A COLLEGE ( Latin : collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree -awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university , or an institution offering vocational education .
United States , "college" often refers to a constituent part
of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational
institution, but generally "college" and "university" are used
interchangeably, whereas in the
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Overview
* 3.1 Australia
* 3.2 Canada
* 3.3 Chile
* 3.4 Georgia
* 3.5 Greece
* 3.6 Hong Kong
* 3.18 United States
* 3.18.1 Residential colleges * 3.18.2 Origin of the U.S. usage * 3.18.3 Morrill Land-Grant Act * 3.18.4 Benefits of college
* 3.19 Zimbabwe
* 4 See also
* 4.1 References
In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con- = "together" + leg- = "law" or lego = "I choose" or "I read").
Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to:
* a constituent part of a collegiate university , for example
King\'s College, Cambridge , or of a federal university, for example
Main article: Sixth form college
A sixth form college or college of further education is an
educational institution in
Scotch College, Melbourne is an independent secondary school
In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title.
In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or
independent (non-government) primary and, especially, secondary school
as distinct from a state school .
Melbourne Grammar School
There has also been a recent trend to rename or create government
secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria , some state
high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the
pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in
In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes" (C.I.), a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation. This is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational, subjects and ability levels (for example, collegiates offered Latin while vocational schools offered technical courses). Some private secondary schools (such as Upper Canada College , Vancouver College ) choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless. Some secondary schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the separate school system, may also use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
In New Zealand the word "college" normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name especially of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most frequently appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. St John\'s College, Johannesburg
In South Africa, some secondary schools, especially private schools
on the English public school model, have "college" in their title.
Thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call
themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of
this category would be St John\'s
Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges".
As well as an educational institution, the term can also refer,
following its etymology, to any formal group of colleagues set up
under statute or regulation; often under a Royal Charter. Examples are
an electoral college , the
College of Arms , a college of canons , and
College of Cardinals . Other collegiate bodies include
professional associations, particularly in medicine and allied
professions. In the UK these include the
Royal College of Nursing and
Royal College of Physicians . Examples in the United States
American College of Physicians , the American
COLLEGE BY COUNTRY
See also: Category: Higher education by country
In Australia a college may be an institution of tertiary education that is smaller than a university, run independently or as part of a university. Following a reform in the 1980s many of the formerly independent colleges now belong to a larger universities.
Referring to parts of a university, there are residential colleges which provide residence for students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, called university colleges . These colleges often provide additional tutorial assistance, and some host theological study. Many colleges have strong traditions and rituals, so are a combination of dormitory style accommodation and fraternity or sorority culture.
Most technical and further education institutions (TAFEs ), which offer certificate and diploma vocational courses, are styled "TAFE colleges" or "Colleges of TAFE".
Some senior high schools are also referred to as colleges.
Main article: College (Canada)
In Canada, the term "college" usually refers to a trades school,
applied arts/science/technology/business/health school or community
college . These are post-secondary institutions granting certificates
, diplomas, associate\'s degree , and in some cases bachelor\'s
degrees . In
The Royal Military College of Canada , a full-fledged degree-granting university, does not follow the naming convention used by the rest of the country, nor does its sister school Royal Military College Saint-Jean or the now closed Royal Roads Military College .
The term "college" also applies to distinct entities within a
university (usually referred to as "federated colleges " or
"affiliated colleges"), similar to the residential colleges in the
United Kingdom. These colleges act independently, but in affiliation
or federation with the university that actually grants the degrees.
For example, Trinity
There are also universities referred to as art colleges, empowered to
grant academic degrees of BFA, Bdes, MFA, Mdes and sometimes
PhD degrees. Some of them have "university" in their
NSCAD University ,
OCAD University and Emily Carr
Online and distance education (
One use of the term "college" in the American sense is by the Canadian Football League (CFL), which calls its annual entry draft the Canadian College Draft . The draft is restricted to players who qualify under CFL rules as "non-imports"—essentially, players who were raised in Canada (see the main CFL article for a more detailed definition). Because a player's designation as "non-import" is not affected by where he plays post-secondary football, the category includes former players at U.S. college football programs ("universities" in the Canadian sense) as well as CIS football programs at Canadian universities.
In Chile, the term "college" is usually used in the name of some bilingual schools, like Santiago College , Saint George\'s College etc.
International Association of "Tourists and Travelers" College. International association "tourists and travelers" is a non-commercial, non political and non industrial organization, which is created to develop tourism in Georgia.
KOLLEGIO (in Greek Κολλέγιο) refers to the Centers of Post- Lyceum Education (in Greek Κέντρο Μεταλυκειακής Εκπαίδευσης, abbreviated as KEME), which are principally private and belong to the Greek post-secondary education system. Some of them have links to EU or US higher education institutions or accreditation organizations, such as the NEASC . Kollegio (or Kollegia in plural) may also refer to private non-tertiary schools, such as the Athens College .
