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Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. Programming may be exclusively by students, or may include programmers from the wider community in which the radio station is based. Sometimes campus radio stations are operated for the purpose of training professional radio personnel, sometimes with the aim of broadcasting educational programming, while other radio stations exist to provide an alternative to commercial broadcasting or government broadcasters. Campus radio stations are generally licensed and regulated by national governments, and have very different characteristics from one country to the next. One commonality between many radio stations regardless of their physical location is a willingness — or, in some countries, even a licensing requirement — to broadcast musical selections that are not categorized as commercial hits. Because of this, campus radio has come to be associated with emerging musical trends, including genres such as punk and new wave, alternative rock, indie rock and hip hop, long before those genres become part of the musical mainstream. Campus radio stations also often provide airplay and promotional exposure to new and emerging local artists. Many campus radio stations carry a variety of programming including news (often local), sports (often relating to the campus), and spoken word programming as well as general music. Often the radio format is best described as a freeform, with a lot of creativity and individualism among the disc jockeys and show hosts. A number of these radio stations have gained critical acclaim for their programming and are considered by the community in which they are embedded to be an essential media outlet. Although the term campus radio implies full-power AM or FM transmission over the air, many radio stations experiment with low-power broadcasting, closed circuit or carrier current systems, often to on-campus listeners only. Some radio stations are distributed through the cable television system on cable FM or the second audio program of a TV radio station. Some universities and colleges broadcast one or more Internet radio
Internet radio
feeds — either instead of, or in addition to a campus radio station — which may differ in radio formats significantly from licensed traditional campus radio.

Contents

1 Campus radio around the world

1.1 Australia 1.2 Belgium 1.3 Brunei Darussalam 1.4 Bangladesh 1.5 Canada 1.6 Denmark 1.7 France 1.8 Germany 1.9 Greece 1.10 Guatemala 1.11 Hungary 1.12 India 1.13 Indonesia 1.14 Ireland 1.15 Israel 1.16 Italy 1.17 Malaysia 1.18 New Zealand 1.19 Nigeria 1.20 Norway 1.21 Pakistan 1.22 Poland 1.23 Portugal 1.24 Russia 1.25 Singapore 1.26 Sweden 1.27 South Africa 1.28 Switzerland 1.29 Tunisia 1.30 Turkey 1.31 United Kingdom 1.32 United States

2 See also 3 References

Campus radio around the world[edit] Australia[edit] Student radio stations generally operate under a community broadcasting licence.

Adelaide - Radio
Radio
Adelaide, University of Adelaide Armidale - TUNE! FM, University of New England Batchelor - Radio
Radio
Rum Jungle, Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education Bathurst - 2MCE, Charles Sturt University Canberra - 87.8 UCFM, University of Canberra Darwin - 104.1 Territory FM, Charles Darwin University Launceston, Tasmania
Launceston, Tasmania
- LCFM, Launceston College Melbourne, Victoria
Melbourne, Victoria
- 3SSR FM, Swinburne University of Technology Melbourne, Victoria
Melbourne, Victoria
- SYN FM, RMIT University Newcastle - 2NUR, University of Newcastle Perth - Curtin FM, Curtin University Sydney
Sydney
- 2SER, Macquarie University
Macquarie University
and University of Technology, Sydney Sydney
Sydney
- SURG, Sydney
Sydney
University Radio
Radio
Group Sydney
Sydney
- Sydney
Sydney
TAFE Radio, Sydney
Sydney
Institute of TAFE Wodonga - Wodonga TAFE Radio, Wodonga Institute Of TAFE

Belgium[edit]

