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The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1] Its membership is 214, as of 19 March 2018.[update] Most cardinals exit the College only by death, although a few leave it by election to the papacy, and still fewer leave by resignation or dismissal. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.[2] Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals was approximately 2,900 (excluding possible undocumented 12th century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism
Western Schism
by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of which were created after 1655.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Historical data

2 Organisation 3 Functions

3.1 Officials 3.2 Electing the pope

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

7 External links

History[edit]

See also: External cardinal § History

The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge". The office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope
Pope
Stephen III(IV) when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."[4] In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts."[5] At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, synods, councils, etc., as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions).[6] During the pontificate of Stephen V (816-17), the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops.[6] The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Leo IX (1050). In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council
Third Lateran Council
declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role.[6] From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could potentially have a titular holder; Pope
Pope
John XXII (1316–1334) formalized this norm by limiting the College to twenty members.[7] In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, and dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy.[7] The conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, and decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16; however, Pope Innocent VI declared the capitulation invalid the following year.[8][9] By the end of the 14th century, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. The Council of Basel (1431–1437, later transferred to Ferrara and then Florence) limited the size of the College to twenty-four,[10] as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464.[11][12][13] The capitulations of the 1484 ( Pope
Pope
Innocent VIII)[14] and 1513 ( Pope
Pope
Leo X) conclaves contained the same restriction.[15] The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 also is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals.[16] The Fifth Council of the Lateran
Fifth Council of the Lateran
(1512–1517), despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College.[10] In 1517, Pope
Pope
Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy. His immediate successor, Pope
Pope
Pius IV (1559–1565), raised the limit to seventy-six.[7] Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, and some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.[10] By the papacy of Sixtus V (1585–1590), the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1587, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops.[6] His successors respected that limit until Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1958–1963) increased the number of cardinals to 75 (1958), 88 (1960), and 90 (1962).[17] Pope
Pope
Paul VI (1963–1978) increased the size of the college to 105 (1965), 120 (1967), and 136 (1969). He then altered the significance of the size of the College by restricting the right to vote in conclaves to those under the age of eighty. The number of those cardinals, the cardinal-electors, he limited to a maximum of 120. He removed any limitation on the overall size of the College.[a][18] The immediate impact was to eliminate the voting rights of 25 cardinals, 14 of them Italians. Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, then 80, said the Pope's action was "an act committed in contempt of tradition that is centuries old" and was "throwing over board the bulk of his expert and gifted counselors".[19] Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, 86, objected that each cardinal's health should determine his fitness and suggested that 73-year-old Paul VI seemed frail.[20] When Paul VI increased the College to 145 members in 1973, the number of cardinal electors was 116.[21] Pope
Pope
John Paul II's appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 under the age of 80 on several occasions, reaching a high of 135 in February 2001.[22] When exceeding the 120 limit, he approved "temporary derogations" of the rule so that all of those under 80 could participate in a consistory as electors.[23][not in citation given] He also made titular churches of parish churches constructed on the outskirts of Rome after World War II to accommodate the increased size of the College.[18] Pope
Pope
Francis has only allowed the number of cardinal electors to exceed the maximum of 120 for brief periods. In 2016 he told reporters "we have 13 slots" shortly before naming 13 new cardinals under the age of 80 to bring the number of cardinal electors to 120.[24][b] Other changes to the College in the 20th century affected specific orders. In 1961 Pope
Pope
John XXIII reserved to the pope the right to assign any member of College to one of the suburbicarian sees and the rank of cardinal bishop. Previously only the senior cardinal priest and the senior cardinal deacon had the privilege of requesting such an appointment (jus optionis) when a vacancy occurred.[27] In 1962 he established that all cardinals should be bishops, ending the identification of the order of cardinal deacon with cardinals who were not bishops.[28] He consecrated the twelve non-bishop members of the College himself.[29][c] In February 1965, Pope
Pope
Paul VI decided that an Eastern Rite Patriarch who is created a cardinal would no longer be assigned a titular church in Rome, but maintain his see and join the order of cardinal bishops, the rank previously reserved to the six cardinals assigned to the suburbicarian dioceses.[32][33][d] He also required that the suburbicarian bishops elect one of themselves as the Dean and Vice-Dean of the College, instead of allowing them to select any member of the College.[34][e] Historical data[edit] For the Middle Ages, sources speaking to the size of the College of Cardinals are most frequently those relating to papal elections and conclaves.[2] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Year Size of the College