See also: Education in Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, the term 'college' is used by tertiary institutions as
either part of their names or to refer to a constituent part of the
university, such as the colleges in the collegiate The Chinese
See also: Colleges and institutes in
The modern system of education was heavily influenced by the British starting in 1835.
In India, the term "college" is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 ("Junior College", similar to American high schools), and those that offer the bachelor\'s degree ; some colleges, however, offer programmes up to PhD level. Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and all of them are affiliated to a regional university. The colleges offer programmes leading to degrees of that university. Colleges may be either Autonomous or non-autonomous. Autonomous Colleges are empowered to establish their own syllabus, and conduct and assess their own examinations; in non-autonomous colleges, examinations are conducted by the university, at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation. There are several hundred universities and each university has affiliated colleges, often a large number.
The first liberal arts and sciences college in
In Ireland the term "college" is normally used to describe an
institution of tertiary education.
There are number of secondary education institutions that
traditionally used the word "college" in their names: these are either
older, private schools (such as
Belvedere College , Gonzaga College
and St. Michael\'s
The country's only ancient university is the
University of Dublin .
Created during the reign of Elizabeth I , it is modelled on the
collegiate universities of Cambridge and Oxford. However, only one
constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of
Trinity College, Dublin today; although both are usually considered
one and the same, the
Among more modern foundations, the
National University of Ireland ,
founded in 1908, consisted of constituent colleges and recognised
colleges until 1997. The former are now referred to as constituent
universities – institutions that are essentially universities in
their own right. The National
The state's two new universities Dublin City University and University of Limerick were initially National Institute for Higher Education institutions. These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in 1989 in recognition of this.
Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the Institutes of Technology , which were established from the 1970s as Regional Technical Colleges. These institutions have delegated authority which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas from the Higher Education and Training Awards Council in their own name.
A number of Private Colleges exist such as DBS , providing undergraduate and postgraduate courses validated by HETAC and in some cases by other Universities.
Other types of college include Colleges of Education, such as the Church of Ireland College of Education . These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers.
A number of state funded further education colleges exist - which offer vocational education and training in a range of areas from business studies, I.C.T to sports injury therapy. These courses are usually 1, 2 or less often 3 three years in duration and are validated by FETAC at levels 5 or 6 or for the BTEC Higher National Diploma award - validated by Edexcel which is a level 6/7 qualification. There are numerous private colleges (particularly in Dublin and Limerick) which offer both further and higher education qualifications. These degrees and diplomas are often certified by foreign universities/international awarding bodies and are aligned to the National Framework of Qualifications at level 6, 7 and 8.
Main article: List_of_universities_and_colleges_in_Israel § Colleges
In Israel, any non university higher-learning facility is called a college. Institutions accredited by the Council for Higher Education in Israel (CHE) to confer a bachelor's degree are called "Academic Colleges." These colleges (at least 4 for 2012) may also offer master's degrees and act as Research facilities. There are also over twenty teacher training colleges or seminaries, most of which may award only a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree.
* Academic colleges: Any educational facility that had been approved to offer at least bachelor's degree is entitled by CHE to use the term academic college in its name. * Engineering academic college: Any academic facility that offer at least bachelor's degree and most of it faculties are providing an Engineering degree and Engineering license. * Educational academic college: After an educational facility that had been approved for "Teachers seminar" status is then approved to provide a Bachelor of Education , its name is changed to include "Educational Academic college." * Technical college: A "Technical college" is an educational facility that is approved to allow to provide P.E degree (14'th class) or technician (טכנאי) (13'th class) diploma and licenses. * Training College: A "Training College" is an educational facility that provides basic training allowing a person to receive a working permit in a field such as alternative medicine, cooking, Art, Mechanical, Electrical and other professions. A trainee could receive the right to work in certain professions as apprentice (j. mechanic, j. Electrician etc.). After working in the training field for enough time an apprentice could have a license to operate (Mechanic, Electrician ) . This educational facility is mostly used to provide basic training for low tech jobs and for job seekers without any training that are provided by the nation's Employment Service (שירות התעסוקה).
Following the Portuguese usage, the term "college" (colégio) in
The constituent colleges of the former
Some universities, such as the
University of Canterbury , have
Secondary school is often referred to as college and the term is used interchangeably with high school. This is reflected in the names of many secondary schools such as Rangitoto College , New Zealand's largest secondary.
Main article: Higher education in the Philippines
In the Philippines, colleges usually refer to institutions of
learning that grant degrees but whose scholastic fields are not as
diverse as that of a university (
University of Santo Tomas ,
University of the Philippines ,
Ateneo de Manila University , De La
A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but may have several component colleges, or departments. Thus, the Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology is a state college by classification.
Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a hierarchical
demarcation between the term "university", and quite a number of
colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of
improvement in academic standards (
Colegio de San Juan de Letran , San
When it comes to referring to the level of education, college is the term more used to be synonymous to tertiary or higher education. A student who is or has studied his/her undergraduate degree at either an institution with college or university in its name is considered to be going to or have gone to college.
Main article: Education in Portugal
Until the 19th century, a colégio was usually a secondary or
pre-university school, of public or religious nature, where the
students usually lived together. A model for these colleges was the
The term "college" in
The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees. Institutions offering diplomas are called "polytechnics ", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.
Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges. These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. See: List of universities in South Africa#Private colleges and universities ; List of post secondary institutions in South Africa .
There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer
post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to
as "colleges". This includes the
Secondary Education And Further Education
Further education (FE) colleges and sixth form colleges are institutions providing further education to students over 16. Some of these also provide higher education courses (see below). In the context of secondary education, 'college' is used in the names of some private schools, e.g. Eton College and Winchester College .
In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not
hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent
part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic
faculties or departments within a university. Traditionally the
distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did
not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the
case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers (the same as
some universities) on behalf of its colleges, and many of the
colleges of the
University of London
In England, as of August 2016, over 60% of the higher education
providers directly funded by
HEFCE (208/340) are sixth-form or further
education colleges, often termed colleges of further and higher
education, along with 17 colleges of the
Colleges within universities vary immensely in their
responsibilities. The large constituent colleges of the
The UHI and the
A university college is an independent institution with the power to
award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university
City College of New York
Saint Anselm College
Agnes Scott College
In the United States, there are over 7021 colleges and universities. A "college" in the US formally denotes a constituent part of a university, but in popular usage, the word "college" is the generic term for any post-secondary undergraduate education. Americans "go to college" after high school , regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university. Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education. Bates College
Students must pay for college before taking classes. Some borrow the money via loans, and some students fund their educations with cash, scholarships, or grants, or some combination of any two or more of those payment methods. In 2011, the state or federal government subsidized $8,000 to $100,000 for each undergraduate degree. For state-owned schools (called "public" universities), the subsidy was given to the college, with the student benefiting from lower tuition. The state subsidized on average 50% of public university tuition.
Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay. Two-year colleges, also known as junior or community colleges , usually offer an associate\'s degree , and four-year colleges usually offer a bachelor\'s degree . Often, these are entirely undergraduate institutions, although some have graduate school programs.
Four-year institutions in the U.S. that emphasize a liberal arts curriculum are known as liberal arts colleges . Until the 20th century, liberal arts, law, medicine, theology, and divinity were about the only form of higher education available in the United States. These schools have traditionally emphasized instruction at the undergraduate level, although advanced research may still occur at these institutions. Occidental College
While there is no national standard in the United States, the term
"university" primarily designates institutions that provide
undergraduate and graduate education . A university typically has as
its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate college
teaching a liberal arts curriculum, also culminating in a bachelor\'s
degree . What often distinguishes a university is having, in addition,
one or more graduate schools engaged in both teaching graduate classes
and in research. Often these would be called a School of
Law or School
of Medicine, (but may also be called a college of law, or a faculty of
law). An exception is
Vincennes University ,
Usage of the terms varies among the states. In 1996 for example, Georgia changed all of its four-year institutions previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its vocational technology schools to technical colleges .
The terms "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible
titles for an American institution of higher education. Other options
include "Polytechnic" (
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ), "Institute
of Technology" (
Massachusetts Institute of Technology ), "academy"
United States Military
The term college is also, as in the United Kingdom, used for a
constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally
organized on academic rather than residential lines. For example, at
many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be
briefly referred to as THE COLLEGE (such as The
Some American universities, such as Princeton , Rice , and Yale have
established residential colleges (sometimes, as at Harvard , the first
to establish such a system in the 1930s, known as houses) along the
lines of Oxford or Cambridge. Unlike the Oxbridge colleges, but
similarly to Durham , these residential colleges are not autonomous
legal entities nor are they typically much involved in education
itself, being primarily concerned with room, board, and social life.
University of Michigan ,
Many U.S. universities have placed increased emphasis on their
residential colleges in recent years. This is exemplified by the
creation of new colleges at
Origin Of The U.S. Usage
The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the
United States were graduates of the
University of Oxford and the
* ^ "college Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary".
* ^ "college noun (EDUCATION)". Cambridge Dictionary Online.
* ^ "Children & families." (Archive) City of Paris. Retrieved on 20
* ^ Private Elementary and Secondary Schools search form on the
Ministry of Education of
* ^ Masci, David. "Should colleges get back to basics?". CQ
* ^ Robert J. O’Hara. "Samuel Eliot Morison on the Harvard
Houses". The Collegiate Way. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
* ^ Robert J. O’Hara (8 October 2002). "Collegiate Developments
at Durham and Princeton". The Collegiate Way. Retrieved 17 January
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