Radio
Radio
Campus (Université Libre de Bruxelles)[1] www.xlair.be RITCS

Brunei Darussalam[edit] UBD FM is the first university-based radio station in Brunei Darussalam. The student-run organisation operates under the Educational and Technology Center of the Universiti Brunei Darussalam and was established in 2008. Bangladesh[edit] BUET Radio
Radio
is the first campus radio of Bangladesh among the engineering universities.[2] It started its journey on 30 October 2015. This organization run by the students of institution. KUET
KUET
RADIO is a university-based radio station in Khulna University of Engineering & Technology. The student-run organisation operates under the DEPARTMENT OF STUDENTS WELFARE of the Khulna University of Engineering & Technology and was established in 2016.This radio broadcasts campus based programs, public notices of the administration. Only KUETIANS an EX- KUETIANS can perform here. Canada[edit] See also: List of campus radio stations in Canada In Canada, radio stations are regulated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), which provides that "a campus radio station is a radio station owned or controlled by a not-for-profit organization associated with a post-secondary educational institution".[3] The CRTC distinguishes two types of campus radio: instructional (for training of professional broadcasters) and community-based campus (programming provided by volunteers who are not training to be professionals). The community-based radio format is the predominant one, colloquially known as "campus-community radio." In recent years, some community-based campus radio stations, including CFFF-FM
CFFF-FM
in Peterborough and CJMQ-FM in Sherbrooke, have in fact had their CRTC licenses formally reclassified from campus radio to community radio.[4][5] Campus radio stations broadcasting at full power are assigned a permanent frequency and call letters and, aside from a requirement not to compete directly with commercial radio stations, are full players in the Canadian broadcasting spectrum. Campus radio stations in Canada are more commonly associated with universities than with colleges, although some colleges also have licensed campus radio stations. As well, some institutions maintain unlicensed campus radio operations which broadcast only by closed circuit, cable FM or Internet streaming. Also see United States section for more general information. Canada's oldest community-based campus radio station is CFRC at Queen's University
Queen's University
in Kingston, which has been on the air since 1923; it began as a commercial radio station and a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation affiliate, but became the country's first university-owned station in 1942 and fully transitioned to a campus radio station in 1957. CJRT-FM, a campus radio station of the instructional type, has been on air since 1949. The CRTC places responsibilities upon campus radio stations in Canada through the use of conditions of license that radio stations must follow in order to keep broadcasting. Campus radio stations, for example, are expected to be leaders in the Canadian content system which mandates a minimum number of Canadian musical selections throughout the day. The minimum Canadian content required for a campus station is 35%.[6] Individual programs have their own requirements which depend on a particular program's content category.[7] Generally, for popular music programs (pop, rock, dance, country-oriented, acoustic, and easy listening), hosts must play a minimum of 35% Canadian content. Programs featuring Special
Special
Interest Music (concert, folk-oriented, world, blues, jazz, non-classic religious and experimental) must have at least 12% Canadian content.[7] In early 2005, Humber College's radio station CKHC-FM became the first broadcast radio station in Canada
Canada
to air 100% Canadian content. Other requirements generally made of campus radio stations include quotas of non-hit, folk and ethnic musical selections as well as spoken word programming. Most campus radio stations in Canada
Canada
are members of the National Campus and Community
Community
Radio
Radio
Association. On January 23, 2012, the CRTC announced it would be eliminating instructional radio stations.[8] Denmark[edit] There are five student radio stations in Denmark related to the largest universities in Denmark. Only the town of Roskilde
Roskilde
has a University and no permanent radio, but every year the five existing student radio stations work together in producing 10 days of radio on the Roskilde
Roskilde
festival. The project is a cooperation between all the student radios organized by the cooperation organization called DDS and could be considered a temporary radio station. The five student radio stations in Denmark are listed below with the city they relate to in Denmark.

Universitetsradioen in Copenhagen XFM Lyngby
Lyngby
in Lyngby Odense
Odense
studenterradio in Odense Arhus studenterradio in Århus Aalborg
Aalborg
studenterradio in Aalborg

All the radios broadcast radio in local frequencies on FM in their related city. XFM actually has two departments one in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and one in Lyngby
Lyngby
and is the only radio who has two broadcast licenses. The only one of the radio stations which broadcasts radio directly on campus is Aalborg
Aalborg
studentradio. As many of the American studentradio Aalborg
Aalborg
has speaker directly on the university where they can broadcast radio to the students cad Campus Rdio AAU. France[edit] Radio
Radio
Campus France is a national, non-profit radio broadcasting network grouping 22 public college radio stations located in the largest French cities. Acting as an umbrellas for college radio in French public Universities, it proves that there is strength in numbers, and that music, technology and education are natural bedfellows. Not just a collection of disparate elements, Radio
Radio
Campus is a vocal leader in the areas of digital broadcasting, keeping tabs on the development of terrestrial radio, as well as developing new network interfaces for radio stations across the nation to share content. With a broad music program, the playlist is powered by the passion of fans, and heralds a modern way for groups to interact in the social web. Whether through their support of regular residency shows from the likes of Beats In Space, or Warp Records, or broadcasting live from Gilles Peterson's Worldwide Festival in Sete, it is the love of the music which connects the listeners, and that makes Radio
Radio
Campus a unique and special group indeed. The Radio
Radio
Campus France radio stations include:

Amiens : Radio
Radio
Campus Amiens
Amiens
88.7 Angers : Radio
Radio
Campus Angers
Angers
103.0 Besançon : Radio
Radio
Campus Besançon
Besançon
102.4 Bordeaux : Radio
Radio
Campus Bordeaux
Bordeaux
88.1 Brest : Radio-U 101.1 Caen : Radio
Radio
Phénix 92.7 Clermont-Ferrand : Radio
Radio
Campus Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
93.3 Dijon : Radio
Radio
Dijon
Dijon
Campus 92.2 Grenoble : Radio
Radio
Campus Grenoble
Grenoble
90.8 Lille : Radio
Radio
Campus Lille
Lille
106.6 Lyon : Radio
Radio
Brume 90.7 Marseille : Radio
Radio
Grenouille 88.8 Montpellier : Radio
Radio
Campus Montpellier
Montpellier
102.2 Orléans : Radio
Radio
Campus Orléans
Orléans
88.3 Paris : Radio
Radio
Campus Paris
Paris
93.9 Rennes : Radio
Radio
Campus Rennes
Rennes
88.4 Strasbourg : Radio
Radio
En Construction 90.7 Toulouse : Radio
Radio
Campus Toulouse
Toulouse
94.0 Tours : Radio
Radio
Campus Tours
Tours
99.5