1099 18

1118 46

1119 46 or 47

1124 44

1130 44

1145 44

1198 26

1216 26

1227 18

1241 12 or 13

1244 6

1261 8

1264 21

1276 10

1277 7

1288 10

1294 (July) 11

1294 (December) 21

1303 18

1304 19

1312 16

1316 30

1327 16

1338 16

1348 16

1361 17

1371 30

1374 18

Source: Broderick, 1987, pp. 13–14.

Italian-born cardinals as percentage of the total College of Cardinals (1903–2013)

February 2013 22.60

April 2005 17.09

October 1978 22.50

August 1978 22.80

1963 35.36

1958 35.80

1939 54.80

1922 51.60

1914 50.76

1903 56.25

Organisation[edit]

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
style for cardinals.

As of 1 April 2018,[update] the College has 214 members, 115 of whom are eligible to participate in a conclave. The group's size has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals appointed was approximately 2,900 (excluding possibly undocumented 12th-century cardinals, pseudocardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655.[3] Functions[edit]

Part of a series on the

Hierarchy of the Catholic Church

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Saint
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Ecclesiastical titles (order of precedence)

Pope Cardinal

Cardinal Vicar

Moderator of the curia Chaplain
Chaplain
of His Holiness Papal legate Papal majordomo Apostolic Nuncio Apostolic Delegate Apostolic Syndic Apostolic visitor Vicar Apostolic Apostolic Exarch Apostolic Prefect Assistant at the Pontifical Throne Eparch Metropolitan Patriarch Bishop

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Auditor Brother Chancellor Chaplain

Military chaplain Military ordinary

Coarb Confessor Consultor Curate Deacon Defender of the Bond Definitor Devil's advocate Diocesan administrator Ecclesiastical judge Episcopal vicar Exorcist Judicial vicar Lay brother Lay cardinal Monsignor Officialis Pastor

Assistant pastor

Personal prelate Preacher Prefect Presbyter Priest Protonotary Apostolic Saint

Blessed Venerable

Seminarian Vicar forane Vicar general

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Abbess Abbot Consecrated virgin Corrector Custos Friar Dean Grand Master Hermit Master general Master of novices Monk Novice Nun

Postulant

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Additional titles

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Organization titles

Grand Master

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of the Holy Sepulchre Teutonic Knights

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A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory,[35] a term derived from the Roman Emperor's crown council. It also attends various functions as a matter of protocol, for example, during the canonization process. It also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor,[36] but is then restricted to eligible Cardinals under the age limit, which was set for the first time in 1970 by Pope
Pope
Paul VI at 80.[37] The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
(1996) and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City
Vatican City
State. Historically, cardinals were the clergy serving parishes of the city of Rome under its bishop, the pope. The College acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany
King of Germany
and Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Until then, the Holy See
Holy See
was often bitterly fought for among Rome's aristocratic families and external secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
in particular had the special power to appoint him. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
and the Church did not always coincide. Churchmen involved in what has become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new king's lack of power and in 1059 reserved the election of the pope to the clergy of the Church in Rome. This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church and the Emperor each attempted to gain more control over the appointment of bishops, and in doing so wield more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. Reserving to the cardinals the election of the pope represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[38] Officials[edit] In the Catholic church, the Dean of the College of Cardinals
Dean of the College of Cardinals
and the Cardinal Vice-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the six cardinal bishops (cardinals of the highest order, holding suburbicarian dioceses), but the election requires papal confirmation. Except for presiding and delegating administrative tasks, they have no authority over the cardinals, acting as primus inter pares (first among equals). The Secretary of State, the prefects of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City
Vatican City
State requires that appointees to the state's legislative body, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
Vatican City
State, be cardinals.[39] Electing the pope[edit]

