exceeded 8000. While dependent on the Cape, ordinances had been passed establishing Roman-Dutch law as the law of Natal, and save where modified by legislation it remained in force.[2] On 14 September 1876, the Colonial office in the UK received a telegram from Sir Henry Barkly
Henry Barkly
in Cape Town
Cape Town
of the imminent collapse of the Transvaal because the Transvaal's President Burger and his men had been routed after their attack on Sekhukhune
Sekhukhune
and his people the Pedi. This galvanized Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon
Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon
who obtained permission from Disraeli
Disraeli
to appoint Sir Theophilus Shepstone (known by the Zulu honorific as Somtseu meaning '’father of the nation'’) who had served for 30 years as a Natal administrator, first as Diplomatic Agent to Native Tribes, then as secretary for native affairs, to act as special commissioner to the Transvaal. On 15 December 1876, Sir Shepstone with 25 troopers from the Natal Mounted Police and others set out from Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
to Pretoria
Pretoria
to annex the Transvaal; arriving on 27 January 1877 to a cordial reception. That controversial British annexation of the Transvaal, was disrupted when Sekhukhune
Sekhukhune
allegedly signed a peace treaty with the Boers removing the main justification for British intervention in the Transvaal at that time.[7] Nonetheless, tensions between the British colonists and the Zulu continued to build, culminating in the Anglo-Zulu War.[5] After an initial defeat the British were able to conquer Zululand, where they established a protectorate over a sub-divided kingdom. However this proved unsatisfactory to the colonial government, and eighteen years later the kingdoms were annexed to the Natal colony, doubling its size.[2]

Detail of a painting depicting the Battle of Rorke's Drift
Battle of Rorke's Drift
during the Anglo-Zulu War
Anglo-Zulu War
11 January – 4 July 1879