The Confédération des radios de grandes écoles is the national non-profit network unifying 46 internet radios in the Grandes Ecoles, higher education establishments outside the main framework of the French university system, specialised schools spread in more than twenty cities: schools of business, engineering or political science for example. The CRGE represents more than 150 000 students and do reports in the main French international events like the Cannes Films Festival, the Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
or the Paris
Paris
Games Week. They have interviewed many CEOs like Xavier Niel, CEO of Free, or politicians, like the new French President François Hollande. They also have links with other campus radios and campus radios network in the world. The CRGE members are for the Business Schools:

Audencia : FM’Air ESC Grenoble : Micro-Ondes Rouen Business School : Rou’On Air Reims Management School : On AirMS Euromed Management : Dynam’hit IESEG School of Management : NePap Radio ESC Toulouse : CulturESC ESC Rennes
Rennes
School of Business : Descibel EM Strasbourg : EM Radio ESC Dijon : Dij’ital Iscool : Iscool EDHEC : On Air HEC : Hechoes - FMR ISC : Voice ESG : ESGMS Media INSEEC : Inseec’Ond ESC Clermont : Radio’Actif École des dirigeants et créateurs d'entreprise : Radio
Radio
Ooh École de management de Normandie : L’Havrai Radio Bordeaux
Bordeaux
École de Management : Start hit ESC Saint-Etienne : Propulsound Radio ESC Troyes : Radio
Radio
Trente Troyes Tours

The CRGE Engineering Schools radios includes:

Ponts et Chaussées : uPonts the air HEI : GB Radio INSA Toulouse : Radio
Radio
Insa EPITA : Air Radio EFREI : Ready’O École centrale d'électronique : No Larsen ENSEA : Fuse École Centrale de Nantes : Nuclérez École polytechnique : X-Ray École centrale Paris : Radio
Radio
Pi INSA Lyon : Gatsun INSA Rennes : Le Mégaphone Sup Info : Sup Radio ESTP : Radio
Radio
ESTP ENSTA : Bruitage

The other member Grandes Ecoles
Grandes Ecoles
radios are:

Sciences Po : Radio
Radio
Science Po ENS Lyon : TrENSistor École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Nancy : Radar ENS Cachan : Web Radio
Radio
Cachanaise École normale supérieure (rue d'Ulm — Paris) : TrENSmission Université Paris-1 Panthéon-Sorbonne : Sorb’On Air Dauphine : Dauphine On Air Sciences Po Bordeaux : Radio
Radio
Lado Sciences Po Aix : Sciences Po Hertz

Germany[edit]

South Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Meschede : radioFH! 94,7 MHz

Greece[edit] PolyteXneio FM is the National Technical University of Athens Students' Radio
Radio
Station. It is an open student project; its character is strictly non-profit and participation is free for any student of the NTUA. Guatemala[edit]

Radio
Radio
Universidad[9]

Hungary[edit]

Pécsi Egyetemi Rádió (University Radio
Radio
Pécs)