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Under the terms of Pope
Pope
Paul VI's motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem, cardinals who reached the age of 80 before a conclave opened had no vote in papal elections. Pope
Pope
John Paul II's Universi Dominici gregis of 22 February 1996 modified that rule slightly, so that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant are not eligible to vote.[36] Canon law sets the general qualifications required of someone to be appointed bishop quite broadly, requiring someone of faith and good reputation, at least thirty-five years old and with a certain level of education.[40] The cardinals have nevertheless elected the Bishop of Rome from among their own membership since the election of Pope
Pope
Urban VI in 1378. The conclave rules specify the procedures to be followed should they elect someone residing outside Vatican City
Vatican City
or not yet a bishop.[41] Of the 117 cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI's resignation, 115 participated in the conclave of March 2013 that elected his successor. The two who did not participate were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien
Keith O'Brien
(following allegations of sexual misconduct).[42] Of the 115 cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope
Pope
Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
and 67 by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI. See also[edit]

Ingravescentem aetatem Bishop (Catholic Church) Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Catholic Church
Catholic Church
hierarchy Index of Vatican City-related articles List of living cardinals
List of living cardinals
(sortable) List of the creations of the cardinals List of titular churches Palatinus (Roman Catholic Church) Papabile Papal conclave, 2013 Protopriest

Notes[edit]