In 1884 the Witwatersrand Gold Rush
Witwatersrand Gold Rush
caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to the Transvaal. Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony
Cape Colony
or from Europe. Durban
Durban
was soon thronged; and Pietermaritzburg, which was then practically the terminus of the Natal railway, was the base from which nearly all the expeditions to the goldfields were fitted out. The journey to De Kaap by bullock-waggon occupied about six weeks. "Kurveying" (the conducting of transport by bullock-waggon) in itself constituted a great industry. Two years later, in 1886, the Rand goldfields were proclaimed, and the tide of trade which had already set in with the Transvaal steadily increased. Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
or Durban. In this year (1886) the railway reached Ladysmith, and in 1891 it was completed to the Transvaal frontier at Charlestown, the section from Ladysmith northward opening up the Dundee and Newcastle coalfields. Thus a new industry was added to the resources of the colony.[2] The demand which the growing trade made upon the one port of Natal, Durban, encouraged the colonists to redouble their efforts to improve the Port of Durban. A heavy sea from the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
is always breaking on the shore, even in the finest weather, and at the mouth of every natural harbour a bar occurs. To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban
Durban
so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years. Harbour works were begun in 1857, piers and jetties were constructed, dredgers imported, and controversy raged over the various schemes for harbour improvement. In 1881 a harbour board was formed under the chairmanship of Harry Escombe. It controlled the operations for improving the sea entrance until 1893, when on the establishment of responsible government it was abolished. The work of improving the harbour was however continued with vigour, and finally, in 1904, such success was achieved that vessels of the largest class were enabled to enter port. At the same time the railway system was continually developing under the Natal Railway Company.[2] For many years there had been an agitation among the colonists for self-government. In 1882 the colony was offered self-government coupled with the obligations of self-defence. The offer was declined, but in 1883 the legislative council was remodelled so as to consist of 23 elected and 7 nominated members. In 1890 the elections to the council led to the return of a majority in favour of accepting self-government, and in 1893 a bill establishing responsible government was passed and received the sanction of the Imperial government. At the time the white inhabitants numbered about 50,000. The electoral law was framed to prevent more than a very few natives obtaining suffrage. Restrictions in this direction dated as far back as 1865, while in 1896 an act was passed aimed at the exclusion of Indians from the suffrage. The leader of the party which sought responsible government was John Robinson who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions. He now became the first premier and colonial secretary with Harry Escombe
Harry Escombe
as attorney-general and F. R. Moor as secretary for Native Affairs.[2][8] John Robinson remained premier until 1897, a year marked by the annexation of Zululand to Natal. In 1898, Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and the Orange Free State.[2] Boer
Boer
War and aftermath[edit] The Second Boer
Boer
War broke out on 11 October 1899 with the Boer
Boer
seizure of a Natal train on the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
border. Boer
Boer
forces quickly occupied Newcastle. In the Battle of Talana Hill
Battle of Talana Hill
on 20 October 1899, outside Dundee, British forces under William Penn Symons
Penn Symons
defeated the Boer
Boer
columns at high cost, and withdrew to Ladysmith. Boer
Boer
forces proceeded to Ladysmith and surrounded the town, cutting off its communications from the south. The Siege of Ladysmith
Siege of Ladysmith
lasted until 28 February 1900, when the town was relieved by forces under Redvers Buller.[2] During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals. The relief of Ladysmith soon led to the evacuation of Natal by the Boer
Boer
forces, who trekked northwards.[2] As one result of the war, an addition was made to the territory comprised in Natal, consisting of a portion of what had previously been included in the Transvaal. In particular, the following districts were transferred to Natal: the district of Vryheid, the district of Utrecht and such portion of the district of Wakkerstroom
Wakkerstroom
as was encompassed by a line drawn from the north-eastern corner of Natal, east by Volksrust
Volksrust
in a northerly direction to the summit of the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Range, along that range, passing just north of the town of Wakkerstroom, to the head waters of the Pongola River, and thence following the Pongola River
Pongola River
to the border of the Utrecht district.[2] The districts added to Natal contained about 6000 white inhabitants (mostly Afrikaners), and some 92,000 natives, and had an area of nearly 7,000 square miles (18,000 km2), so that this annexation meant an addition to the white population of Natal of about one-tenth, to her native population of about one-tenth also, and to her territory of about one-fourth. An act authorizing the annexation was passed during 1902 and the territories were formally transferred to Natal in January 1903.[2] On 31 May 1910, the Colony
Colony
of Natal became Natal Province, one of the founding provinces of the Union of South Africa.[2] Sugar
Sugar
and Indian labourers[edit] Further information: Indian South Africans

First public auction of Natal sugar, Durban, 1855

The British settlers quickly realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrowroot were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee. The sugar industry soon became of importance, and the planters were compelled to seek for large numbers of labourers. The natives did not volunteer in sufficient numbers, and recourse was had to labour from India. The first Indian labourers reached Natal in 1860. They came as indentured laborers, but at the expiration of their contract were allowed to settle in the colony. The Indian population rapidly increased, the Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, and traders. Alone among the South Africa
South Africa
states, Natal offered a welcome to Indians.[2] As early as 1893, when Gandhi arrived in Durban, Indians made up almost half of the non-African population, and by 1904 Indians outnumbered whites in Natal. In 1894, Gandhi helped to establish the Natal Indian Congress
Natal Indian Congress
to fight discrimination against Indians.[8] Governors of the Colony
Colony
of Natal (1843–1910)[edit] Main article: List of Governors of Natal

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Special
Special
Commissioner[edit]

Henry Cloete (10 May 1843 – 31 May 1844)

Direct rule by Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(31 May 1844 – 4 December 1845) Lieutenant-governors[edit]

Martin Thomas West (4 December 1845 – 1 August 1849) Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
(1st time) (19 April 1850 – 3 March 1855) John Scott (5 November 1856 – 31 December 1864) John Maclean (31 December 1864 – 26 July 1865) John Wellesley Thomas (acting) (26 July 1865 – 26 August 1865) John Jarvis Bisset
John Jarvis Bisset
(acting) (26 August 1865 – 24 May 1867) Robert William Keate (24 May 1867 – 19 July 1872) Anthony Musgrave
Anthony Musgrave
(19 July 1872 – 30 April 1873) Thomas Milles (acting) (30 April 1873 – 22 July 1873) Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
(2nd time) (22 July 1873 – 1 April 1875) Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley
(acting) (1 April 1875 – 3 September 1875) Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer (3 September 1875 – 20 April 1880) William Bellairs (acting) (20 April 1880 – 5 May 1880) Henry Hugh Clifford
Henry Hugh Clifford
(acting) (5 May 1880 – 2 July 1880)