India[edit] Community
Community
groups in India, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been campaigning for permission to set up community radio (CR) radio stations since the late 1990s. News, as of November 2006, has it that the India cabinet decided to grant permission to non-profit organizations and educational institutions to set up community radio stations. The cabinet decision will allow civil society and voluntary organizations, state agriculture universities and institutions, Krishi Vigyan Kendras or agricultural science centres, registered societies and autonomous boards and public trusts registered under Societies Act to start community radio stations. Broadcast Engineering Consultants of India is a government owned corporation that helps setup of Community
Community
FM radio stations in India. Ravi Shankar Prasad, the then Minister for Information and Broadcasting
Broadcasting
in the government, told India's upper house of parliament the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
on December 22, 2003, that four organizations including Jammu University
Jammu University
and Kashmir University
Kashmir University
were found ineligible for grant of license as per the laid down guidelines. The minister also ruled out any review of the policy despite limited response to the non-commercial, low-powered FM radio
FM radio
scheme which former information and broadcasting minister Sushma Swaraj
Sushma Swaraj
had said would "revolutionize" radio broadcast in the country. Radio
Radio
enthusiast Alokesh Gupta saying: "The announcement of the Government was to have seen 1000 radio stations by December 2003. Instead administrative wrangling came in the way of implementing the project as colleges spent time running around for licenses and approval from four ministries — Home Affairs, Communications & Information & Broadcasting
Broadcasting
— as they took their time processing applications." On February 2, 2004, Anna University
Anna University
in Chennai
Chennai
unveiled the country's first campus radio station, Anna FM. Radio
Radio
Ujjas in Kutch
Kutch
(in the western state of Gujarat) is one such CR and gets its funding from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Central Government. Similarly a community based radio programme titled Panchayat Vani (People’s Voice) was recently broadcast on All India Radio
Radio
(AIR), Darbhanga, Bihar. The campus radio station Gyanvaani has also been licensed. Pune University
Pune University
is the first university in the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to have an FM radio
FM radio
station. The University of Pune’s FM Radio inaugurated on May 1, 2005, has been named as Vidyavani. It covers a wide range of subjects, focusing specifically on the requirements of students of various departments and affiliated colleges. It reaches an area around the campus within eight-km radius. Unsuccessful attempts have been also made to start CR without obtaining any permission. The small village of Orvakal in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(South India) launched "Mana Radio" (Our Radio) in November 2002. This project run under the aegis of the Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty
Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty
used a tiny transmitter that covered a radius of half a kilometer to enable rural women members of self-help groups. Four months later, officials from the Central Government brought in police to seize the equipment and declared the broadcasts illegal. The Government policy to permit educational institutions to have their own FM Channels at low frequency levels emerged in mid December 2002, as a result of years of campaigning by activists and a strongly worded Supreme Court judgment directing the opening up of the airwaves. A unique experiment in using media technologies, especially radio, for development and empowerment of marginalized, rural communities is the community radio initiative "Chalo Ho Gaon Mein" a programme that is broadcast once a week on AIR Daltonganj
Daltonganj
in the Palamu district
Palamu district
of Jharkhand, eastern India. This radio programme is supported by the National Foundation for India and produced by Community representatives, of Alternative for India Development (AID), a non-governmental organization. School of Communication of Manipal
Manipal
also has its own campus radio. According to the terms of the campus broad license, a number of aspects are disallowed from broadcasts. This includes anything that offends good taste or decency, contains criticism of friendly countries, contains an attack on religion, contains anything obscene, defamatory, false and suggestive innuendos and half truths, likely to encourage or incite violence, contains anything affecting the integrity of the nation, criticizes, maligns or slanders any individual in person, encourages superstition or blind belief, denigrates women, denigrates children, or presents or depicts or suggests as desirable the misuse of drugs, alcohol, narcotics, and tobacco. Indonesia[edit] Radio
Radio
Syiar FM, Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Alauddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Is a campus (student) community base radio broadcasting system, originally it has a function as an engineering laboratory to train students in broadcast engineering skills, which are currently being sought to turn into a radio commercial for the students also can improve their skills in terms of broadcast management and broadcast business Ireland[edit] ITTFM, Institute of Technology Tallaght, Tallaght, Co Dublin, Ireland ITTFM is a college radio station that broadcasts twice a year on FM over Freshers Week and at the beginning of semester 2 each year. The station also streams their shows online live around the world and use live streaming during the year as an alternative to FM broadcasts. Many of the shows have won awards for their creativity. The shows range from music, informal chat, news and current affairs, with many people of the locality praising the station for its involvement in local affairs. The station is primarily run by students in the Creative Digital Media (CDM) course but is open to students of all disciplines. The station is largely self funding from sponsorships and usually have prizes to give away during broadcasts. The station is however forbidden from promoting alcohol or drug use. The station uses the tag line "Your Big, Little Station" associated with the size of the college and the scope of the work students undertake. The frequency of the station has changed many times over the years and is unknown for 2015. Israel[edit] Campus radio also exists in Israel, where several colleges, universities and high schools have successful programs. One of the most famous is Kol HaCampus (Voice of the Campus/Campus Voice), broadcast out of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
on 106 MHz. More information can be found with the Israeli Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Authority. Another college radio station is the Hebrew University's[10] in Jerusalem, broadcasting mostly indie and alternative music. In 2011 the Technion
Technion
has joined these universities with a new campus radio station, Radio
Radio
1m. In 2017 the students of Sede Boquer Campus of the Ben Gurion University established SB Campus Radio, which broadcast a weekly podcast show. Italy[edit]

Radio
Radio
WAU, the web radio of University of Salento Radio
Radio
6023 (operated by University of Eastern Piedmont) radioeco.it, the web radio of the University of Pisa RadioBue.it,[11] the web radio of the University of Padua radiobocconi.it, Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi di Milano Radio
Radio
Catt (operated by Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) FuoriAulaNetwork,[12] Università degli Studi di Verona Sanbaradio.it,[13] the web radio of the University of Trento UCampus,[14] the web radio of the University of Pavia Unica Radio,[15] the web radio of the University's Students of Cagliari Radio
Radio
Urca - Urbino Radio
Radio
Campus [16] Radiophonica.com,[17] web radio and web TV POLI.RADIO, [18] students' radio station of Politecnico di Milano, Milano

Malaysia[edit]