^ Paul VI set the 120 limit in November 1970, effective 1 January 1971. ^ The February 2014 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 122,[25] but the 80th birthday of Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn and death of José da Cruz Policarpo
José da Cruz Policarpo
reduced the number to 120 in less than a month. The June 2017 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 121,[26] and it would have declined to 120 when Cardinal Antonio Maria Vegliò
Antonio Maria Vegliò
turned 80 in February 2018 had not Cardinal Carlo Caffarra
Carlo Caffarra
died in September 2017. ^ John codified this and other rules for the College in Cum gravissima dated 15 April 1962.[30] On occasion a cardinal designate receives a dispensation from this rule. Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
granted the first dispensation from this requirement to Henri de Lubac
Henri de Lubac
in 1983.[31] ^ Paul codified this and other rules for the College in Ad pupuratorum patrem dated 11 February 1965.[34] The one Eastern Rite Patriarch already a cardinal, Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Patriarch of Antioch and a cardinal since 1935, resigned his cardinal's titular church Santi XII Apostoli and joined the order of cardinal bishops. ^ Paul codified this in Sacro cardinalium consilio dated 26 February 1965.[34]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ 1983 CIC, Bk. II, Pt. II, Sec. I, Chap. III The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Archived 3 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Broderick, 1987, p. 13. ^ a b Broderick, 1987, p. 11. ^ Miranda, S. (2003). The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition. Detroit: Gale. [page needed] ^ van Lierde, Peter C. (1964). What Is a Cardinal?. New York: Hawthorne Books Inc. p. 14.  ^ a b c d Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Ethos. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-40278730-0.  ^ a b c Pham, 2004, p. 65. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 52–54. ^ Jugie, Pierre. Levillain, ed. 2002. "Cardinal." pp. 241–242. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvador. 1998. "Guide to documents and events (76–2005)." ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope
Pope
Paul II (1464)." ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 78-79. ^ Walsh, 2003, p. 109. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 82. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 92. ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope
Pope
Alexander VI (1492)." ^ Pham, 2004, p. 65-66. ^ a b Pham, 2004, p. 66. ^ Friendly Jr., Alfred (27 November 1970). "Ottaviani Deplores Papal Action Barring Vote of Aged Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ "Crítica de dos Cardenales contra el Papa Paulo VI" (in Spanish). UP. 26 November 1970. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Hofmann, Paul (3 February 1973). "30 Cardinals Named; Three Are American". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Stanley, Alessandra (22 February 2001). "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Mickens, Robert (24 April 2017). "Letter from Rome The Next Stage of Francis's Mission". Commonwealth Magazine. Retrieved 9 July 2017.  ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (13 October 2016). "What's the thought behind Pope
Pope
Francis' choices for cardinals?". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Reese, Thomas (13 January 2014). "Cardinals: continuity and change". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014.  ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (21 May 2017). "Francis names five new cardinals, including associate of Oscar Romero". La Stampa. Retrieved 9 July 2017. After the upcoming consistory, Francis will have named 49 of 121 cardinals able to vote in a papal conclave.  ^ Pope
Pope
John XXIII (10 March 1961). "Ad suburbicarias dioeceses" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Cortesi, Arnoldo (20 March 1962). " Pope
Pope
Elevates 10 to Cardinal Rank". New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ "Catholic Cardinals Now Are All Bishops". New York Times. 20 April 1962. Retrieved 25 October 2017. From today therefore, perhaps for the first time in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, all Cardinals are Bishops.  ^ Carson, Thomas, ed. (2002). New Catholic Encyclopedia. 3 (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 106.  ^ Goulding, Gill K. (2015). A Church of Passion and Hope: The Formation of An Ecclesial Disposition from Ignatius Loyola to Pope Francis and the New Evangelization. Bloomsbury T&T Clark. Retrieved 15 December 2017. [page needed] ^ " Pope
Pope
Designates 27 New Cardinals". New York Times. 26 January 1965. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Pontiff Installs 27 New Cardinals". New York Times. 23 February 1965. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ a b c Jedin, Hubert, ed. (1981). The Church in the Modern Age. X. London: Burn & Oates. p. 168. Retrieved 2 November 2017.  ^ CIC 1983, can. 349 ^ a b John Paul II, Ap. Const. Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
in AAS 88 (1996) ^ Walsh, Michael (2011). The Cardinals: Thirteen Centuries of the Men Behind the Papal Throne. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 17. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 8. ^ Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(26 November 2000). "Fundamental Law of Vatican City State" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2008.  ^ "Code of Canon Law, Chapter II: Bishops". The Holy See. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 88–90 ^ Pigott, Robert (25 February 2013). "Cardinal Keith O'Brien
Keith O'Brien
resigns as Archbishop". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8. Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 7–71. Levillain, Philippe, ed. 2002. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. Pham, John-Peter. 2004. Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517834-3. Walsh, Michael. 2003. The Conclave: A Sometimes Secret and Occasionally Bloody History of Papal Elections. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 1-58051-135-X.

External links[edit]

The College of Cardinals— Holy See
Holy See
Press Office GCatholic.org—extensive information on all cardinals since the 17th century Cardinals of the Catholic Church—sortable list, often slightly out of date on deaths Catholic-Hierarchy.org, with entry into extensive databases.[self-published source] Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
– The Required Background Data (including statistical data and links). Popes and the Papcy website (Anura Guruge). Retrieved 9 January 2017.

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Deans of the College of Cardinals

R. d'Elci (1670–1761) (1737, 1755) G. Spinelli (1694–1763) (1735, 1761) C. Cavalchini (1683–1774) (1743, 1763) G. Albani (1720–1803) (1747, 1774) H. Stuart (1725–1807) (1747, 1803) L. Antonelli (1730–1811) (1775, 1807) A. Mattei (1744–1820) (1779, 1814) G. della Somaglia (1744–1830) (1795, 1820) B. Pacca (1756–1844) (1801, 1830) L. Micara (1775–1847) (1824, 1844) V. Macchi (1770–1860) (1826, 1847) M. Mattei (1792–1870) (1832, 1860) C. Naro (1798–1876) (1834, 1870) L. di San Filippo e Sorso (1796–1878) (1837, 1876) C. di Pietro (1806–1884) (1853, 1878) C. Sacconi (1808–1889) (1861, 1884) R. Monaco La Valletta (1827–1896) (1868, 1889) L. Oreglia di Santo Stefano (1828–1913) (1873, 1896) S. Vannutelli (1834–1915) (1887, 1913) V. Vannutelli (1836–1930) (1889, 1915) G. Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte (1851–1948) (1911, 1930) F. Marchetti-Selvaggiani (1871–1951) (1930, 1948) E. Tisserant (1884–1972) (1936, 1951) A. G. Cicognani (1883–1973) (1958, 1972) L. Traglia (1895–1977) (1960, 1974) C. Confalonieri (1893–1986) (1958, 1977) A. Rossi (1913–1995) (1965, 1986) B. Gantin (1922–2008) (1977, 1993) J. Ratzinger (1927–) (1977, 2002) A. Sodano (1927–) (1991, 2005)