Governors[edit]

Sir George Pomeroy Colley
George Pomeroy Colley
(2 July 1880 – 27 February 1881) Henry Alexander (acting for Colley) (17 August 1880 – 14 September 1880) Sir Henry Evelyn Wood (acting) (27 February 1881 – 3 April 1881) Redvers Henry Buller
Redvers Henry Buller
(acting) (3 April 1881 – 9 August 1881) Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
(1st time, acting) (22 December 1881 – 6 March 1882) Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer (6 March 1882 – 23 October 1885) Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock
Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock
(18 February 1886 – 5 June 1889) Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
(2nd time) (1 December 1889 – July 1893) Francis Seymour Haden (acting) (July 1893 – 27 September 1893) Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson (28 September 1893 – 6 May 1901) Sir Henry Edward McCallum
Henry Edward McCallum
(13 May 1901 – 7 June 1907) Sir Matthew Nathan
Sir Matthew Nathan
(2 September 1907 – 23 December 1909) Paul Sanford Methuen, Baron Methuen (17 January 1910 – 31 May 1910)

The post of Governor of the Colony
Colony
of Natal became extinct on 31 May 1910, when it joined the Union of South Africa.[2] Prime Ministers of the Colony
Colony
of Natal (1893–1910)[edit]

No. Name Party Assumed office Left office

1 Sir John Robinson Independent 10 October 1893 14 February 1897

2 Harry Escombe Independent 15 February 1897 4 October 1897

3 Sir Henry Binns Independent 5 October 1897 8 June 1899

4 Sir Albert Henry Hime Independent 9 June 1899 17 August 1903

5 George Morris Sutton Independent 18 August 1903 16 May 1905

6 Charles John Smythe Independent 16 May 1905 28 November 1906

7 Frederick Robert Moor Independent 28 November 1906 28 April 1910

The post of Prime Minister of the Colony
Colony
of Natal also became extinct on 31 May 1910, when it joined the Union of South Africa. Demographics[edit] 1904 Census[edit] Population Figures for the 1904 Census:[9]

Population group Number Percent (%)

Black 904,041 81.53

Asian 100,918 9.10

White 97,109 8.75

Coloured 6,686 0.60

Total 1,108,754 100.00

References[edit]

^ "Census of the British empire. 1901". Openlibrary.org. 1906. p. 161. Retrieved 26 December 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Natal". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ "Natal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 April 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ Mukherji, Anahita (23 June 2011). " Durban
Durban
largest 'Indian' city outside India". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ a b "Natal Colony". britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ Spencer, Shelagh O'Byrne. "The European Settler Population of Natal up to 1860, and their Influence Beyond the Borders of the Colony". British Settlers in Natal, 1824-1857. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ Meredith, Martin (2008). Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-677-8.  ^ a b Guest, Bill (1993–1994). "Gandhi's Natal: the state of the Colony
Colony
in 1893" (PDF). Natalia. Pietermaritzburg: Natal Society (23 and 24): 68–75. Retrieved 16 December 2016.  ^ Hancock, William Keith (1962). Smuts: The sanguine years, 1870-1919. Cambridge: University Press. p. 219. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Natal". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer
Boer
States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Prime Ministers of the Colony
Colony
of Natal

John Robinson Henry Binns Albert Henry Hime Harry Escombe George Morris Sutton Charles John Smythe Frederick Robert Moor

State President of the South African Republic State President of the Orange Free State Prime Minister of the Cape Colony Prime Minister of Natal

v t e

British Empire

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Europe

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North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

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Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban
Durban
Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion
Dominion
Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azan

.