Radio
Radio
Monash (operated by Monash University Malaysia) Wings Radio
Radio
(operated by Limkokwing University of Creative Technology) RMMU (operated by Multimedia University) IIUM FM (operated by International Islamic University Malaysia) UFM (operated by Universiti Teknologi MARA) Putra FM (operated by Universiti Putra Malaysia) i Radio
Radio
OUM (operated by Open University Malaysia) UMS KKFM (operated by Universiti Malaysia Sabah) WINTI (operated by INTI International University
INTI International University
& Colleges) MyUFM (operated by Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu campus)

New Zealand[edit]

Human FM, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington MUNTfm, Massey University, Wellington Radio
Radio
One, University of Otago, Dunedin RDU, University of Canterbury, Christchurch Radio
Radio
Control, Massey University, Palmerston North Contact FM, University of Waikato, Hamilton 95bFM, University of Auckland, Auckland The VBC, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington Static FM, AUT, Auckland

Nigeria[edit]

Abuja
Abuja
- University of Abuja, Abuja Akwa Ibom
Akwa Ibom
- Akwa Ibom
Akwa Ibom
State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, UNIUYO100.7FM, University of Uyo, Uyo, HERITAGE104.9 FM (Heritage Polytechnic), Eket Anambra
Anambra
- UNIZIK94.1FM, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, MADONNA93.4FM, Madonna University (Ihiala), Okija Cross River - Cross River State
Cross River State
University of Science and Technology, Ogoja Edo
Edo
- HILLSIDE94.1FM, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Igbinedion University, Okada Enugu
Enugu
- GOU-UNI106.9fm, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu, CARITAS98.7FM, Caritas University, Enugu, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Kaduna
Kaduna
- Ahmadu Bello University
Ahmadu Bello University
(ABU), Zaria, Kaduna
Kaduna
Polytechnic, Kaduna, National Teachers Institute, Kaduna Kano
Kano
- Bayero University, Kano Kwara State
Kwara State
- UNILORIN89.3FM, University of Ilorin, Ilorin Lagos
Lagos
- NOUN105.9FM, National Open University of Nigeria
University of Nigeria
Victoria Island, UNILAG103.1FM, University of Lagos
Lagos
Akoka, Lagos
Lagos
State University, Ojo 95.7FM Niger
Niger
- Search FM 92.3, Federal University of Technology Minna, Ultimate FM 103.9 Niger
Niger
State College of Education Minna Minna Ogun - Babcock University, Ilesan-Remo, Hebron 95.9 FM, Covenant University, Canaanland Ondo - FUTA93.1FM, Federal University of Technology, Akure Osun
Osun
- Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Oyo - DIAMOND101.1FM, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Plateau
Plateau
- University of Jos, Jos Rivers
Rivers
- Rivers
Rivers
State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt Sokoto
Sokoto
- Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto

Norway[edit]

Hurradio, Tromsø Radio
Radio
Nova, Oslo Radio
Radio
Revolt, Trondheim SmiS Radio, Stavanger Studentradioen i Bergen, Bergen Studentradioen i Kristiansand, Kristiansand Volda
Volda
Studentradio, Volda Gjøvik
Gjøvik
Studentradio, Gjøvik Narvik
Narvik
Studentradio, Narvik Ventus Studentradio, Bodø

Pakistan[edit]

SMIU FM 96.6 The Voice OF Education (Sindh Madressatul Islam University) Campus Voice Fm 106.6 Radio
Radio
Kinnaird 97.6 FM (Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore) Radio
Radio
IBA (Institute of Business Administration Karachi) Karachi university campus radio FM 90.6 (University of Karachi) University of Gujrat Campus Radio
Radio
UOG Community radio
Community radio
106.6 24/7 An Educational Radio
Radio
Network By SZABIST Karachi, larkana ZAB FM 106.6 "Education On Air"

Poland[edit]

Radio
Radio
Meteor (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan)[19] Radio
Radio
Afera (Poznan University of Technology) Students Radio
Radio
Żak (Lodz University of Technology)[20] Akademickie Radio
Radio
LUZ (Wroclaw University of Technology)[21] Radio
Radio
Akadera (Technical University of Bialystok)[22] Radio
Radio
Index (University of Zielona Góra)[23] Radio
Radio
Sfera UMK (Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun)[24] UJOT.FM (Jagiellonian University)[25]

Portugal[edit] In Portugal, there are several college and university radio stations continuously broadcasting programs. Rádio Universidade de Coimbra
Rádio Universidade de Coimbra
and Rádio Universidade Marão, founded in 1986, are the oldest university student radio stations in the country still in operation. There are also many online-only radio sites belonging to higher education institutions. Portugal's major college and university radio stations include:

Rádio Universidade de Coimbra
Rádio Universidade de Coimbra
(University of Coimbra)[26] Rádio Universitária da Beira Interior (University of Beira Interior)[27] Rádio Universitária do Algarve (University of the Algarve)[28] Rádio Universitária do Minho (Minho University)[29] Rádio Zero
Rádio Zero
(Instituto Superior Técnico)[30] Universidade FM (former Rádio Universidade Marão) (Trás-os-Montes and Alto-Douro University)[31]

Russia[edit]

STUD FM, Moscow
Moscow
State Educational Complex, Moscow

Singapore[edit] There is one student radio station for each of the three universities in Singapore, namely Singapore Management University, National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University. Some polytechnics have their own student radio stations, namely Singapore Polytechnic, Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Ngee Ann Polytechnic
and Temasek Polytechnic.