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Living cardinals of the Catholic Church

By order of precedence in the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
under Pope
Pope
Francis

Cardinal bishops

Sodano Re Etchegaray Arinze Bertone Saraiva Martins Sfeir Naguib Raï

Cardinal priests

Kitbunchu do Nascimento Danneels Williams Obando Bravo Gulbinowicz Tomko Poupard Wetter Simonis Martínez Somalo Silvestrini Freire Falcão dos Santos Tumi Cassidy López Rodríguez Mahony Ruini Schwery Ortega y Alamino Darmaatmadja Wamala Maida Puljić Sandoval Íñiguez Medina Estévez Castrillón Hoyos Stafford De Giorgi Fernandes de Araújo Rouco Varela Pengo Schönborn Rivera Carrera Jaworski Pujats Cacciavillan Sebastiani Grocholewski Sepe Kasper Agnelo Rubiano Sáenz McCarrick Bačkis Errázuriz Ossa Napier Rodríguez Maradiaga Cipriani Thorne Álvarez Martínez Hummes Poletto Tauran Herranz Casado Lozano Barragán Scola Okogie Zubeir Wako Amigo Vallejo Rigali Scheid Antonelli Turkson Toppo Pell Bozanić Mẫn Barbarin Erdő Ouellet Levada Rodé Vallini Urosa Savino Rosales Ricard Cañizares Llovera Cheong O'Malley Dziwisz Zen Vanhoye Brady Martínez Sistach Vingt-Trois Bagnasco Sarr Gracias Robles Ortega DiNardo Scherer Njue Karlic Vela Chiriboga Monsengwo Pasinya Romeo Wuerl Damasceno Assis Nycz Patabendige Don Marx Estepa Llaurens Alencherry Collins Duka Eijk Betori Dolan Woelki Tong Mureșan Thottunkal Onaiyekan Salazar Gómez Tagle Parolin Nichols Brenes Solórzano Lacroix Kutwa Tempesta Bassetti Poli Yeom Ezzati Andrello Ouédraogo Quevedo Langlois Sebastián Aguilar Felix Macário do Nascimento Clemente Souraphiel Dew Menichelli Nhơn Suárez Inda Bo Kovithavanij Montenegro Sturla Berhouet Blázquez Pérez Lacunza Maestrojuán Gomes Furtado Mafi Pimiento Rodríguez Villalba Langa Nzapalainga Osoro Sierra da Rocha Cupich D'Rozario Porras Cardozo De Kesel Piat Aguiar Retes Ribat Tobin Fernandez Corti Khoarai Zerbo Omella Omella Arborelius Mangkhanekhoun Rosa Chávez

Cardinal deacons

Martino Sandri Lajolo Cordes Comastri Ryłko Farina Amato Sarah Monterisi Burke Koch Sardi Piacenza Ravasi Sgreccia Brandmüller Filoni Monteiro de Castro Abril y Castelló Vegliò Bertello Coccopalmerio Braz de Aviz O'Brien Calcagno Versaldi Grech Harvey Baldisseri Müller Stella Mamberti De Magistris Rauber Zenari Farrell Simoni

Cardinals ineligible to participate in a papal conclave are displayed in italics

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157064517 LCCN: n92062604 GND: 4163316-7 SUDOC: 151320764 BNF:

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