SMU Campus Radio, Singapore Management University SPACEradio, Singapore Polytechnic Radio
Radio
Fusion, Nanyang Technological University Radio
Radio
Heatwave, Ngee Ann Polytechnic Radio
Radio
Pulze, National University of Singapore Media Biz Radio, Temasek Polytechnic

Sweden[edit] Student radio has been broadcast in Sweden since the beginning of 1980. Among the first, and still active stations were Studentradion 98,9 in Uppsala
Uppsala
and Radio AF
Radio AF
in Lund. It is common among the older student radio stations to broadcast both on FM and the web. Studentradion i Sverige is a cooperation organization for the studentradion stations in Sweden, they have nine member stations.

Studentradion i Sverige Radio AF
Radio AF
in Lund Radio
Radio
AFB Studentradion 98,9 in Uppsala K103 in Gothenburg PiteFM in Piteå Radio
Radio
Campus in Örebro

South Africa[edit]

VUT FM (Vaal University of Technology) Radio
Radio
Turf (University of Limpopo) PUKfm (North-West University) UCT Radio
UCT Radio
(University of Cape Town) MFM (University of Stellenbosch) Voice of Wits
Voice of Wits
(University of the Witwatersrand) KOVSIE FM (University of the Free State) TshwaneFm (Tshwane University of Technology) Tuks FM
Tuks FM
(University of Pretoria) UJFM
UJFM
(University of Johannesburg) Rhodes Music Radio
Radio
(Rhodes University) Madibaz Radio
Radio
(Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University) UNIFM (Cape Peninsula University of Technology) CUT FM (Central University of Technology)

Switzerland[edit] Fréquence banane is the student radio of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), in Lausanne
Lausanne
( Lausanne
Lausanne
campus). It exists since 1993 and is broadcasting on the internet and CATV
CATV
network on FM 94.55 MHz in Lausanne
Lausanne
and region. In the past Fréquence banane has broadcast with former Radio
Radio
Acidule from 1992 to 1996 and then had its independent FM transmitter operating on 92.4 MHz from 1998 to 2005. In 2005, Swiss frequency regulation authority (BAKOM) decided to end the low power FM licence.[32] Radio
Radio
Radius is an uprising campus radio in Zurich
Zurich
on ETHZ
ETHZ
and UNIZH campus. It's broadcasting on the Internet
Internet
only. Radius is trying to get a permanent licence to broadcast on FM but it is very hard in Zurich. Right now Radius is negotiating with BAKOM.[33] Tunisia[edit] Radio
Radio
Campus Tunis [34] is a non-profit Student radio station powered by Disk Red Association. Founded in 2014 and broadcasting on the Internet
Internet
since 21st June 2016, the radio can be listened from 6.00 a.m. to 4.00 a.m on www.radiocampustunis.radiostream321.com .Managed by volunteers (mainly students), this radio focuses on emerging local music and student-related matters. Turkey[edit]

Radyo Bilkent on Bilkent University Radyo Çankaya on Çankaya University KU Radyo on Koç University RadyoSU on Sabancı University Radyo ODTÜ on Middle East Technical University ÇOMÜ Kampüs FM on Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Radyo ÖzÜ on Özyeğin University Radyo Arel on Istanbul Arel University

United Kingdom[edit] In the United Kingdom, campus radio is generally referred to as 'student radio'. Founded in 1960, the University of Hertfordshire's Campus Radio Hatfield (now Crush Radio) was the UK's first student radio station, though it was a pirate radio station.[35] This was followed by the first legal station, Radio
Radio
Heslington (now University Radio
Radio
York) in 1967, Swansea University's Action Radio
Radio
(now Xtreme Radio) in 1968, Stirling University's University Radio
Radio
Airthrey (now Air3 Radio) from 1970 and University of Essex's University Radio Essex in 1971. Some student radio stations operate on the FM waveband for short periods at a time under the Restricted Service Licence scheme, while others choose to broadcast full-time on the AM waveband using an LPAM licence. There are only five UK student radio stations permitted to broadcast all year on LPFM. These are Xpression FM
Xpression FM
(Exeter), Radio Roseland (Truro, Cornwall), Storm FM
Storm FM
(Bangor), Bailrigg FM
Bailrigg FM
(Lancaster) and 1386 HCR (Halesowen College) .[citation needed] None of these licences provides for a reception area greater than four kilometres from the point of transmission. To counteract these licence restrictions and, in the case of AM broadcasts, poor quality audio, many radio stations simulcast on the Internet. The UK Student Radio Association works on behalf of more than fifty UK-based member radio stations to further their development, encourage and facilitate communication between member radio stations and links to the commercial radio industry, and lobby for the membership's interests on both a regional and national level. The association organises and hosts the annual Student Radio Awards in conjunction with BBC Radio
Radio
1. See also List of radio stations in the United Kingdom United States[edit] College radio (as it is generally known in the United States) became commonplace in the 1960s when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began issuing class D licenses for ten-watt radio stations to further the development of the then new FM band. Some colleges had already been broadcasting for decades on the AM band, often originating in physics experiments in the early 20th century. One of the first college radio stations in the country is WRUC
WRUC
from Union College
Union College
in Schenectady, New York. Its first experimental broadcasts under the call sign 2ADD were in 1920.[36][37] WHUS, (the UConn HUSkies), the radio station of the University of Connecticut went on the air as WABL, a 100-watt AM radio station, in 1922 with two 103-foot (31 m) steel towers serving as the radio station's antennae. In 1925 power increased to 500-watts and the call letters changed to WCAC (Connecticut Agricultural College, at that time the name of the university). Rollins College
Rollins College
in Winter Park, Florida
Winter Park, Florida
started WDBO (Way Down By Orlando) in 1924. WDBO was given away by Rollins College
Rollins College
in 1926. College radio returned to Rollins College
Rollins College
when the FM radio station, WPRK began broadcasting on December 10, 1952. Most of the FM radio
FM radio
stations received higher-class licenses than ten watts, typically a few hundred watts. A few got several kilowatts, and a small handful got licenses in the range of tens of thousands, sometimes reaching up to maximum-power 100-kilowatt outlets. WRAS 88.5 FM and WREK 91.1 FM in Atlanta
Atlanta
are the most powerful college radio station, operating at 100,000 watts. Still, due to strict class D regulations, some radio stations were prohibited from a wattage upgrade for possible signal interference with adjacent radio stations, such as KWUR
KWUR
90.3 FM interfering with KWMU
KWMU
90.7 FM in St. Louis, Missouri. KTUH 90.3 FM in Honolulu, Hawaii has had many increases in its wattage since they started broadcasting at 10 watts as a Non-commercial educational FM radio
FM radio
station in 1969. In 1984 KTUH received permission from the Board of Regents to increase to 100 watts of power. More recently, in 2001, KTUH began transmitting at 3000 watts of power. KTUH is heard on an island wide frequency in Honolulu, Hawaii from 90.1 FM, as well as online at KTUH.ORG and on digital cable channel 866. The earliest college radio stations carried news, intercollegiate sports, and music along with educational shows and sometimes distance learning courses. In the latter portion of the 20th century, many U.S. radio stations played what came to be known as "college rock" (later known as alternative rock), a type of rock music that had not yet hit the mainstream. Most radio stations have now diversified, with many following a very commercial-like music rotation during the weekdays, and having specialty shows on evenings and weekends. A few radio stations still employ a freeform programming. College radio stations are typically considered to be public radio radio stations in the way that they are funded by donation and grants, but as a radio format the term "Public radio" generally refers to classical music, jazz, and news. A more accurate term is community radio, as most staff are volunteers, although many radio stations limit staff to current or recent students instead of anyone from the local community. By the late 1970s, FM had taken off, and competition for channels for new radio stations was intensifying. The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) and the newly founded National Public Radio
National Public Radio
(NPR) convinced the FCC that local low-power radio stations were somehow detrimental to broadcasting,[citation needed] and class D licenses were no longer issued for applications made after 1979, except for broadcast translators to repeat NAB and NPR members' radio stations.[citation needed] Making matters worse for the college stations, they were demoted to secondary status, meaning that they could be forced to downgrade or go silent if a full-power station chose to upgrade or to relocate closer to the college station. Many radio stations were forced to upgrade their facilities at considerable expense.Many other radio stations were eventually forced off the air, because they could not afford the upgrades at all, or not in time to avoid being locked in by other expanding radio stations. There have also been situations where some college radio stations have been forced off the air either temporarily or permanently by the school's administration.[citation needed] Many college radio stations in the U.S. also carry syndicated programming, such as that of National Public Radio
National Public Radio
and affiliated regional networks. Some radio stations have had student programming taken off the air by the administration in favor of other uses, such as WWGC and KTXT.[citation needed] The original WGST was the subject of an involuntary takeover which saw the state's board of regents sell the radio station as "surplus" property.[citation needed] A few radio stations have been added to the airwaves as the result of LPFM licensing in the U.S. One example of a Campus Radio
Radio
station licensed as an LPFM[citation needed] is WIUX-LP
WIUX-LP
of Indiana University, which is able to cover the entire city with its LPFM signal and is competitive in listenership numbers to nearby higher-powered commercial radio stations. A number of campus radio stations in the US are available using alternate means such as streaming audio over the Internet. One such example is DePaul University. Another example is WJHU at Johns Hopkins University. Some radio stations use a variety of methods, such as Loyola University Chicago's WLUW, Lewis University's WLRA
WLRA
(The Start), University of Michigan's WCBN-FM
WCBN-FM
and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's WIKD-LP
WIKD-LP
who use terrestrial FM, streaming, and mobile media apps. Michigan State University's WDBM
WDBM
("The Impact"), University of Minnesota's KUOM
KUOM
(" Radio
Radio
K"), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison's WSUM. All three radio stations broadcast traditionally and via online streaming internet radio. WWEC
WWEC
of Elizabethtown College
Elizabethtown College
streams online as well. See also[edit]

High school radio Indie radio List of campus radio stations Low-power broadcasting Modern rock (Alternative radio) UK Student Radio
Radio
Association

References[edit]

^ " Radio
Radio
Campus". Radiocampus.ulb.ac.be. Archived from the original on 2016-12-26. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ News ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-26. Retrieved 2006-02-27.  ^ "ARCHIVED - Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Decision CRTC 2007-381". Crtc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ "ARCHIVED - Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Decision CRTC 2007-173". Crtc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ " Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Regulatory Policy CRTC 2010-499". Crtc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ a b " Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Regulatory Policy 2010-819". Crtc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ Future staticky for KICK-FM. Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved January 24, 2012. ^ " Radio
Radio
Un iversidad". Ustream. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-05-05.  ^ "RadioBue.it - La webradio universitaria di Padova". radiobue.it. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "FuoriAulaNetwork homepage". Fuoriaulanetwork.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  ^ "Sanba Radio
Radio
- l'informazione digitale della community di San Bartolameo e degli universitari di Trento". sanbaradio.it. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "UCampus - La webradiotv dell'Università di Pavia". unipv.it. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Unica Radio
Radio
- La webradio degli Studenti Universitari di Cagliari". unicaradio.it. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ " Radio
Radio
Urca - La webradio degli Studenti Universitari di Urbino". radio-campus.it. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Radiophonica.com - Il media universitario dell'Umbria". radio-campus.it. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "Poli. Radio
Radio
è la webradio ufficiale degli studenti del Politecnico di Milano. Suona la musica che già conosci e quella che non hai mai sentito. Indie, alternative e rock classico: secondo il format radiofonico AAA (Adult Album Alternative)".  ^ " Radio
Radio
Meteor - #studenckienajlepsze". amu.edu.pl. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Studenckie Radio
Radio
ŻAK". lodz.pl. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Akademickie Radio
Radio
LUZ". pwr.wroc.pl. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Akadera". akadera.bialystok.pl. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "wZielonej.pl". wZielonej.pl. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ " Radio
Radio
Sfera UMK". Radio
Radio
Sfera UMK. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "UJOT.FM Studenckie.Niefiltrowane". ujot.fm. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ "RUC". ruc.pt. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Marco Oliveira/LabCom. " Radio
Radio
Universitaria da Beira Interior - RUBI". Radio
Radio
Universitaria da Beira Interior - RUBI. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "RUA FM". RUA FM. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "RUM". rum.pt. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ " Rádio Zero
Rádio Zero
- Dilatação auditiva, expansão mental". radiozero.pt. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Fernando Moreira. "Universidade FM". universidade.fm. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Fréquence Banane". frequencebanane.ch. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ " Radio
Radio
Radius". ethz.ch. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Radio
Radio
Campus Tunis powered by Disk Red Association ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2014-01-07.  ^ Wakefield, Rowan (February 1959). "RADIO BROADCASTING AT UNION COLLEGE". Schenectady, NY: W2UC, Union College. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2011.  ^ Union College
Union College
Radio
Radio
Club (December 1920). " Radio
Radio
Communications By The Amateurs: Radiophone Concerts". QST. p. 64. Retrieved 6 March 2018.  Letter from UCRC to QST Magazine

v t e

Broadcasting

Medium

Radio
Radio
( Radio
Radio
program Cable Satellite) Telephone Teletext Television
Television
( Television
Television
program Cable Satellite) Internet
Internet
television and radio (Webcast Streaming media Web television Peer-to-peer television BitTorrent television and movies)

Broadcasting niche

Campus radio Commercial broadcasting Community
Community
radio News
News
broadcasting Pirate radio / Pirate television Public broadcasting Religious broadcasting Talk
Talk
radio

Specialty channels

Adult television channels Children's interest channel / Children's television series Documentary channel Men's interest channel Movie television channels Music radio / Music television Quiz channel Shopping channel News
News
broadcasting

Business channels Public affairs Sports
Sports
television channels

Women's interest channel

Production and funding

Broadcast designer Broadcast license Broadcast network Broadcast-safe Broadcast television systems Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Network affiliate News
News
ticker Score bug Television
Television
news screen layout Television
Television
licence Television
Television
studio Press box Press pool

.